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Table 2 Survival and developmental time of engorged larvae and nymphs of Ixodes anatis under the tested laboratory conditions

From: Aspects of the development of Ixodes anatis under different environmental conditions in the laboratory and in the field

Temperature (°C) RH (%) Saturation deficit (mmHg) Larvae Nymphs
Premoulta Moultingb Premoulta Moultingb
Time (days) Survival % Time (days) Survival % Time (days) Survival % Time (days) Survival %
5 64 ± 0.50 1–2   0   0   0   0
77 ± 0.62 1–2   0   0   0   0
92 ± 1.86 < 1   0   0   0   0
10 62 ± 0.47 3–4   0   0 71 ± 1.70 100 6.3 ± 1.7 100
83 ± 0.48 1–2   0   0 71 ± 0.84 100 7.4 ± 0.8 100
94 ± 0.45 < 1 64 ± 4.39 100 9.8 ± 3.7 100 78 ± 0.84 100 6.6 ± 0.8 100
95 ± 0.86 < 1 78 ± 1.23 100 18.3 ± 5.02 100 78 ± 1.33 100 7 ± 1.3 100
15 67 ± 1.18 4–5   0   0 71 100 7 30
94 ± 0.1.53 < 1 57 ± 1.41 100 14.9 ± 1.4 100 50 ± 0.95 100 6.7 ± 0.9 100
96 ± 2.56 < 1 57 ± 1.33 100 14.75 ± 1.3 100 36 ± 0.84 100 7.4 ± 0.8 100
20 63 ± 0.58 6–8   0   0 62 ± 1.51 100   0
65 ± 0.61 6–8   0   0 66 ± 1.03 100 9 20
66 ± 0.71 5–6 52 ± 0.67 100 14.15 ± 0.7 100 38 ± 0 100 12.6 ± 2.95 100
86 ± 1.58 2–3 73 ± 0.82 100 6.6 ± 0.8 100 66 ± 1.93 100 14 ± 4.8 100
25 64 ± 0.71 8–10 35 60 7 60 35 ± 15.65 50 8.8 ± 2.5 10
67 ± 1.82 8   0   0 56 10   0
74 ± 0.56 6   0   0 70 100   0
84 ± 0.98 3–4   0   0 35 ± 1.64 50 7 30
88 ± 1.2 3   0   0 70 ± 2.54 90 9 ± 1.7 90
98 ± 0.23 < 1   0   0 28 70 7 40
30 67 ± 0.87 10–12   0   0   0   0
73 ± 1.60 8–10   0   0   0   0
73 ± 0.6 8–10   0   0   0   0
82 ± 2.01 5–6   0   0   0   0
85 ± 0.17 4–5   0   0   0   0
99 ± 1.80 < 1   0   0   0   0
  1. Values in table are presented as the mean ± standard deviation
  2. There were 20 larvae and 10 nymphs at each temperature and RH combination
  3. The saturation deficit of air in each chamber was calculated using the formula from Randolph and Storey [27]
  4. a Pre-moult refers to the number of ticks that survived and started moulting
  5. bMoulting refers to the actual time of moulting from attachment to complete emergence