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Table 5 Risk factors associated with tick infestation on equid hosts

From: Risk factors associated with tick infestations on equids in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, with notes on Rickettsia massiliae detection

Variables Condition No. examined equids No of tick-infested equids (%) Mean (SD) Relative risk (95% confidence interval) P value (χ2)
Gender Male 330 294 (91) 312.0 (25.46) 0.7432 (0.64–0.85) 0.001 (12.05,1)
Female 74 30 (9) 52.00 (31.11)
Age groups (years) 1–3 100 50 (15) 75.00 (35.36) 1.268 (1.10–1.45) 0.002 (9.548, 1)
4–6 304 274 (85) 289.0 (21.21)
Altitude Hilly areas 140 140 (43) 143.5 (4.950) 0.8485 (0.73–0.97) 0.02 (5.562, 1)
Plain areas 264 184 (57) 220.5 (51.62)
Housing Mud 213 203 (63) 208.0 (7.071)
Concrete 56 38 (11) 38.00 (25.46) 0.6949 (0.58–0.81) 0.001 (13.11, 1)
Semi-concrete 135 83 (26) 174.0 (55.15) 0.8268 (0.71–0.95) 0.01 (6.645, 1)
Grazing Open 246 229 (71) 237.5 (12.02) 0.8293 (0.72–0.94) 0.01 (7.597, 1)
Domesticated 158 95 (29) 126.5 (44.55)
Living management Single 115 63 (19) 89.00 (36.77) 1.230 (1.07–1.40) 0.01 (7.921, 1)
Herd 289 261 (81) 275.0 (19.80)
Food supply Fresh 295 238 (73) 266.5 (40.31) 0.9902 (0.85–1.14) 0.9 (0.0171, 1)
Stored 109 86 (27) 97.50 (16.26)