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Table 1. The prevalence of helminths and protozoan infections of subjects in relation to personal and familial characteristics of subjects

From: Socio-demographic influences on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among workers in Qatar

  N % Combined helminths Combined protozoa
Prevalence (95% CL) Odds ratio (95% CL) Prevalence (95% CL) Odds ratio (95% CL)
Immigration
 First arrival 2304 92.6 7.2 (6.15–8.26) 1 12.1 (10.75–13.40) 1
 Has previously visited 182 7.4 4.9 (2.09–10.83) 0.670 (0.337–1.334) 6.6 (3.20–12.84) 0.514 (0.283–0.936)
 Statistical test    \(\chi_{1}^{2}\) = 1.45, P = 0.23   χ 21  = 5.64, P = 0.018  
Religion
 Buddhist 76 3.1 5.3 (1.73–13.68) 1 5.3 (1.73–13.68) 1
 Christian 695 28 5.9 (4.37–7.84) 1.128 (0.393–3.241) 9.6 (7.67–12.00) 1.920 (0.680–5.422)
 Hindu 532 21.4 6.6 (5.13–8.35) 1.268 (0.438–3.672) 15.0 (12.87–17.45) 3.186 (1.132–8.964)
 Muslim 1178 47.5 8.1 (6.53–9.86) 1.579 (0.565–4.416) 11.7 (9.88–13.55) 2.388 (0.859–6.640)
 Sikh 5a 0 (0–50.00) 20.0 (1.03–65.74)
 Statistical test    \(\chi_{3}^{2}\) = 3.84, P = 0.28   χ 23  = 12.07, P = 0.007  
Education
 None 566 22.8 7.6 (6.00–9.52) 1 15.2 (12.97–17.69) 1
 Elementary school only 819 32.9 7.6 (5.70–9.94) 0.996 (0.665–1.493) 13.1 (10.61–15.96) 0.839 (0.617–1.140)
 Up to intermediate school 287 11.5 7.0 (4.73–10.07) 0.911 (0.525–1.580) 11.5 (8.55–15.22) 0.725 (0.472–1.114)
 Up to high school 575 23.1 6.1 (4.65–7.86) 0.788 (0.497–1.251) 9.4 (7.60–11.50) 0.578 (0.403–0.831)
 Graduate/postgraduate 239 9.6 6.3 (4.30–9.00) 0.814 (0.443–1.496) 4.2 (2.63–6.50) 0.244 (0.124–0.478)
 Statistical test    \(\chi_{4}^{2}\) = 1.66, P = 0.80   χ 24  = 27.6, P < 0.001  
Job/professionb
 Blue collar worker 870 35 8.0 (6.07–10.58) 1 13.0 (10.47–15.99) 1
 Pink collar worker 167 6.7 4.8 (2.08–10.25) 0.575 (0.271–1.219) 8.4 (4.46–14.88) 0.613 (0.343–1.097)
 White collar worker 67 2.7 6.0 (2.30–13.81) 0.726 (0.257–2.052) 7.5 (3.18–15.80) 0.540 (0.213–1.373)
 Housemaid 1231 49.5 7.0 (5.59–8.63) 0.858 (0.68–1.192) 11.4 (9.60–13.15) 0.860 (0.660–1.120)
 Food handler 151 6.1 4.6 (2.08–9.66) 0.556 (0.250–1.233) 11.9 (7.38–18.49) 0.907 (0.533–1.541)
 Statistical test    \(\chi_{4}^{2}\) = 4.37, P = 0.36   \(\chi_{4}^{2}\) = 4.75, P = 0.31  
Monthly income
 600–999 QR 1196 48.1 7.6 (6.13–9.34) 1 11.0 (9.26–12.81) 1
 1000–1499 QR 783 31.5 7.2 (5.37–9.40) 0.935 (0.662–1.322) 12.4 (10.05–15.16) 1.140 (0.862–1.507)
 1500–2999 QR 413 16.7 6.1 (3.67–9.75) 0.782 (0.495–1.236) 12.8 (9.18–17.61) 1.187 (0.844–1.668)
 > 2999 QR 94 3.8 3.2 (0.53–12.00) 0.400 (0.124–1.290) 8.5 (3.23–19.10) 0.750 (0.355–1.582)
 Statistical test    \(\chi_{3}^{2}\) = 3.87, P = 0.28   \(\chi_{3}^{2}\) = 2.38, P = 0.50  
No. of siblings
 0 82 3.3 3.7 (0.82–11.79) 1 11.0 (5.11–21.35) 1
 1 240 9.7 5.8 (3.94–8.50) 1.631 (0.457–5.826) 12.1 (9.28–15.53) 1.115 (0.504–2.466)
 2 431 17.3 6.7 (4.14–10.67) 1.900 (0.565–6.389) 12.1 (8.42–16.81) 1.113 (0.525–2.357)
 3 439 17.7 5.7 (3.34–9.45) 1.590 (0.469–5.394) 9.1 (5.99–13.62) 0.813 (0.378–1.747)
 4 401 16.1 8.2 (5.43–12.32) 2.361 (0.707–7.893) 14.5 (10.60–19.30) 1.372 (0.650–2.893)
