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Table 6 Host factor and density predictors for the investigated pathogens and co-infection (n = 409)

From: Prevalence and predictors of vector-borne pathogens in Dutch roe deer

Dependent variable Final modela Estimate (± SE) z P Odds ratio (95% CI)
A. phagocytophilum Intercept 1.774 (0.248) 7.150  < 0.001* 5.9 (3.1–9.9)
  Age category—yearling −0.602 (0.348) −1.731 0.083 0.5 (0.3–1.1)
  Age category—adult −0.725 (0.300) −2.422 0.015* 0.5 (0.3–0.9)
Bartonella spp. Intercept 2.234 (0.607) 3.677  < 0.001* 9.3 (3.3–39.0)
  Nutritional condition—moderate −0.971 (0.621) −1.563 0.118 0.4 (0.1–1.1)
  Nutritional condition—good −1.336 (0.705) −1.895 0.058 0.3 (0.1–0.9)
Babesia spp. Intercept −0.270 (0.527) −0.513 0.608 0.8 (0.3–2.1)
  Age category—yearling −0.741 (0.361) −2.053 0.040* 0.5 (0.2–0.9)
  Age category—adult −0.862 (0.297) −2.901 0.004* 0.4 (0.2–0.8)
  Health status—healthy −0.830 (0.523) −1.586 0.113 0.4 (0.2–1.3)
Rickettsia spp. Intercept −2.178 (0.884) −2.463 0.014* 0.1 (0.0–0.5)
  Age category—yearling 1.220 (0.737) 1.654 0.098 3.4 (0.8–16.9)
  Age category—adult −0.359 (0.830) −0.433 0.665 0.7 (0.1–3.9)
  Health status—healthy −1.796 (0.848) −2.118 0.034* 0.2 (0.0–1.2)
Co-infection Intercept 1.171 (0.206) 5.697  < 0.001* 3.2 (2.2–4.9)
  Age category—yearling −0.429 (0.302) −1.419 0.156 0.7 (0.4–1.2)
  Age category—adult −0.534 (0.257) −2.077 0.038* 0.6 (0.4–1.0b)
  1. aFinal models on predicted effect of host traits and density on detection of the pathogens A. phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and the presence of co-infection in roe deer blood samples
  2. bThe upper limit of this 95% CI is 0.964, i.e., 95% CI excludes 1
  3. *Statistically significant