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Table 1 Frequency of detected hosts per Culicoides spp. with corresponding percentage collected in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (Romania) during 2017

From: Blood-meal analysis of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) reveals a broad host range and new species records for Romania

HostC. griseidorsum n (%)C. kibunensis n (%)C. punctatus n (%)C. punctatus P n (%)C. riethi n (%)C. subfasciipennis/C. pallidicornis n (%)C. submaritimus n (%)Unknown Culicoides sp. n (%)Host information without Culicoides identification n (%)Total n (%)
Mammals (n = 1064, 92%)
Bos taurus L.170 (63.9)4 (5.2)207 (85.9)163 (81.1)8 (80.0)188 (83.2)1 (11.1)2 (11.1)74 (68.5)817 (70.7)
Bubalus bubalis (Kerr)  1 (0.4)  1 (0.4)   2 (0.2)
Canis lupus familiaris (L.) 4 (5.2)   3 (1.3)   7 (0.6)
Capra hircus L.46 (17.3)1 (1.3)3 (1.2)1 (0.5)1 (10.0)1 (0.4)   53 (4.6)
Capreolus capreolus (L.) 1 (1.3)       1 (0.1)
Equus caballus L.15 (5.6) 9 (3.7)3 (1.5)1 (10.0)4 (1.8) 1 (5.6)5 (4.6)38 (3.3)
Felis catus L. 1 (1.3)   1 (0.4)   2 (0.2)
Homo sapiens L.3 (1.1)10 (13.0)5 (2.1)4 (2.0) 4 (1.8)5 (55.6)2 (11.1)10 (9.3)43 (3.7)
Sus scrofa L.28 (10.5)3 (3.9)16 (6.6)29 (14.4) 22 (9.7)  3 (2.8)101 (8.7)
Birds (n = 92, 8%)
Acrocephalus arundinaceus (L.) 1 (1.3)   1 (0.4)   2 (0.2)
Acrocephalus scirpaceus (Hermann) 13 (16.9)       13 (1.1)
Ardea cinerea L. 1 (1.3)       1 (0.1)
Ardea purpurea L. 6 (7.8)      1 (0.9)7 (0.6)
Columba palumbus L. 1 (1.3)     1 (5.6) 2 (0.2)
Coracias garrulus L. 2 (2.6)     3 (16.7) 5 (0.4)
Corvus corone L.1 (0.4)6 (7.8)    3 (33.3) 6 (5.6)16 (1.4)
Cyanistes caeruleus (L.) 4 (5.2) 1 (0.5)   1 (5.6) 6 (0.5)
Emberiza schoeniclus (L.)        1 (0.9)1 (0.1)
Falco tinnunculus L.       1 (5.6)1 (0.9)2 (0.2)
Gallinula chloropus (L.) 3 (3.9)       3 (0.3)
Gallus gallus (Gmelin)2 (0.8)2 (2.6)     2 (11.1) 6 (0.5)
Hirundo rustica L.       2 (11.1) 2 (0.2)
Meleagris gallopovo L.        1 (0.9)1 (0.1)
Motacilla alba L. 1 (1.3)       1 (0.1)
Nycticorax nycticorax (L.) 1 (1.3)   1 (0.4) 1 (5.6) 3 (0.3)
Parus major L. 1 (1.3)      3 (2.8)4 (0.3)
Passer montanus (L.) 1 (1.3)       1 (0.1)
Phalacrocorax carbo (L.)        2 (1.9)2 (0.2)
Streptopelia decaocto (Frivaldszky)       2 (11.1) 2 (0.2)
Strix aluco L. 1 (1.3)       1 (0.1)
Sylvia borin (Boddaert)1 (0.4)4 (5.2)       5 (0.4)
Tito alba (Scopoli) 1 (1.3)       1 (0.1)
Asio otus (L.) 2 (2.6)       2 (0.2)
Tito alba/Asio otus 2 (2.6)      1 (0.9)3 (0.3)
Culicoides specimens without host identification112676219121  
Total biting midge specimens276a102b24820712242c8d39e  
  1. aIncluding one mixed blood meal: Bos taurus + Gallus gallus
  2. bIncluding one mixed blood meal: Sus scrofa + Homo sapiens
  3. cIncluding three mixed blood meals: Bos taurus + Canis lupus familiaris; Sus scrofa + Acrocephalus arundinaceus; Bos taurus + Nycticorax nycticorax
  4. dIncluding two mixed blood meals: Corvus corone + Homo sapiens
  5. eIncluding one mixed blood meal: Equus caballus + Hirundo rustica