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  1. The proliferative stage (tachyzoite) of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is critical for its transmission and pathogenesis, and a proto-oncogene eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF-5A) plays an important r...

    Authors: Xinchao Liu, Chunjing Li, Xiaoyu Li, Muhammad Ehsan, Mingmin Lu, Ke Li, Lixin Xu, Ruofeng Yan, Xiaokai Song and XiangRui Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:283

    Content type: Research

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  2. Traditional malaria vector sampling techniques bias collections towards female mosquitoes. Comprehensive understanding of vector dynamics requires balanced vector sampling of both males and females. Male mosqu...

    Authors: Krystal Birungi, Danspaid P. Mabuka, Victor Balyesima, Annet Namukwaya, Elinor W. Chemoges, Sylvia Kiwuwa-Muyingo, C. Matilda Collins, Frederic Tripet and Jonathan K. Kayondo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:281

    Content type: Research

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  3. Malaria mixed infections are often unrecognized by microscopists in the hospitals, and a delay or failure to treat Plasmodium-mixed infection may lead to aggravated morbidity and increased mortality. The present ...

    Authors: Aongart Mahittikorn, Frederick Ramirez Masangkay, Kwuntida Uthaisar Kotepui, Giovanni De Jesus Milanez and Manas Kotepui

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:280

    Content type: Research

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  4. Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation plays a pivotal role in hepatic inflammation and liver fibrosis. TLR4 pathway activation has been reported to be involved in mice liver fibrosis induced by hepatitis viru...

    Authors: Lan Chen, Xiaofang Ji, Manni Wang, Xiaoyan Liao, Cuiying Liang, Juanjuan Tang, Zhencheng Wen, Ferrandon Dominique and Zi Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:279

    Content type: Research

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  5. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been widely used to diagnose various infectious diseases. Malaria is a globally distributed infectious disease attributed to parasites in the genus Plasmodium. It...

    Authors: Xi Chen, Jiaqi Zhang, Maohua Pan, Yucheng Qin, Hui Zhao, Pien Qin, Qi Yang, Xinxin Li, Weilin Zeng, Zheng Xiang, Mengxi Duan, Xiaosong Li, Xun Wang, Dominique Mazier, Yanmei Zhang, Wei Zhao…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:278

    Content type: Research

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  6. Blastocystis is a common anaerobic colonic protist in humans with controversial pathogenicity. Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is the commonest cause of infectious diarrhea in healthcare settings. The preval...

    Authors: Lei Deng, Huiyi Tay, Guangneng Peng, Jonathan W. J. Lee and Kevin S. W. Tan

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:277

    Content type: Research

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  7. The liver fluke Fasciola gigantica secretes excretory-secretory proteins during infection to mediate its interaction with the host. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of a recombinant teg...

    Authors: Muhammad Ehsan, Rui-Si Hu, Jun-Ling Hou, Hany M. Elsheikha, Xiao-Dong Li, Pan-Hong Liang and Xing-Quan Zhu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:276

    Content type: Research

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  8. Currently, various zoonotic diseases are classified as emerging or reemerging. Because equids have a direct relationship with various vectors, they are possibly more frequently exposed to zoonotic agents than ...

    Authors: Sonia Carmen Lopo Costa, Jéssica de Souza Freitas, Fábio Santos Carvalho, Maria Julia Salim Pereira, Matheus Dias Cordeiro, Adivaldo Henrique da Fonseca, Márcia Mariza Gomes Jusi, Rosangela Zacarias Machado and Alexandre Dias Munhoz

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:275

    Content type: Research

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  9. The blood flukes of genus Schistosoma are the causative agent of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that infects more than 200 million people worldwide. Proteases of schistosomes are involved in critical steps ...

    Authors: Lenka Ulrychová, Pavel Ostašov, Marta Chanová, Michael Mareš, Martin Horn and Jan Dvořák

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:274

    Content type: Research

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  10. Panstrongylus megistus is the most important vector of Chagas disease in Brazil. Studies show that the principal factor hindering the control of triatomines is reinfestation of houses previously treated with inse...

