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  1. The incidence of Lyme borreliosis varies over time and space through as yet incompletely understood mechanisms. In Europe, Lyme borreliosis is caused by infection with a Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) genospecies, w...

    Authors: Nienke Hartemink, Arnold J. H. van Vliet, Gerrit Gort, Fedor Gassner, Frans Jacobs, Manoj Fonville, Willem Takken and Hein Sprong

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:121

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Most female mosquitoes are anautogenous and must blood feed on a vertebrate host to produce eggs. Prior studies show that the number of eggs females lay per clutch correlates with the volume of blood ingested ...

    Authors: Ruby E. Harrison, Mark R. Brown and Michael R. Strand

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:119

    Content type: Research

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  3. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Meriam N. Saleh, Kellee D. Sundstrom, Kathryn T. Duncan, Michelle M. Ientile, Julia Jordy, Parna Ghosh and Susan E. Little

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:117

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Parasites & Vectors 2019 12:595

  4. Flooding is considered to be one of the most important factors contributing to the rebound of Oncomelania hupensis, a small tropical freshwater snail and the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, in en...

    Authors: Jing-Bo Xue, Xin-Yi Wang, Li-Juan Zhang, Yu-Wan Hao, Zhe Chen, Dan-Dan Lin, Jing Xu, Shang Xia and Shi-Zhu Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:116

    Content type: Research

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  5. It is important to understand whether the potential impact of pyrethroid resistance on malaria control can be mitigated by switching between different pyrethroids or whether cross-resistance within this insect...

    Authors: C. L. Moyes, R. S. Lees, C. Yunta, K. J. Walker, K. Hemmings, F. Oladepo, P. A. Hancock, D. Weetman, M. J. I. Paine and H. M. Ismail

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:115

    Content type: Research

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  6. Small mammals are important maintenance hosts of ectoparasites as well as reservoir hosts for many arthropod-borne pathogens. In Germany, only a few studies have investigated ectoparasite communities on small ...

    Authors: Anna Obiegala, Leonie Arnold, Martin Pfeffer, Matthias Kiefer, Daniel Kiefer, Carola Sauter-Louis and Cornelia Silaghi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:112

    Content type: Research

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  7. Asymptomatic Leishmania infections outnumber clinical infections on the Indian subcontinent (ISC), where disease reservoirs are anthroponotic. Diagnostics which detect active asymptomatic infection, which are sui...

    Authors: Sophie I. Owen, Faria Hossain, Prakash Ghosh, Rajashree Chowdhury, Md. Sakhawat Hossain, Chris Jewell, Isra Cruz, Albert Picado, Dinesh Mondal and Emily R. Adams

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:111

    Content type: Research

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  8. The feline lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus affects the lower respiratory tract in cats worldwide. As infections may lead to chronic respiratory changes or even death, preventive treatment in cats with outdoor...

    Authors: Katharina Raue, Nadja Rohdich, Daniela Hauck, Eva Zschiesche, Simone Morelli, Donato Traversa, Angela Di Cesare, Rainer K. A. Roepke and Christina Strube

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:110

    Content type: Research

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  9. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Luana Cristina Farnesi, Fabiano Duarte Carvalho, Anna Paula Canuto Lacerda, Luciano Andrade Moreira and Rafaela Vieira Bruno

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:109

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:21

  10. Echinococcosis, which is caused by the larvae of cestodes of the genus Echinococcus, is a parasitic zoonosis that poses a serious threat to the health of humans and animals globally. Albendazole is the drug of ch...

    Authors: Hai-Jun Gao, Xu-Dong Sun, Yan-Ping Luo, Hua-Sheng Pang, Xing-Ming Ma, Ting Zhang, Tao Jing, Wei Hu, Yu-Juan Shen and Jian-Ping Cao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:108

    Content type: Research

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  11. Spotted fever group rickettsiae represent one of the most diverse groups of vector-borne bacteria, with several human pathogenic species showing an emerging trend worldwide. Most species are vectored by ticks ...

    Authors: Ioana A. Matei, Alexandra Corduneanu, Attila D. Sándor, Angela Monica Ionică, Luciana Panait, Zsuzsa Kalmár, Talida Ivan, Ionel Papuc, Cosmina Bouari, Nicodim Fit and Andrei Daniel Mihalca

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:107

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:187

  12. Excretory-secretory (ES) products are crucial in maintaining helminths in the host. Consequently, the proteins of ES are potential vaccine molecules and potential therapeutic agents for autoimmune diseases. Helig...

