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Table 4 Ecological models for ectoparasite prevalence and loads in infested dogs

From: A community approach of pathogens and their arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas) in dogs of African Sub-Sahara

Covariate R. sanguineus : all countries Rhipicephalus sp.: Ta., Ug., Na. H. elliptica: Ke., Ug. Haemaphysalis. sp.: Ke., Ug., Gh. C. felis: all countries
Prevalencea Loadb Prevalence Load Prevalence Load Prevalence Load Prevalence Load
Housing conditionsc F/Y: − 0.71 ± 0.36 − 0.86 ± 0.27**    F/Y: 0.43 ± 0.29  0.13 ± 0.35     
I/Y: − 0.96 ± 0.41* − 1.80 ± 0.30**    I/F:-1.89 ± 0.65** − 1.91 ± 0.69**     
Age (months)           
Sex           
 Female vs male    0.72 ± 0.27** 0.76 ± 0.27**       
Body condition − 0.37 ± 0.18* − 0.40 ± 0.14** 0.57 ± 0.21** 0.60 ± 0.21**   0.35 ± 0.17*     
Dewormingd           
  < 1 month    2.08 ± 0.42*** 2.15 ± 0.44** 0.56 ± 0.52 1.95 ± 0.66** − 0.29 ± 0.33 − 0.30 ± 0.33 − 0.87 ± 0.35* − 1.24 ± 0.39**
 1–6 months    2.11 ± 0.45*** 2.17 ± 0.42** 3.57 ± 0.84*** 4.27 ± 0.76** − 0.62 ± 0.33 − 0.62 ± 0.32 − 1.19 ± 0.39** − 1.28 ± 0.42**
  > 6 months    1.46 ± 0.53** 1.42 ± 0.53** − 0.85 ± 0.77 − 0.18 ± 0.83 1.03 ± 0.31** 1.22 ± 0.28** − 0.48 ± 0.40 − 0.01 ± 0.39
Number of dogs around    − 0.13 ± 0.05* − 0.13 ± 0.05* − 0.21 ± 0.08** − 0.42 ± 0.12* 0.16 ± 0.05** 0.14 ± 0.04*   
  1. Parameter estimates (± empirical standard error) from eneralized estimation equations (GEEs) that model the tick and flea species’ prevalence (levels: 0, 1) and infestation loads (levels: absent, low, intermediate, high) for the population of ectoparasite-infested dogs. For a given taxon, only multiple countries with a prevalence of at least 10% for at least one of the habitat types were included (see Table 3). Country and habitat (rural vs urban) contrasts have been omitted from the table, but were included in all analyses. In none of the analyses did ‘ectoparasiticide treatment’ significantly explain tick variation (P > 0.05)
  2. Ta(nzania), Ug(anda), Na(mibia), Ke(nya), Ni(geria), Gh(ana)
  3. ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05, ' ' P > 0.05
  4. aPrevalence indicates: model estimates reflect the probability that ectoparasite has level ‘1’; bLoad indicates model estimates that reflect the probabilities of tick load levels having higher ordered values, i.e. positive signs indicate higher loads with continuous explanatory variables, or higher than the reference category (when contrast is tested among the levels of categorical explanatory variables)
  5. cHousing conditions contrasts include: F/Y (Free-roaming vs Yard); I/Y (Indoor vs Yard); I/F (Indoor vs Free-roaming); dContrast with group of dogs that have never been treated with a deworming drug