The compositional landscape of minicircle sequences isolated from active lesions and scars of American cutaneous leishmaniasis
© Rodrigues et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 28 May 2013
Accepted: 2 August 2013
Published: 7 August 2013
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is characterized by cutaneous lesions that heal spontaneously or after specific treatment. This paper reports on the analysis of kDNA minicircle sequences from clinical samples (typical lesions and scars) that were PCR-amplified with specific primers for Leishmania species of the subgenus Viannia.
From 56 clinical isolates we obtained a single amplified fragment (ca. 790 bp), which after cloning and sequencing resulted in 290 minicircle sequences from both active lesions and scars. We aimed to get a compositional profile of these sequences in clinical samples and evaluate the corresponding compositional changes. Sequences were analyzed with the compseq and wordcount (Emboss package) to get the composition of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotides. Additionally, we built a nucleotide dictionary with words of 7, 8, 9 and 10 nucleotides.
This compositional analysis showed that minicircles amplified from active cutaneous lesions and scars have a distinct compositional profile as viewed by nucleotide composition of words up to 10mer. With regard to the most frequent nucleotide words above length 6, there is also a distinct pattern for 7, 8, 9 and 10mer.
These results indicate that minicircle sequences can be monitored upon direct exposure to a selection/stressing environment (e.g. chemical action) by evaluating their nucleotide compositional profile. It might be useful as a molecular tool in research concerning the evolution of infecting Leishmania in both vector and vertebrate hosts.
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania (Viannia) spp., L. (Leishmania) amazonensis/mexicana or L. (L.) infantum, a protozoan parasite which infects the vertebrate host after being bitten by infected phlebotomus insects of the genus Lutzomya. Usually, human infections are either unapparent or display a clinical spectrum ranging from localized, sometimes self-healing cutaneous lesions to severe, mutilating mucocutaneous lesions to diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in the patients . Infections caused by Leishmania (V.) spp. present typical aspects in human tissue that can be distinguished from other forms of leishmaniasis by its chronicity, latency and metastasis, resulting in migrating lesions with potential for mucosal involvement . There is evidence of pathogen persistence after clinical cure of the disease. Leishmania (V.) spp. DNA can be detected in human scars [3–6] suggesting that persistence of parasites is the rule, rather than the exception.
In experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis, it is possible to show the presence of live parasites in certain strains of mice upon clinical cure by chemotherapy [7, 8]. Some immunological and metabolic aspects have been related to the persistence of this parasite [3–6, 9–13]. However, detailed information about parasite persistence and the genotypic nature of Leishmania have not been reported so far. In the nineties, the work of Karlin and Mrázek  demonstrated that the nucleotide composition of a particular species is biased toward some of the sixteen possible dinucleotides. This bias can be viewed as a peculiar genome signature and under certain assumptions the dinucleotide bias might reveal evolutionary distance . Though the methods for nucleotide compositional analysis were developed mainly for nuclear genomes they might be used in any DNA segment as long as there is enough variability in the sequences. That is the case for trypanosomatid mitochondrial DNA, also known as kinetoplast DNA (kDNA). kDNA is composed of two kinds of molecules: large and low-copy number molecules called maxicircles and small, high-copy ones denominated minicircles. The last ones are highly variable in nucleotide composition  and are not easily alignable. Some studies have reported on differences in both the number of classes and frequency of each class in minicircle molecules from several kinetoplastid species [15–23].
In nuclear genomes, heterogeneities are observed for the distribution of AT and GC content . Considering the clinical evolution of Leishmania (V.) spp. infection and its therapeutic practice, a question we might ask is, “What is the association between groups of words from minicircle molecules and the parasite population upon exposure to the drug?” To address this question we used the compositional profile of amplified minicircle sequences as an appropriate tool. We show here the results of such a compositional analysis of Leishmania (V.) spp. minicircle sequences from ACL patients (typical lesions and scars) coming from endemic regions in Pernambuco state, Brazil. We analyzed the composition of dinucleotides to hexanucleotides, as well as the nucleotide words from 7- up to 10mer considered to be the most frequent ones for that particular isolate, leading to a compositional bias dictionary.