    Authors: Marta Maruszewska-Cheruiyot, Ludmiła Szewczak, Katarzyna Krawczak-Wójcik, Magdalena Głaczyńska and Katarzyna Donskow-Łysoniewska

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:106

    Content type: Research

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  13. Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus (sensu stricto), is a life-threatening but neglected zoonosis. Glycolytic enzymes are crucial molecules for the survival and devel...

    Authors: Qi Xin, Miaomiao Yuan, Wei Lv, Huanping Li, Xiaoxia Song, Jun Lu and Tao Jing

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:105

    Content type: Research

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  14. Cystic echinococcosis is a parasitic zoonotic disease, which poses a threat to public health and animal husbandry, and causes significant economic losses. Annexins are a family of phospholipid-binding proteins...

    Authors: Hongyu Song, Xue He, Xiaodi Du, Ruiqi Hua, Jing Xu, Ran He, Yue Xie, Xiaobin Gu, Xuerong Peng and Guangyou Yang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:103

    Content type: Research

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  15. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (southern cattle fever tick; SCFT), collectively known as cattle-fever ticks (CFTs), are vectors of protozoal parasites (Babesia bigemin...

    Authors: M. Sofia Agudelo, William E. Grant and Hsiao‑Hsuan Wang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:102

    Content type: Research

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  16. Benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics are widely used to control infections with parasitic nematodes, but BZ resistance is an emerging threat among several nematode species infecting humans and animals. In Sudan, B...

    Authors: Khalid M. Mohammedsalih, Jürgen Krücken, Ahmed Bashar, Fathel-Rahman Juma, Abdalhakaim A. H. Abdalmalaik, Amna Khalafalla, Adam Abakar, Gerald Coles and Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:101

    Content type: Research

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  17. Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is an important Afrotropical and Palearctic vector of disease, transmitting viruses of animal health and economic significance including African horse sickness and bl...

    Authors: Jack Pilgrim, Stefanos Siozios, Matthew Baylis, Gert Venter, Claire Garros and Gregory D. D. Hurst

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:100

    Content type: Short report

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:128

  18. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Pooja Gupta, C. K. Vishnudas, V. V. Robin and Guha Dharmarajan

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:99

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:536

  19. Vectorial transmission is the principal path of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. In Argentina, Triatoma infestans is the principal vector; therefore, vector control is the ...

    Authors: L. Abrahan, M. J. Cavallo and I. Amelotti

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:98

    Content type: Research

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  20. Ethiopia has set the ambitious national targets of eliminating soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and schistosomiasis (SCH) as public health problems by 2020, and breaking their transmission by 2025. This system...

    Authors: Rosie Maddren, Anna Phillips, Alison Ower, Toby Landeryou, Birhan Mengistu, Ufaysa Anjulo, Ewnetu Firdawek, Nebiyu Negussu and Roy Anderson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:97

    Content type: Review

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  21. Belonging to the anopluran family Echinophthiriidae, Echinophthirius horridus, the seal louse, has been reported to parasitise a broad range of representatives of phocid seals. So far, only a few studies have foc...

    Authors: Jörg Hirzmann, David Ebmer, Guillermo J. Sánchez-Contreras, Ana Rubio-García, Gerd Magdowski, Ulrich Gärtner, Anja Taubert and Carlos Hermosilla

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:96

    Content type: Research

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  22. Although Toxocara spp. infection has a worldwide distribution, to our knowledge, no data from birth cohorts have been reported in published studies on the potential for congenital transmission and determinants of...

    Authors: Aida Y. Oviedo-Vera, Irina Chis Ster, Martha E. Chico, Marcia B. Silva, Luis F. Salazar-Garcés, Neuza M. Alcantara-Neves and Philip J. Cooper

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:95

    Content type: Short report

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  23. In the last two decades, recurrent epizootics of bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus have been reported in the western Palearctic region. These viruses affect domestic cattle, sheep, goats and wild rumina...

    Authors: Antoine Mignotte, Claire Garros, Simon Dellicour, Maude Jacquot, Marius Gilbert, Laetitia Gardès, Thomas Balenghien, Maxime Duhayon, Ignace Rakotoarivony, Maïa de Wavrechin and Karine Huber

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:93

    Content type: Research

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  24. Dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika are among the most important emerging infectious vector-borne diseases worldwide. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), increases in cases of dengue and outbreak...

