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Table 3 Tick and flea prevalence and intensity in infested dogs of six African countries

From: A community approach of pathogens and their arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas) in dogs of African Sub-Sahara

Ticks and Fleas Overall prevalence (%) Tanzania (%) Kenya (%) Uganda (%) Nigeria (%) Ghana (%) Namibia (%)
Rural Urban P Rural Urban P Rural Urban P Rural Urban P Rural Urban P Rural Urban P
Ticks
 Rhipicephalus sanguineus 67.5 71.1 91.5 ns 27.6 61.5 ** 2.3 47.5 ** 94.7 96.1 ns 78.4 85.7 * 90.3 83.3 ns
 R. appendiculatus 0.4 0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   2.3 2.5   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0  
 R. simus 2.0 0.0 2.1   9.2 0.0   0.0 0.0   1.8 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 5.6  
 R. microplus 0.2 2.2 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0  
 R. senegalensis 0.2 0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 2.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0  
 Rhipicephalus spp. 6.7 26.7 6.4 ** 0.0 0.0   2.3 17.5 * 3.5 0.0   2.7 0.0   9.7 19.4 ns
 Haemaphysalis elliptica 6.5 0.0 0.0   18.4 3.9 * 11.4 10.0 ns 8.8 7.8   5.4 0.0   0.0 0.0  
 H. leachi 0.6 0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   5.3 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0  
 H. spinulosa 1.5 2.2 2.1   0.0 0.0   11.4 2.5 ns 0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0  
 Haemaphysalis spp. 17.3 0.0 0.0   56.6 26.9 * 54.6 22.5 ** 3.5 0.0   18.9 2.0 * 0.0 0.0  
 Amblyomma variegatum 0.4 0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   1.8 0.0   2.7 0.0   0.0 0.0  
 Amblyomma spp. 0.9 2.2 0.0   0.0 0.0   2.3 0.0   0.0 0.0   8.1 0.0   0.0 0.0  
 Ixodes sp. 0.6 2.2 2.1   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   2.7 0.0   0.0 0.0  
 Tick 95.5 100.0 100.0 ns 94.7 88.5 ns 81.8 95.0 ns 100.0 100.0 ns 97.3 87.8 ns 100.0 100.0 ns
 Intensity   6.8 21.2 ns 22.5 13.0 ns 12.2 19.2 ns 28.1 49.0 * 8.1 46.3 * 19.4 4.7 ns
 Shannon index   0.9 0.5 * 1.2 0.8 *** 1.2 1.4 *** 0.8 0.4 ns 1.2 0.1 ** 0.3 0.7 ns
Fleas
 Ctenocephalides felis 53.7 71.1 51.0 ns 75.4 48.2 ns 85.1 41.7 *** 52.5 5.9 *** 53.3 45.8 ns 12.5 28.6 ns
 Echidnophaga gallinacea 0.2 0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   3.3 0.0   0.0 0.0  
 Echidnophaga sp. 3.7 0.0 2.0   8.7 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   6.7 2.1   0.0 20.0 ***
 Flea 55.6 71.1 51.0 * 76.8 48.2 ** 85.1 41.7 *** 52.5 5.9 *** 56.7 47.9 * 12.5 45.7 **
 Intensity   6.45 31.8 * 13.6 40.0 * 2.3 5.0   0.0 0.0   9.5 14.3 ns 0.0 0.0  
 Shannon index   0.00 0.2 ns 0.3 0.0 ns 0.0 0.0   0.0 0.0   0.5 0.2 ns 0.0 0.7 ns
Co-infestation 47.3 71.7 50.9 ** 71.1 37.0 ** 68.0 36.0 ** 52.6 5.9 * 54.8 35.7 ** 12.5 45.5 ***
Shannon indexa   1.25 1.0 ns 1.5 1.1 ** 1.3 1.6 *** 1.2 0.4 *** 1.6 0.8 ** 0.5 1.3 *
Investigated dogs (N) 584 46 53   76 27   50 50   57 51   42 56   32 44  
  1. For each dog, a single extraction was made of a pooled set of ticks and/or fleas that was subsequently screened for the presence of DNA belonging to a particular tick and flea species. Next, the percentage of extracts (i.e. dogs) containing DNA of a specific taxon was derived, within the population of infested dogs. For statistical outcomes on pairwise macrogeographic differences, see Fig. 2
  2. ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05, ns (not-significant) P > 0.05
  3. Habitat differences (rural vs urban) are investigated for countries with a presence of at least 10% in one of its habitats
  4. aAs a measure of species diversity, a Shannon diversity index and accompanying significance level of Fisher’s exact test are provided