Study area and patients
A total of 56 cutaneous biopsy specimens were obtained from two groups of subjects: 29 patients with confirmed ACL and 27 patients clinically cured. Both groups come from the Amaraji Municipality and neighboring regions in Pernambuco state, Brazil, a region where Leishmania (V.) spp. is endemic. The first group was composed of biopsy specimens from patients before treatment, while the second group was obtained from patients clinically cured of ACL after receiving chemotherapy by meglumine antimonite (10 mg/kg/day intramuscularly for 20 days, repeated if necessary). The project was approved by the ethics committee of Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães (CPqAM/FIOCRUZ) (No. 16/01), and all enrolled subjects provided written consent. The definition of a confirmed case in the group of patients clinically cured of ACL was as follows: (i) a previous diagnosis of ACL based on clinical and epidemiological evidence (i.e., the presence of typical lesions, compatible epidemiological history, and clinical response to specific treatment), microscopic smear examination, histopathological examination, isolation by axenic culture, or detection of circulating antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF); (ii) healing of lesions with the presence of scar for at least 6 months; and (iii) the absence of lesions suggestive of active disease or relapse.
Samples were collected by skin-punch biopsy and consisted of 4–6 mm diam. specimens at the border of the lesion under sterile conditions and local anesthesia (3% prilocaine chloridrate). All specimens were stored at −20°C for further processing for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). These samples were collected from 1995 to 2000 in the field or at the outpatient facility of a reference hospital (Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco-UFPE, Recife).
Extraction of DNA and PCR amplification
DNA was purified by using the Genomic Prep Cells and Tissue DNA isolation kit (GE Life Sciences) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Approximately 20 mg of frozen tissue samples were used for each DNA isolation. After purification, the DNA was suspended in 100 μL of TE (10 mM Tris, 1 mM EDTA [pH 8.0]) and stored at −20°C until use. A PCR-based system specific for Leishmania (Viannia) was used with the primers LEIB1 (5′-GGG GTT GGT GTA ATA TAG TGG-3′) and LEIB2 (5′-CTA ATT GTG CAC GGG GAG G-3′) . A 25 μL PCR mixture was prepared containing 10 mmol/L Tris–HCl, 50 mmol/L KCl, 0.1 mg/mL gelatin, 1.5 mmol/L MgCl2, 0.2 mmol/L each dNTP, 25 pmol of each primer, 2.5 U of Taq DNA polymerase (GE Life Sciences), and 2 μL of the purified DNA. The thermal regime consisted of annealing at 65°C for 1 min, extension at 72°C for 1 min, and denaturation at 94°C for 1 min, for 35 cycles. Tubes were heated for 4 min at 94°C before cycling. Several negative controls (no DNA) and positive controls (100 or 10 pg of L. braziliensis genomic DNA [IOC-L-566-MHOM/BR/75/M2903]) were included for every PCR. Amplification was carried out on a Perkin-Elmer model 4800 thermocycler.
The amplified fragments (10 μL) were separated by electrophoresis at 6 V/cm in agarose gels in 1X TAE (40 mM Tris-Acetate, 1 mM EDTA). Ethidium bromide-stained gels were visualized and photographed under UV light. The Leishmania (Viannia)-specific PCR amplifies a 750 bp fragment and is able to detect ca. 10 fg of promastigote genomic DNA . This amplicon is unique to this subgenus and represents a single linearized minicircle.
Cloning and sequencing
The amplified minicircles, as described above, were purified using SephaglasTM BandPrep Kit (GE Life Sciences) and cloned into pCR 4 TOPO TA vector (TOPO TA Cloning Kit for Sequencing (Invitrogen Life Technologies, California, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The TOP10 strain of Escherichia coli (Invitrogen Life Technologies, California, USA) were transformed and 10 recombinant colonies for each sample were selected, the plasmid purified by standard procedures, and further digested with Eco RI to confirm the presence of an insert .
Selected plasmids were further purified with SephaglasTM BandPrep Kit (GE Life Sciences) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Sequencing reactions were carried out with primers T3 (5′–ATT AAC CCT CAC TAA AGG GA–3′), T7 (5′–TAA TAC GAC TCA CTA TAG GG–3′), M13 Forward (5′–GTA AAA CGA CGG CCA G–3′) and M13 Reverse (5′–CAG GAA ACA GCT ATG AC–3′) using the BigDye Terminator v3.1 Cycle Sequencing Kit. Sequencing fragments were purified with EtOH/EDTA precipitation and electrophoresed on a DNA-ABI Prism 3730 automated sequencer (Applied Biosystems).