    Authors: Francis Wat’senga Tezzo, Sylvie Fasine, Emile Manzambi Zola, Maria del Carmen Marquetti, Guillaume Binene Mbuka, Gillon Ilombe, Richard Mundeke Takasongo, Nathalie Smitz, Juan Andre Bisset, Wim Van Bortel and Veerle Vanlerberghe

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:92

    Content type: Research

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  25. The Barotse floodplains of the upper Zambezi River and its tributaries are a highly dynamic environment, with seasonal flooding and transhumance presenting a shifting mosaic of potential larval habitat and hum...

    Authors: Dónall Eoin Cross, Chris Thomas, Niall McKeown, Vincent Siaziyu, Amy Healey, Tom Willis, Douglas Singini, Francis Liywalii, Andrew Silumesii, Jacob Sakala, Mark Smith, Mark Macklin, Andy J. Hardy and Paul W. Shaw

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:91

    Content type: Research

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  26. Spots and coloring patterns evaluated quantitatively can be used to discriminate and identify possible cryptic species. Species included in the Triatoma dimidiata (Reduviidae: Triatominae) complex are major disea...

    Authors: Daryl D. Cruz, Dennis Denis, Elizabeth Arellano and Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:90

    Content type: Research

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  27. Fecal examinations in pet cats and dogs are key components of routine veterinary practice; however, their accuracy is influenced by diagnostic methodologies and the experience level of personnel performing the...

    Authors: Yoko Nagamori, Ruth Hall Sedlak, Andrew DeRosa, Aleah Pullins, Travis Cree, Michael Loenser, Benjamin S. Larson, Richard Boyd Smith, Cory Penn and Richard Goldstein

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:89

    Content type: Short report

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  28. Taenia spp. are responsible for a substantial health and economic burden in affected populations. Knowledge of the fate of the eggs of Taenia spp. in the environment and of other factors facilitating the transmis...

    Authors: Famke Jansen, Pierre Dorny, Sarah Gabriël, Veronique Dermauw, Maria Vang Johansen and Chiara Trevisan

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:88

    Content type: Review

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  29. Small non-coding RNAs play critical regulatory roles in post-transcription. However, their characteristics in Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of human sexually transmitted trichomoniasis, still remain ...

    Authors: Zhen-Sheng Wang, Hong-Chang Zhou, Chun-Yan Wei, Zhi-Hua Wang, Xiao Hao, Lian-Hui Zhang, Jing-Zhong Li, Zeng-Lei Wang and Heng Wang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:87

    Content type: Research

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  30. With the rapid development and spread of resistance to insecticides among anopheline malaria vectors, the efficacy of current World Health Organization (WHO)-approved insecticides targeting these vectors is un...

    Authors: Elodie Ekoka, Surina Maharaj, Luisa Nardini, Yael Dahan-Moss and Lizette L. Koekemoer

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:86

    Content type: Review

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  31. Numerous laboratory and fewer field-based studies have found that ixodid ticks develop more quickly and survive better at temperatures between 18 °C and 26 °C and relative humidity (RH) between 75 and 94%. Ixodes...

    Authors: Natasha Bansal, William E. Pomroy, Allen C. G. Heath and Isabel Castro

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:85

    Content type: Research

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  32. Malaria transmission persists despite the scale-up of interventions such as long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Understanding the entomological drivers of transmis...

    Authors: Brian Bartilol, Irene Omedo, Charles Mbogo, Joseph Mwangangi and Martin K. Rono

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:84

    Content type: Review

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  33. The guts of blood-sucking insects host a community of bacteria that can shift dramatically in response to biotic and abiotic factors. Identifying the key factors structuring these microbial communities has imp...

    Authors: Ephantus J. Muturi, Teresia M. Njoroge, Christopher Dunlap and Carla E. Cáceres

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:83

    Content type: Research

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  34. Since the late 1990s, malaria control programmes have relied extensively on mass bednet distribution and indoor residual spraying. Both interventions use pesticides and target mosquitoes coming indoors either ...