    Authors: Flávio Campos Ferreira, Leilane Oliveira Gonçalves, Jeronimo Conceição Ruiz, Leonardo Barbosa Koerich, Fabiano Sviatopolk Mirsky Pais, Lileia Gonçalves Diotaiuti and Carlota Josefovicz Belisário

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:273

    Content type: Short report

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  11. Botanical substances such as essential oils (EOs) have demonstrated insecticidal properties and are a valid option for vector control. However, free EOs are unreliable as mosquito larvicides due their easy deg...

    Authors: Bruno Gomes, Huarlen Ogélio, Fabiane Brant, Camila Jesus Pereira-Pinto, Michael J. Workman, Monique Costa, José Bento Pereira Lima, Ademir Jesus Martins, Marcelo Ramalho-Ortigao, Ravi Durvasula, Ivy Hurwitz, Mariana Rocha David and Fernando Ariel Genta

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:272

    Content type: Research

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  12. Sarcocystis species are obligatorily heteroxenous parasites, of which some are zoonotic, representing a public health and economic impact. This study investigated the occurrence of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle samp...

    Authors: Hang Zeng, Inge Van Damme, Teresia Wanjiru Kabi, Barbara Šoba and Sarah Gabriël

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:271

    Content type: Research

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  13. Zoological gardens contain unique configurations of exotic and endemic animals and plants that create a diverse range of developing sites and potential sources of blood meals for local mosquitoes. This may imp...

    Authors: Arturo Hernandez-Colina, Merit Gonzalez-Olvera, Emily Lomax, Freya Townsend, Amber Maddox, Jenny C. Hesson, Kenneth Sherlock, Dawn Ward, Lindsay Eckley, Mark Vercoe, Javier Lopez and Matthew Baylis

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:249

    Content type: Research

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  14. The emergence of tick-borne disease is increasing because of the effects of the temperature rise driven by global warming. In Turkey, 19 pathogens transmitted by ticks to humans and animals have been reported....

    Authors: Ahmet Efe Köseoğlu, Hüseyin Can, Mervenur Güvendi, Sedef Erkunt Alak, Çağrı Kandemir, Turğay Taşkın, Samiye Demir, Gülşah Akgül, Aysu Değirmenci Döşkaya, Muhammet Karakavuk, Mert Döşkaya, Adnan Yüksel Gürüz and Cemal Ün

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:270

    Content type: Research

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  15. Fragmented mitochondrial (mt) genomes and extensive mt gene rearrangements have been frequently reported from parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera). However, relatively little is known about the mt genomes fr...

    Authors: Yu Nie, Yi-Tian Fu, Yu Zhang, Yuan-Ping Deng, Wei Wang, Ya Tu and Guo-Hua Liu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:269

    Content type: Research

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  16. Malaria vector control approaches that rely on mosquito releases such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) and suppression or replacement strategies relying on genetically modified mosquitoes (GMM) depend on ...

    Authors: Nwamaka Oluchukwu Akpodiete and Frédéric Tripet

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:268

    Content type: Research

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  17. The significance of tick-borne diseases has increased considerably in recent years. Because of the unique distribution of the tick species Dermacentor reticulatus in Poland, comprising two expanding populations, ...

    Authors: Dorota Dwużnik-Szarek, Ewa J. Mierzejewska, Anna Rodo, Katarzyna Goździk, Jolanta Behnke-Borowczyk, Dorota Kiewra, Natalia Kartawik and Anna Bajer

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:267

    Content type: Research

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  18. Canine babesiosis and anaplasmosis, caused by Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, respectively, are significant tick-borne diseases in Baltic countries. Both diseases can be diagnosed on the basis of cli...

    Authors: Agnija Kivrane, Agne Namina, Maija Seleznova, Sarmite Akopjana, Valentina Capligina and Renate Ranka

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:266

    Content type: Research

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  19. The human landing catch (HLC) measures human exposure to mosquito bites and evaluates the efficacy of vector control tools. However, it may expose volunteers to potentially infected mosquitoes. The mosquito el...