 5 309 12.4 8.1 (5.61–11.57) 2.318 (0.682–7.877) 7.8 (5.34–11.18) 0.683 (0.304–1.532)
 6 221 8.9 8.6 (6.34–11.57) 2.477 (0.713–8.603) 16.3 (13.13–19.96) 1.578 (0.724–3.440)
 > 6c 363 14.6 7.4 (4.90–11.12) 2.116 (0.626–7.151) 11.6 (8.28–15.82) 1.061 (0.495–2.277)
 Statistical test    \(\chi_{7}^{2}\) = 5.8, P = 0.56   χ 27  = 15.2, P = 0.033  
Father’s education
 None 1550 62.3 7.1 (5.82–8.38) 1 14.6 (12.82–16.34) 1
 Elementary school only 495 19.9 8.1 (5.02–12.75) 1.151 (0.789–1.678) 7.3 (4.38–11.74) 0.459 (0.318–0.663)
 Up to intermediate school 109 4.4 9.2 (5.71–14.32) 1.322 (0.671–2.607) 7.3 (4.33–12.08 0.464 (0.223–0.966)
 Up to high school 225 9.1 4.0 (2.51–6.20) 0.545 (0.272–1.092) 5.8 (3.93–8.34) 0.359 (0.202–0.640)
 Graduate/post–graduate 107 4.3 5.6 (3.07–9.85) 0.778 (0.334–1.812) 6.5 (3.76–11.02) 0.410 (0.188–0.894)
 Statistical test    \(\chi_{4}^{2}\) = 5.57, P = 0.23   χ 24  = 37.0, P < 0.001  
Father’s occupation/profession
 None 1160 46.9 6.8 (5.39–8.49) 1 12.6 (10.68–14.50) 1
 Blue collar worker 1106 44.7 7.4 (5.90–9.20) 1.096 (0.795–1.510) 11.9 (10.02–13.85) 0.941 (0.732–1.210)
 White collar worker 207 8.4 6.3 (4.38–8.82) 0.917 (0.500–1.681) 5.3 (3.61–7.69) 0.390 (0.207–0.733)
 Unknownd 13      
 Statistical test    \(\chi_{2}^{2}\) = 0.52, P = 0.77   χ 22  = 10.93, P = 0.004  
Mother’s education
 None 1703 68.5 6.9 (5.67–8.07) 1 14.6 (12.33–15.62) 1
 Elementary school only 440 17.7 9.5 (6.31–14.08) 1.430 (0.989–2.069) 7.5 (4.72–11.68) 0.449 (0.341–0.730)
 Up to intermediate school 81 3.3 3.7 (0.85–11.78) 0.521 (0.162–1.677) 8.6 (3.60–18.32) 0.582 (0.265–1.279)
 Up to high school 201 8.1 3.5 (2.15–5.45) 0.489 (0.225–1.064) 4.5 (2.95–6.65) 0.289 (0.146–0.571)
 Graduate/postgraduate 61 2.5 9.8 (4.93–18.17) 1.479 (0.624–3.506) 4.9 (1.77–12.06) 0.318 (0.099–1.024)
 Statistical test    χ 21  = 10.92, P = 0.027   χ 24  = 33.7, P < 0.001  
Mother’s Job/profession
 None 2196 88.3 7.0 (5.94–8.08) 1 12.1 (10.70–13.43) 1
 Blue collar worker 218 8.8 6.0 (4.10–8.53) 0.841 (0.469–1.508) 10.1 (7.58–13.19) 0.818 (0.517–1.294)
 White collar worker 72 2.9 11.1 (5.45–20.71) 1.657 (0.781–3.520) 4.2 (1.18–11.79) 0.317 (0.099–1.014)
 Statistical test    \(\chi_{2}^{2}\) = 0.52, P = 0.77   χ 22  = 5.95, P< = 0.051)  
  1. aExcluded from the analysis because sample size too small to be meaningful
  2. bOccupation/Profession: Blue collar: mechanics, masons, builders, car wash attendants, carpenters, cleaners, crane operators, drivers, electricians, fire fighters, fitters, gardeners, labourers, painters, plumbers, steel fixers and welders; Pink collar: barbers, beauticians, butlers, grocers, hairdressers, life guards’ merchandisers, nurses, safety officers/guards, sales persons, saloon workers, security guards and tailors; White collar: accountants, cashiers, civil engineers, clerks, IT experts, office boys, receptionists, and secretaries; Food handlers: bakers, butchers, chefs, cooks, kitchen assistants, waiters/waitresses; Housemaids
  3. cThis category ranged from 7 to 16 siblings
  4. dMissing information
  5. Note: The statistical outputs that are significant are emphasized in bolditalic, as is also the highest prevalence within each factor level