    Authors: Amadou Guindo, Patric Stephane Epopa, Sidy Doumbia, Abdoul-Azize Millogo, Brehima Diallo, Franck Adama Yao, Bilkissou Yagoure, Frederic Tripet, Abdoulaye Diabate and Mamadou B. Coulibaly

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:82

    Content type: Research

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  35. Nosema bombycis is a unicellular eukaryotic pathogen of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and is an economic and occupational hazard in the silkworm industry. Because of its long incubation period and horizontal and ver...

    Authors: Shiyi Zheng, Yukang Huang, Hongyun Huang, Bin Yu, Ni Zhou, Junhong Wei, Guoqing Pan, Chunfeng Li and Zeyang Zhou

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:81

    Content type: Research

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  36. Trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma vivax is one of the diseases threatening the health and productivity of livestock in Africa and Latin America. Trypanosoma vivax is mainly transmitted by tsetse flies; however...

    Authors: Eyerusalem Fetene, Samson Leta, Fikru Regassa and Philippe Büscher

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:80

    Content type: Research

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  37. Mosquitoes are vectors for diseases such as dengue, malaria and La Crosse virus that significantly impact the human population. When multiple mosquito species are present, the competition between species may a...

    Authors: Emma Stump, Lauren M. Childs and Melody Walker

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:79

    Content type: Research

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  38. Hammondia hammondi and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related protozoan parasites, but only T. gondii is zoonotic. Both species use felids as definitive hosts and cannot be differentiated by oocyst morphology. In

    Authors: Gereon Schares, Majda Globokar Vrhovec, Mareen Tuschy, Maike Joeres, Andrea Bärwald, Bretislav Koudela, Jitender P. Dubey, Pavlo Maksimov and Franz J. Conraths

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:78

    Content type: Research

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  39. Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with a complex life cycle and a cosmopolitan host range. The asexual part of its life cycle can be perpetually sustained in a variety of intermediate hosts through a comb...

    Authors: Wen Han Tong, Chris Pavey, Ryan O’Handley and Ajai Vyas

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:77

    Content type: Primer

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  40. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak to be a pandemic. As the mosquito season progressed, the understandable concern that mosquitoes c...

    Authors: Claudia Fortuna, Fabrizio Montarsi, Francesco Severini, Giulia Marsili, Luciano Toma, Antonello Amendola, Michela Bertola, Alice Michelutti, Silvia Ravagnan, Gioia Capelli, Giovanni Rezza and Marco Di Luca

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:76

    Content type: Short report

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  41. Mosquito-borne diseases are a global health problem, causing hundreds of thousands of deaths per year. Pathogens are transmitted by mosquitoes feeding on the blood of an infected host and then feeding on a new...

    Authors: Fiona Teltscher, Sophie Bouvaine, Gabriella Gibson, Paul Dyer, Jennifer Guest, Stephen Young and Richard J. Hopkins

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:75

    Content type: Research

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  42. Myanmar commenced a lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination programme in 2000. Whilst the country has made considerable progress since then, a number of districts have demonstrated persistent transmission after ...

    Authors: Benjamin F. R. Dickson, Patricia M. Graves, Ni Ni Aye, Thet Wai Nwe, Tint Wai, San San Win, Myint Shwe, Janet Douglass, Peter Wood, Kinley Wangdi and William J. McBride

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:72

    Content type: Research

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  43. Detection of Dirofilaria immitis, or heartworm, through antigen in sera is the primary means of diagnosing infections in dogs. In recent years, the practice of heat-treating serum prior to antigen testing has dem...

    Authors: Jeff M. Gruntmeir, Nina M. Thompson, Maureen T. Long, Byron L. Blagburn and Heather D. S. Walden

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:71

    Content type: Short report

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  44. Schistosomes are trematode worms that dwell in their definitive host’s blood vessels, where females lay eggs that need to be discharged into the environment with host excreta to maintain their life-cycle. Both...

    Authors: Jean Pierre Kambala Mukendi, Risa Nakamura, Satoshi Uematsu and Shinjiro Hamano

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:70

    Content type: Research

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  45. Cryptosporidiosis is a gastrointestinal disease with global distribution. It has been a reportable disease in Canada since 2000; however, routine molecular surveillance is not conducted. Therefore, sources of ...

    Authors: Rebecca A. Guy, Christine A. Yanta, Pia K. Muchaal, Marisa A. Rankin, Karine Thivierge, Rachel Lau and Andrea K. Boggild

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:69

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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