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Table 1 Combined results of the serological and molecular analyses performed to assess the contact of kennelled dogs to Leishmania parasites at the beginning and end of sand fly season

From: Monitoring Leishmania infection and exposure to Phlebotomus perniciosus using minimal and non-invasive canine samples

Diagnostic testSand fly season (n = 208)
ELISAIFATPeripheral blood PCRConjunctival swab PCRaStart, n (%)End, n (%)
111 (53.4)92 (44.2)
+0 (0)47 (22.6)
+71 (34.1)24 (11.5)
+0 (0)0 (0)
+4 (1.9)5 (2.4)
++0 (0)15 (7.2)
++0 (0)1 (0.5)
++0 (0)0 (0)
++0 (0)4 (1.9)
++8 (3.8)0 (0)
++8 (3.8)9 (4.3)
+++0 (0)0 (0)
+++6 2.9)6 (2.9)
+++0 (0)4 (1.9)
+++0 (0)1 (0.5)
++++0 (0)0 (0)
  1. aAll negative at the beginning of the sand fly season
  2. Abbreviations: ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; IFAT, immunofluorescence antibody test; PCR, polymerase chain reaction