    Authors: Mgeni M. Tambwe, Adam Saddler, Ummi Abdul Kibondo, Rajabu Mashauri, Katharina S. Kreppel, Nicodem J. Govella and Sarah J. Moore

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:265

    Content type: Research

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  20. The study objective was to examine cat owner ectoparasiticide purchases in the United States and estimate the impact of purchase gaps on timely ectoparasite protection administration. These purchase gaps lead ...

    Authors: Robert Lavan, Dorothy Normile, Imran Husain, Amita Singh and Kathleen Heaney

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:264

    Content type: Research

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  21. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus (s.l.). This study investigated the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with hu...

    Authors: Leonardo Uchiumi, Guillermo Mujica, Daniel Araya, Juan Carlos Salvitti, Mariano Sobrino, Sergio Moguillansky, Alejandro Solari, Patricia Blanco, Fabiana Barrera, Janete Lamunier, Marcos Arezo, Marcos Seleiman, Zaida E. Yadon, Francesca Tamarozzi, Adriano Casulli and Edmundo Larrieu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:262

    Content type: Research

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  22. Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) with an urban transmission cycle that primarily involves humans and Aedes aegypti. Evidence suggests that the evolution of some arboviruses is constrained...

    Authors: Lourdes G. Talavera-Aguilar, Reyes A. Murrieta, Sungmin Kiem, Rosa C. Cetina-Trejo, Carlos M. Baak-Baak, Gregory D. Ebel, Bradley J. Blitvich and Carlos Machain-Williams

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:261

    Content type: Research

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  23. The universal nature of the human–companion animal relationship and their shared ticks and tick-borne pathogens offers an opportunity for improving public and veterinary health surveillance. With this in mind,...

    Authors: Mark P. Nelder, Curtis B. Russell, Antonia Dibernardo, Katie M. Clow, Steven Johnson, Kirby Cronin, Samir N. Patel and L. Robbin Lindsay

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:260

    Content type: Research

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  24. The direct toxicological impact of insecticides on vector mosquitoes has been well emphasized; however, behavioural responses such as excito-repellency and physical avoidance as a result of insecticide exposur...

    Authors: Sunil Dhiman, Kavita Yadav, B. N. Acharya, Raj Kumar Ahirwar and D. Sukumaran

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:259

    Content type: Research

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  25. A randomised, blinded, positive controlled, multicentre, Good Clinical Practice-compliant, pivotal field study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a new combination of lotilaner + milbemy...

    Authors: Brad Hayes, Scott Wiseman and Daniel E. Snyder

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:258

    Content type: Research

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  26. The ascarid, Toxocara canis, is a common and important zoonotic intestinal nematode parasite that infects dogs globally. An effective treatment that kills any pre-patent stages of immature T. canis could addition...

    Authors: Lisa M. Young, Scott Wiseman, Elizabeth Crawley, Dwight D. Bowman, Craig R. Reinemeyer and Daniel E. Snyder

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:256

    Content type: Research

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  27. The hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, is a common and important zoonotic intestinal nematode parasite that infects dogs globally. Both the immature and adult stages of A. caninum ingest large volumes of blood during...

    Authors: Daniel E. Snyder, Scott Wiseman, Elizabeth Crawley, Kim Wallace, Dwight D. Bowman and Craig R. Reinemeyer

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:255

    Content type: Research

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  28. In Europe, the generalist tick, Ixodes ricinus, is the main vector of several tick-borne pathogens causing diseases in humans and livestock. Understanding how different species of hosts limit the tick population ...

    Authors: Atle Mysterud, Christian Hügli and Hildegunn Viljugrein

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:254

    Content type: Short report

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  29. The predominant genotype of Toxoplasma in China is the Chinese 1 (ToxoDB#9) lineage. TgCtwh3 and TgCtwh6 are two representative strains of Chinese 1, exhibiting high and low virulence to mice, respectively. Littl...

    Authors: Yang Wang, Chengjian Han, Rongsheng zhou, Jinjin Zhu, Famin Zhang, Jingyang Li, Qingli Luo, Jian Du, Deyong Chu, Yihong Cai, Jilong Shen and Li Yu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:253

    Content type: Research

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  30. Malaria vector control has been implemented chiefly through indoor interventions targeting primary vectors resulting in population declines—pointing to a possible greater proportional contribution to transmiss...