Minicircle raw sequences were edited and then aligned with MEGA version 3.1 . The composition of the di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotides were obtained with compseq (http://www.emboss.bioinformatics.nl/cgi-bin/emboss/compseq). The most frequent words between seven and ten nucleotides were extracted with Wordcount (http://emboss.bioinformatics.nl/cgi-bin/emboss/wordcount). The nucleotide word clouds were obtained using the word cloud generator at http://worditout.com/. To get the clouds we took into account that nucleotide sequences exhibit composition bias either to AT or GC and a particular nucleotide word may appear at unexpectedly high frequency. Since it is not very informative to put all the nucleotide words in a single cloud we selected only the nucleotide words in the top 10% of the frequency distribution, which includes those of an observed high count. Then, we formulated in text files the lists for words of 7, 8, 9 and 10 bases from the 10th percentile for each minicircle set and submitted them to the Worditout server. Statistics and additional graphics were generated by the statistical package PAST  and OpenOffice calc (http://www.openoffice.org). Nucleotide sequences reported in the paper are available in the GenBankTM database under accession numbers EF618746 to EF619032.
In this study, we analyzed 56 biopsies from patients with ACL. Twenty-nine biopsies (51.8%) met the diagnostic criteria for ACL described above and were therefore considered to be true cases of ACL and 27 (48.2%) out of these patients had scars suggestive of previous cutaneous leishmaniasis. Upon amplification and cloning, we obtained 558 rough sequences from both active lesions and scars. Further analysis by multiple alignments refined this number to the actual 290 non-redundant sequences: 175 (60.3%) from active lesions and 115 (39.7%) from scar lesions. Only minicircle sequences that showed the three conserved blocks (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3) were considered for analysis. The block CSB-3 is the site for the universal minicircle sequence , the 12-mer sequence 5′-GGG GTT GGT GTA A-3′, which has been considered to be the minicircle origin of replication [29, 30].
Multiple alignments of minicircle sequences
Analysis of minicircle groups from ACL (human lesions and scars)
Distribution of nucleotides in ACL
Absolute values of adenine/thymine and cytosine/guanine of minicircle groups from ACL (human lesions and scars)
A + T
C + G
Compositional bias of the di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexanucleotide in L. (V.) braziliensis
Wilcoxon signed rank test on frequency difference between active and scar lesion sequences at level of di, tri and tetranucleotide
Nucleotide words in the range 7–10mer: a cloud view
The minicircle sequences analyzed here were PCR-amplified as being of subgenus Viannia species directly from clinical samples (typical lesions and scars) of patients clinically cured of ACL in regions of endemism in Pernambuco state, Brazil . It has been shown that L. braziliensis is the prevalent species to cause ACL in this region [1, 32]. The specific PCR diagnostic carried out on these samples points to Leishmania (V.) spp. as the implicated species for the infection. Leishmania (V.) spp. DNA can be detected in scars [3–6] suggesting that persistence of parasites is the rule, rather than the exception, in leishmaniasis. As recent studies suggest that clinical cure of ACL is rarely associated with sterile cure , it is important to mention that parasite numbers present in scars is much lower than those in recent human lesions. Notwithstanding, the detection of Leishmania is high for this lesion [5, 6]. We demonstrated here that sequences from either active lesions or scars do not show particular deviation from what has long been known to be the standard compositional bias for New World Leishmania minicircles. The extensive sequence of minicircles from both set offered new approaches to inspect peculiarities of sequence heterogeneity as well as the minicircle length variation from the same sample. This implies that the compositional repertoire of the Leishmania minicircles from clinical samples is dynamically variable and points to an unpredictable number of classes in each cell. Analysis of minicircles obtained from strains representing a unique trypanosomatid species showed that extensive polymorphisms are not uncommon [33–35]. Also, the diversity of Leishmania (V.) spp. populations [16, 36] with their plethora of hosts, is contributing continuously to new sources of pressure on the parasites such as different immunological defenses, hostile environment and physico-chemical changes during the life cycle. Thus, a suitable approach to get information from variable sequences is to build a nucleotide word dictionary, which might be used as a marker for Leishmania spp. samples from endemic areas. To start with the compositional analysis we got the distribution of dinucleotides from both clinical samples. Though slight variation occurs between the two sets, it is not possible to attribute this small effect to an action of the therapeutic drug on minicircle composition. The high frequency of dinucleotides formed by adenines and thymines stems from the biased composition that has been observed in minicircles from New World Leishmania. One of the questions that motivated this work is the shape of dinucleotide distribution upon physical or chemical pressure. Leishmania parasites have been naturally selected to survive in hostile environments, and considering that minicircle molecules are functionally redundant in the kDNA network  we could expect a relevant shift in their composition with the presence of a new pressure element-the drug used in leishmaniasis therapy. The data analysis performed in this work does not corroborate this assumption, and despite the mechanisms promoting the heterogeneity of minicircles, other factors may contribute to this relative compositional stability given the therapeutic chemical pressure. The profile in the composition of tri- up to hexanucleotides clearly shows an increase of variation of bases when increasing the number of nucleotide words, within the limits of the cutoff point. These findings may be related to the heterogeneity of kDNA, most likely to the different classes of minicircles observed in trypanosomatids in general.
