Development and usefulness of an immunochromatographic device to detect antibodies for rapid diagnosis of human gnathostomiasis
© Janwan et al. 2016
Received: 24 December 2015
Accepted: 30 December 2015
Published: 12 January 2016
Human gnathostomiasis is a serious tropical disease, which is often overlooked. There is an urgent need to improve tools to aid the potential diagnosis of the disease in endemic regions. To overcome this, we produced the immunochromatographic test (ICT) kit for a rapid and simple diagnosis of human gnathostomiasis.
The recombinant protein (named rGslic18) was applied to ICT kit as the antigen. The diagnostic value of ICT kit was evaluated using serum samples from parasitologically proven and clinically suspected gnathostomiasis patients, healthy volunteers and patients with other parasitic diseases. The ICT kit exhibited quite high sensitivity (93.75 %) and specificity (97.01 %).
The ICT kit is simple, convenient and easy to implement and expected to provide reliable diagnostic results for human gnathostomiasis. It also will be a promising diagnostic tool not only for large-scale epidemiological surveys in endemic or remote areas where diagnostic facilities are poor but also for a rapid clinical diagnosis in the bedside laboratory.
KeywordsGnathostoma spinigerum Human gnathostomiasis Immunochromatographic test kit Serodiagnosis Recombinant protein
Human gnathostomiasis is a serious food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infections with larval spirurid nematodes Gnathostoma spp. and the disease is regularly found in Asia and the Americas . It is also common in travelers returning from visits to areas endemic to this harmful parasite . Definitive diagnosis for human gnathostomiasis can be made by detecting the larvae migrating out from the human body. However, since direct detection of the parasite is difficult and often unsuccessful, diagnosis of human gnathostomiasis is primarily made by relying upon clinical features, history of eating parasite-contaminated food, elevated blood eosinophilia, and serological outcomes . Here, a recombinant protein produced from a Gnathostoma spinigerum clone (named Gslic18) isolated from G. spinigerum cDNA library, was used as an alternative antigen for the immunochromatographic test (ICT) kit development. The result was analysed and compared with specific IgG antibody detection against the native 24/21 kDa G. spinigerum larval antigen using immunoblotting . This study demonstrated the effectiveness of the ICT kit as a convenient and rapid platform in the diagnosis of human gnathostomiasis that had not yet been reported elsewhere.
Types of human sera examined and diagnostic results of the ICT kit and the immunoblotting using the 24/21 kDa G. spinigerum antigen
Type of serum samples
Number of positive/Total number
Results and discussion
Comparison among ICT kit using rGslic18 and immunoblotting using 24/21 kDa G. spinigerum antigen
Test type and results
This is the first time that the ICT kit with rGslic18 as an antigen was applied for the detection of anti-Gnathostoma antibodies in human sera and the results revealed high sensitivity and specificity. The ICT kit is a fast, simple, easy to implement and reliable as previous reports [7–9]. It has the potential to aid the development of a promising serodiagnostic kit for human gnathostomiasis as a stable mass production system, particularly for screening patients on a massive-scale in endemic areas or clinical diagnosis in the laboratory.
We wish to acknowledge the support of the English consultant Clinic, Research Affair, the Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University and the Khon Kaen University Publication Clinic, Research and Technology Transfer Affairs, Khon Kaen University, for their assistance. This research was supported by a grant from the Higher Education Research Promotion and the National Research University Project of Thailand, Office of the Higher Education Commission, Thailand through the Health Cluster (SHeP-GMS) and the Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University grant number RRU57201. RR was supported by the Thailand Research Fund through the Royal Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program (grant no. PHD/0053/2556). OS was supported by the Postdoctoral Training Program Graduate School and Khon Kaen University (grant no. 58101), Khon Kaen University. PMI and WM were supported by the TRF Senior Research Scholar Grant, Thailand Research Fund grant number RTA5880001. HY was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan (H25 ~ H26-Shinko-Ippan-009) and Research Program on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases from Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (No.15fk0108025h0502).
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