    Authors: Amine M. Mustapha, Susan Musembi, Anthony K. Nyamache, Maxwell G. Machani, Jackline Kosgei, Lucy Wamuyu, Eric Ochomo and Neil F. Lobo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:252

    Content type: Research

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  31. Toxocariasis, caused by a nematode species of the genus Toxocara, has been described as one of the most prevalent zoonotic helminthiases worldwide. Human transmission may occur by ingesting Toxocara spp. larvae f...

    Authors: Paula Andreia Fabris Giudice, Susana Angélica Zevallos Lescano, William Henry Roldan Gonzáles, Rogério Giuffrida, Fernanda Nobre Bandeira, Louise Bach Kmetiuk, Andrea Pires dos Santos, Alexander Welker Biondo and Vamilton Alvares Santarém

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:250

    Content type: Research

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  32. Swine coccidiosis, a protozoan disease caused by coccidia, can result in diarrhoea and weight loss in piglets and even economic losses in the pig industry. Here, we report the first systematic review and meta-...

    Authors: Qing-Long Gong, Wen-Xuan Zhao, Yan-Chun Wang, Ying Zong, Qi Wang, Yang Yang, Yi Yang, Kun Shi, Jian-Ming Li, Xue Leng, Rui Du and Quan Zhao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:248

    Content type: Research

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  33. Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Cameroon. Implementation of control interventions requires prior knowledge of the local epidemiological situation. Here we report the results of epidemiologic...

    Authors: Lionel Brice Feufack-Donfack, Elangwe Milo Sarah-Matio, Luc Marcel Abate, Aline Gaelle Bouopda Tuedom, Albert Ngano Bayibéki, Christelle Maffo Ngou, Jean-Claude Toto, Maurice Marcel Sandeu, Carole Else Eboumbou Moukoko, Lawrence Ayong, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Isabelle Morlais and Sandrine Eveline Nsango

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:247

    Content type: Research

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  34. Equine ascariosis, caused by Parascaris spp., is a worldwide endoparasitic disease affecting young horses in particular. Despite the great number of horses reared in Italy, large-scale epidemiological surveys dea...

    Authors: Antonio Scala, Claudia Tamponi, Giuliana Sanna, Giulio Predieri, Luisa Meloni, Stephane Knoll, Giampietro Sedda, Giorgia Dessì, Maria Grazia Cappai and Antonio Varcasia

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:246

    Content type: Research

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  35. Wolbachia is an obligate intracellular maternally transmitted, gram-negative bacterium which forms a spectrum of endosymbiotic relationships from parasitism to obligatory mutualism in a wide range of arthropods a...

    Authors: Ranju Ravindran Santhakumari Manoj, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Sara Epis and Domenico Otranto

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:245

    Content type: Review

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  36. Ticks of the genus Hyalomma, which are vectors for several tick-borne diseases, are occasionally found in areas outside their endemic range including northern parts of Europe. The objective of this study was to a...

    Authors: Mathilde Uiterwijk, Adolfo Ibáñez-Justicia, Bart van de Vossenberg, Frans Jacobs, Paul Overgaauw, Rolf Nijsse, Charlotte Dabekaussen, Arjan Stroo and Hein Sprong

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:244

    Content type: Research

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  37. West Nile (WNV) and Usutu (USUV) are emerging vector-borne zoonotic flaviviruses. They are antigenically very similar, sharing the same life cycle with birds as amplification host, Culicidae as vector, and man...

    Authors: Paola Scaramozzino, Andrea Carvelli, Gianpaolo Bruni, Giuseppina Cappiello, Francesco Censi, Adele Magliano, Giuseppe Manna, Ida Ricci, Pasquale Rombolà, Federico Romiti, Francesca Rosone, Marcello Giovanni Sala, Maria Teresa Scicluna, Stefania Vaglio and Claudio De Liberato

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:243

    Content type: Short report

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  38. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) represent a significant economic burden to cattle farming in sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. However, in the northern part of this country, where the largest livesto...