In summary, the analysis we presented here is a good approach to the development of a dictionary of nucleotide words based on minicircle sequences, and they might be useful for comparison of segments of Leishmania mitochondrial genome directly from human biological samples without the need for cultivation.
We are grateful to Dr. Frederico Guilherme Coutinho Abath (in memoriam) for his valuable dedication to this study.
This work received financial support from CPqAM/FIOCRUZ and CNPq (PAPES V–403645/2008-5).
- Rodrigues EHG, Brito MEF, Mendonça MG, Werkhäuser RP, Coutinho EM, Wayner VS, Albuquerque MFM, Jardim ML, Abath FGC: Evaluation of PCR for diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an area of endemicity in northeastern Brazil. J Clin Microbiol. 2002, 40: 3572-3576. 10.1128/JCM.40.10.3572-3576.2002.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saravia NG, Weigle K, Segura I, Giannini SH, Pacheco R, Labrada LA, Gonçalves A: Recurrent lesions in human Leishmania braziliensis infection-reactivation or reinfection?. Lancet. 1990, 336: 398-402. 10.1016/0140-6736(90)91945-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guevara P, Rojas E, Gonzalez N, Scorza JV, Anez N, Valera M, Ramírez JL: Presence of Leishmania braziliensis in blood samples from cured patients or at different stages of immunotherapy. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1994, 1: 385-389.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aebischer T: Recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis: a role for persistent parasites?. Parasitol Today. 1994, 10: 25-28.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schubach A, Haddad F, Oliveira-Neto MP, Degrave W, Pirmez C, Grimaldi Júnior G, Fernandes O: Detection of Leishmania DNA by polymerase chain reaction in scars of treated human patients. J Infect Dis. 1998, 178: 911-914. 10.1086/515355.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mendonça MG, Brito MEF, Rodrigues EHG, Bandeira V, Jardim ML, Abath FGC: Persistence of Leishmania parasites in scars after clinical cure of American cutaneous leishmaniasis: is there a sterile cure?. J Infect Dis. 2004, 189: 1018-1023. 10.1086/382135.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aebischer T, Moody SF, Handman E: Persistence of virulent Leishmania major in murine cutaneous leishmaniasis: a possible hazard for the host. Infect Immun. 1993, 61: 220-226.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rossel RA, Duran RJ, Rossel O, Rodriguez AM: Is leishmaniasis ever cured?. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992, 86: 251-253. 10.1016/0035-9203(92)90297-P.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bogdan C, Gessner A, Solbach W, Rollinghoff M: Invasion, control and persistence of Leishmania parasites. Curr Opin Immunol. 1996, 8: 517-525. 10.1016/S0952-7915(96)80040-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Junqueira AC, Degrave W, Brandão A: Minicircle organization and diversity in Trypanosoma cruzi populations. Trends Parasitol. 2005, 21: 270-272. 10.1016/j.pt.2005.04.001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Osorio Y, Gonzalez SJ, Gama VL, Travi BL: Reinfection in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: evaluation of clinical outcomes in the hamster model. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1998, 93: 353-356.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Belkaid Y, Hoffmann KF, Mendez S, Kamhawi S, Udey MC, Wynn TA, Sacks DL: The role of interleukin (IL)-10 in the persistence of Leishmania major in the skin after healing and the therapeutic potential of anti-IL-10 receptor antibody for sterile cure. J Exp Med. 2001, 194: 1497-1506. 10.1084/jem.194.10.1497.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bogdan C, Rollinghoff M: The immune response to Leishmania: mechanisms of parasite control and evasion. Int J Parasitol. 1998, 28: 121-134. 10.1016/S0020-7519(97)00169-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Karlin S, Mrázek J: Compositional differences within and between eukaryotic genomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1997, 94: 10227-10232. 10.1073/pnas.94.19.10227.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brewster S, Barker DC: Analysis of minicircle classes in Leishmania (Viannia) species. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002, 96: 55-63.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen KK, Donelson JE: Sequences of two kinetoplast DNA minicircles of Trypanosoma brucei. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1980, 77: 2445-2449. 10.1073/pnas.77.5.2445.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thiemann OH, Maslov DA, Simpson L: Disruption of RNA editing in Leishmania tarentolae by the loss of minicircle-encoded guide RNA genes. EMBO J. 1994, 13: 5689-5700.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sturm NR, Simpson L: Kinetoplast DNA minicircles encode guide RNAs for editing of cytochrome oxidase subunit III mRNA. Cell. 1990, 61: 879-884. 