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Table 2 Species of Babesia reported in tick species other than Ixodes or Dermacentor spp.

From: The specificity of Babesia-tick vector interactions: recent advances and pitfalls in molecular and field studies

Country Reference Tick species (n) Babesia spp. prevalence Babesia species, number of isolates
and prevalence (%)
Species identification method
Czech Republic, Slovakia Rybarova et al. [126] Haemaphysalis concinna (150) 4% Babesia sp., 6 (4%) PCR sequencing
USA Shock et al. [172]a Amblyomma americanum (184, including questing) 3.3% Babesia cf. microti, 2 (from questing) PCR sequencing
China Abdallah et al. [171] Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (242) 13.5% Babesia sp. Xinjiang, 32 (13.2%) PCR-RLB, PCR sequencing
     Babesia bovis, 1 (0.4%)  
China Li et al. [173] Rhipicephalus microplus (459) 0.4% Babesia bigemina, 2 (0.4%) PCR sequencing
China Zhuang et al. [174] Haemaphysalis longicornis (144) 0.7% Babesia sp., 1
(0.7%)
NGS
China Niu et al. [175] Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (188) 21.3% Babesia sp. Xinjiang, 40 (21.3%) Species-specific PCR
   Haemaphysalis longicornis (113) 9.7% Babesia sp. Xinjiang, 11 (9.7%)  
Hungary Hornok et al. [150] Haemaphysalis inermis (315) NC Babesia crassa-like, ten pools PCR sequencing (pools)
   Haemaphysalis concinna (259) NC Babesia sp. Kh-Hc222, one pool  
     Babesia sp. Irk-Hc133, four pools  
   Haemaphysalis punctata (61) NC No Babesia  
Spain Garcia-Sanmartin et al. [125] Haemaphysalis inermis (87) 1.1% B. bigemina, 1 (1.1%) PCR-RLB
   Haemaphysalis punctata (111) 4.5% B. bigemina, 1 (0.9%)  
     B. bovis, 1 (0.9%)  
     Babesia caballi, 1 (0.9%)  
     B. caballi-like, 1 (0.9%)  
     Babesia vulpes (Theileria annae), 1 (0.9%)  
   Haemaphysalis concinna (24) 0% -  
   Rhipicephalus bursa (50) 4% B. caballi, 1 (2%)  
     Babesia ovis, 1 (2%)  
Slovakia Hamšíková et al. [116] Haemaphysalis concinna (91) 6.6% Babesia sp. 1 (Eurasia), 5 PCR sequencing
     Babesia sp. 2 (Eurasia), 1  
Turkey Brinkmann et al. [176] Rhipicephalus bursa (76) 1.3% B. ovis, 1 (1.3%) NGS
Turkey Orkun et al. [151] Haemaphysalis parva (793) 1.6% B. crassa, n = 8 (1%) PCR sequencing
     Babesia rossi, 4 (0.5%)  
     Babesia sp., 1 (0.1%)  
   Hyalomma marginatum (105) 12% Babesia occultans, 12 (11%)  
     Babesia sp. tavsan 1
1 (1%)
 
   Rhipicephalus turanicus (9) 11% Babesia sp. tavsan 2
1 (11%)
 
Israel Harrus et al. [177] Rhipicephalus turanicus (83 pools) 1.2% MIR Babesia vogeli, one pool
(1.2%)
PCR sequencing (pools)
   Rhipicephalus sanguineus (48 pools) 4.2% MIR B. vogeli, two pools (4.2%)  
   Hyalomma spp. (13 specimens) 0% -  
Italy Romiti et al. [152] Rhipicephalus bursa (980 in 110 pools) 14.6% pools B. caballi, 16 pools
(14.5%)
qPCR with TaqMan probe for B. caballi
Japan Masatani et al. [178]a Haemaphysalis formosensis (159) 1.3% Babesia sp. (feral raccoon strain) (1.3%) PCR sequencing
   Haemophysalis flava (191) 1.6% Babesia sp. (feral raccoon strain) (1.6%)  
   Haemophysalis longicornis (219) 0% -  
Japan Sivakumar et al. [101] Haemophysalis longicornis (175) 9.7% Babesia ovata, 17 (9.7%) Species-specific PCR for B. ovata
Thailand Wattanamethanont et al. [179] Haemaphysalis lagrangei (11,309), Haemaphysalis wellingtoni (16), Rhipicephalus microplus (859); total of 419 tick pools 0.2% (1/419 pools) Babesia sp. (new), 1
(0.2% pools)
PCR sequencing
  1. MIR for tick pools
  2. NGS Next-generation sequencing, qPCR quantitative PCR, NC not calculated (pools with different number of ticks tested); for other abbreviations, see Table 1
  3. aMostly questing, but also some feeding ticks tested together