    Authors: Adamu Haruna Mamman, Vincenzo Lorusso, Babagana Mohammed Adam, Goni Abraham Dogo, Kevin J. Bown and Richard J. Birtles

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:242

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:353

  39. Transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) is a promising strategy for malaria elimination. It is hypothesized that mixing or fusing two antigens targeting different stages of sexual development may provide higher tr...

    Authors: Fan Yang, Fei Liu, Xinxin Yu, Wenqi Zheng, Yudi Wu, Yue Qiu, Ying Jin, Liwang Cui and Yaming Cao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:241

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. The western area of the province of Almeria, sited in southern Spain, has one of the highest immigrant population rates in Spain, mainly dedicated to agricultural work. In recent years, there has been a signif...

    Authors: Joaquín Pousibet-Puerto, Ana Belén Lozano-Serrano, Manuel Jesús Soriano-Pérez, José Vázquez-Villegas, María José Giménez-López, María Isabel Cabeza-Barrera, José Ángel Cuenca-Gómez, Matilde Palanca-Giménez, María Pilar Luzón-García, Nerea Castillo-Fernández, María Teresa Cabezas-Fernández and Joaquín Salas-Coronas

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:240

    Content type: Research

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  41. Q fever, a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, has adverse effects on public health. Ticks are vectors of C. burnetii and they contribute to the transmission of the pathogen. A tool for rapid, sensitive, and ac...

    Authors: A.-Tai Truong, Bo-Ram Yun, Jiyeon Lim, Subin Min, Mi-Sun Yoo, Soon-Seek Yoon, Young-Min Yun, Jong-Taek Kim and Yun Sang Cho

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:239

    Content type: Research

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  42. Cryptosporidium is an important zoonotic pathogen responsible for severe enteric diseases in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying host and Cryptosporidium interactions are still not cl...

    Authors: Yan-Ling Yin, Ting-Li Liu, Qian Yao, Yu-Xin Wang, Xue-Mei Wu, Xue-Ting Wang, Xin Yang, Jun-Ke Song and Guang-Hui Zhao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:238

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease that is regionally distributed in Asia, with high fatality. Constructing the transmission model of SFTS could help provide c...

    Authors: Nan Zhang, Xiao-Qing Cheng, Bin Deng, Jia Rui, Luxia Qiu, Zeyu Zhao, Shengnan Lin, Xingchun Liu, Jingwen Xu, Yao Wang, Meng Yang, Yuanzhao Zhu, Jiefeng Huang, Chan Liu, Weikang Liu, Li Luo…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:237

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Environmental disturbance, deforestation and socioeconomic factors all affect malaria incidence in tropical and subtropical endemic areas. Deforestation is the major driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, w...

    Authors: Tatiane M. P. Oliveira, Gabriel Z. Laporta, Eduardo S. Bergo, Leonardo Suveges Moreira Chaves, José Leopoldo F. Antunes, Sara A. Bickersmith, Jan E. Conn, Eduardo Massad and Maria Anice Mureb Sallum

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:236

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Fernando Abad-Franch, Fernando A. Monteiro, Márcio G. Pavan, James S. Patterson, M. Dolores Bargues, M. Ángeles Zuriaga, Marcelo Aguilar, Charles B. Beard, Santiago Mas-Coma and Michael A. Miles

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:235

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:195

  46. The pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes to humans and animals cause several emerging and resurgent infectious diseases. Increasing insecticide resistance requires rational action to control the target vector p...

    Authors: Xiaoshan Yang, Yang Xu, Qi Yin, Hongbo Zhang, Haitao Yin, Yan Sun, Lei Ma, Dan Zhou and Bo Shen

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:234

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  47. Schistosoma japonicum is a parasitic flatworm that is the aetiological agent of human schistosomiasis, an important cause of hepatic fibrosis. Schistosomiasis-induced hepatic fibrosis is a consequence of the high...

    Authors: Jing Huang, Xinguang Yin, Lifang Zhang, Ming Yao, Dahai Wei and Yiming Wu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:232

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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