10.1016/0092-8674(90)90198-N.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Simpson L: The genomic organization of guide RNA genes in kinetoplastid protozoa: several conundrums and their solutions. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1997, 86: 133-141. 10.1016/S0166-6851(97)00037-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shu HH, Stuart K: Mitochondrial transcripts are processed but are not edited normally in Trypanosoma equiperdum (ATCC 30019) which has kDNA sequence deletion and duplication. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994, 22: 1696-1700. 10.1093/nar/22.9.1696.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Steinert M, Van Assel S: Sequence heterogeneity in kinetoplast DNA: reassociation kinetics. Plasmid. 1980, 3: 7-17. 10.1016/S0147-619X(80)90030-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Morel C, Chiari E, Camargo EP, Mattei DM, Roamanha AJ, Simpson L: Strains and clones of Trypanosoma cruzi can be characterized by pattern of restriction endonuclease products of kinetoplast DNA minicircles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1980, 77: 6810-6814. 10.1073/pnas.77.11.6810.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Spithill TW, Grumont RJ: Identification of species, strains and clones of Leishmania by characterization of kinetoplast DNA minicircles. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1984, 12: 217-236. 10.1016/0166-6851(84)90137-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Langford CK, Ullman B, Landfear SM: Leishmania: codon utilization of nuclear genes. Exp Parasitol. 1992, 74: 360-361. 10.1016/0014-4894(92)90161-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- De Bruijn MH, Barker DC: Diagnosis of New World leishmaniasis: specific detection of species of the Leishmania braziliensis complex by amplification of kinetoplast DNA. Acta Trop. 1992, 52: 45-58. 10.1016/0001-706X(92)90006-J.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T: Molecular cloning a laboratory manual. 1989, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory PressGoogle Scholar
- Kumar S, Tamura K, Nei M, MEGA3: Integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment. Brief Bioinform. 2004, 5: 150-163. 10.1093/bib/5.2.150.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hammer O, Harper DA, Ryan PD, PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeont Electr. 2001, 4: 9-Google Scholar
- Ray DS: Conserved sequence blocks in kinetoplast minicircles from diverse species of trypanosomes. Mol Cell Biol. 1989, 9: 1365-1367.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rodriguez N, Rodriguez A, Cardona M, Barrios MA, McCann SH, Barker DC: Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis: a new minicircle class exclusive to this specie isolated from a DNA cosmid library useful for taxonomic purposes. Exp Parasitol. 2000, 94: 143-149. 10.1006/expr.1999.4482.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Siegel S, Castellan N: Estatística não-paramétrica para as ciências do comportamento. 2006, Rio de Janeiro: Artmed EditoraGoogle Scholar
- Brito ME, Andrade MS, Dantas-Torres F, Rodrigues EH, Cavalcanti MP, Almeida AM, Brandão-Filho SP: Cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Brazil: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in State of Pernambuco. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2012, 88: 425-429.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rogers WO, Wirth DF: Generation of sequence diversity in the kinetoplast DNA minicircles of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1988, 30: 1-8. 10.1016/0166-6851(88)90126-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fernandes O, Catanho MP, Segura I, Labrada LA, Derré R, Saravia N, Degrave W: Minicircle variable region probes for characterization of Leishmania (Viannia) species. J Parasitol. 1999, 85: 563-568. 10.2307/3285798.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pita-Pereira D, Lins R, Oliveira MP, Lima RB, Pereira BA, Moreira OC, Brazil RP, Britto C: SYBR Green-based real-time PCR targeting kinetoplast DNA can be used to discriminate between the main etiologic agents of Brazilian cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases. Parasit Vectors. 2012, 12: 1-9.Google Scholar
- Cupolillo E, Brahim LR, Toaldo CB, de Oliveira-Neto MP, Brito ME, Falqueto A, de Farias Naiff M, Grimaldi Júnior G: Genetic polymorphism and molecular epidemiology of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis from different hosts and geographic areas in Brazil. J Clin Microbiol. 2003, 41: 3126-3132. 10.1128/JCM.41.7.3126-3132.2003.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Simpson L, Thiemann OH, Savill NJ, Alfonzo JD, Maslov DA: Evolution of RNA editing in trypanosome mitochondria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000, 97: 6986-6993. 10.1073/pnas.97.13.6986.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.