seasonal questing activity (based on data collected in the Neuchâtel area, Switzerland). In Switzerland, questing ticks may be collected as early as mid-February to early March . In fact, questing I. ricinus ticks are active when the daily maximal temperature has reached 7°C over 5 days . Adults and nymphs usually emerge first, followed by larvae. Questing tick density increases progressively as weather conditions get warmer  until peak density is recorded in spring, usually between April and June . Questing density then decreases gradually due to decreasing numbers of unfed ticks still seeking a host and to increasingly drier weather conditions [29,31], so that I. ricinus ticks rarely quest during summer, except at higher altitudes where the climate is milder [33,34]. In autumn, when favourable conditions of temperature and humidity are back, a second peak of questing ticks may be observed . However, the autumn peak is of lower intensity than the one observed in spring and is absent if weather conditions are unfavourable [29,31,34]. The last questing I. ricinus ticks are usually sampled in October or early November  as ticks return progressively to an inactive state during winter [26,78]. Larvae: green; nymphs: red; adults: blue.