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Table 4 Rate of co-positives vs expected rate by chance for all results within the study period 2016–2020

From: Seropositivity of main vector-borne pathogens in dogs across Europe

Pathogen 1 Pathogen 2 Positive pathogen 1
(%)
Positive pathogen 2
(%)
Expected co-positivity
(%)
Co-positivity
(%)
Total n Chi-square
Anaplasma spp. Ehrlichia spp. 6.19 3.82 0.24 0.81 224,023 < 0.001*
Anaplasma spp. Dirofilaria immitis 6.19 1.89 0.12 0.17 224,022 < 0.001*
Anaplasma spp. Leishmania spp. 3.19 9.71 0.31 0.78 53,505 < 0.001*
Anaplasma spp. Borrelia burgdorferi 6.19 2.69 0.17 0.50 224,022 < 0.001*
Ehrlichia spp. Dirofilaria immitis 3.82 1.89 0.07 0.22 224,022 < 0.001*
Ehrlichia spp. Leishmania spp. 5.44 9.71 0.53 1.44 53,504 < 0.001*
Ehrlichia spp. Borrelia burgdorferi 3.82 2.69 0.10 0.10 224,024 = 0.657
Dirofilaria immitis Leishmania spp. 1.39 9.17 0.13 0.30 57,953 < 0.001*
Dirofilaria immitis Borrelia burgdorferi 1.89 2.69 0.05 0.06 224,030 = 0.083
Leishmania spp. Borreliaburgdorferi 9.71 0.18 0.02 0.04 53,504 < 0.001*
  1. Vector commonalities or endemic rates within geographies was not included in the comparison
  2. *Statistically significant