- Open Access
Dextran sulfate inhibits acute Toxoplama gondii infection in pigs
© Kato et al. 2016
- Received: 10 December 2015
- Accepted: 3 March 2016
- Published: 9 March 2016
Toxoplasma gondii is a highly prevalent protozoan that can infect all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Its definitive hosts are Felidae and its intermediate hosts include various other mammals and birds, including pigs. It is found in the meat of livestock which is a major source of human infection. Hence the control of toxoplasmosis in pigs is important for public health. We previously showed that dextran sulfate (DS), especially DS10 (dextran sulfate MW 10 kDa), is effective against T. gondii infection both in vitro and in mice. In this study, we asked whether DS affects T. gondii infection of pigs, one of the main animal sources of toxoplasmosis transmission to humans.
Fourteen-day-old male pigs (n = 10) were infected with T. gondii and then immediately treated with different doses of DS10; clinical, pathological, and immunological analyses were performed 5 days post-infection.
DS10 had an inhibitory effect on toxoplasmosis in pigs. Intravenous injection of DS10 prevented the symptoms of toxoplasmosis and reduced the parasite burden and inflammation induced by T. gondii infection. High-dose DS10 (500 μg per head) caused reversible hepatocellular degeneration of the liver; middle-dose DS10 (50 μg per head) was effective against toxoplasmosis in pigs without causing this side effect.
Our data suggest that middle-dose DS10 led to minimal clinical symptoms of T. gondii infection and caused little hepatocellular degeneration in our pig model, thereby demonstrating its potential as a new treatment for toxoplasmosis. These data should be very beneficial to those interested in the control of toxoplasmosis in pigs.
- Dextran sulfate
- Intermediate host
- Public health
- Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii is a highly prevalent protozoan that can infect all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Its definitive hosts are Felidae and its intermediate hosts include various other mammals and birds, including pigs. In these intermediate hosts, T. gondii has two asexual stages: the tachyzoite stage and the bradyzoite stage. Tachyzoites cause toxoplasmosis in fetuses and immunocompromised patients. Bradyzoites multiply within tissue cysts that are found in the meat of livestock, especially pork and mutton, and they are a major source of human infection . Hence the control of toxoplasmosis in pigs is important for public health.
Pigs acquire T. gondii by ingesting oocysts from a contaminated environment or tissue cysts from infected animals . To date, there have been relatively few studies of T. gondii in pigs and, as a result, there is little information regarding the pathology of pigs infected with T. gondii. One study examined piglets infected with a low virulent cyst-forming strain of T. gondii and analyzed the immunological response to the infection . Another study evaluated the safety of vaccination and the persistence and distribution of the T. gondii stages within tissues following vaccination . Mouse bioassays, histopathology, and PCR have also been used to detect T. gondii infection in tissues from experimentally infected pigs . The pathogenicity in 7-week-old pigs to five different T. gondii strains of various host species origin was compared after intravenous inoculation of tachyzoites in another study . Pigs infected with tachyzoites, tissue cysts, or oocysts showed dose-dependent clinical effects such as loss of appetite, fever, and poor general condition . Another study examined whether vaccination with the RH strain could induce protective immunity to oral challenge with T. gondii oocysts . These researchers also studied the distribution of tissue cysts in porcine tissues, by feeding the oocysts of four strains of T. gondii to pigs .
With regard to the development of anti-Toxoplasma drugs, previous studies have shown that the attachment of Toxoplasma to the host cell is mediated by interactions with sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on the host cell, and that excess soluble GAGs inhibit this attachment to various cell lineages . Monteiro showed that the ability of T. gondii to infect Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells deficient in sialic acids was reduced by 26.9 % compared with wild-type cells, indicating that sialic acid is critical for attachment and invasion of T. gondii . Micronemal proteins (MICs) are released onto the parasite surface before host cell invasion and play important roles in host cell recognition, attachment, and penetration. Structural analysis of TgMIC1 revealed a novel cell-binding motif called the microneme adhesive repeat region (MARR), which provides a specialized structure for glycan discrimination . Carbohydrate microarray analyses have shown that TgMIC13 and TgMIC1 share a preference for α2-3- over α2-6-linked sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine sequences . P104, a PAN/apple domain-containing protein expressed at the apical end of the extracellular parasite, functions as a ligand in the attachment of T. gondii to chondroitin sulfate or other receptors on the host cell, facilitating invasion by the parasite . In our previous study, we assessed the effects of several GAGs on toxoplasmosis and revealed that dextran sulfate MW 10 kDa (DS10) was the most effective in inhibiting the acute infection in vitro. Moreover, DS10 also had an inhibitory effect on T. gondii infection of mice .
In the present study, we examined the pathological condition of pigs infected with T. gondii. The effects of DS10 on Toxoplasma infection of pigs were assessed via host clinical, pathological, and immunological analyses.
Cells and parasites
Vero cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 5 % fetal calf serum (FCS), L-glutamine, penicillin, streptomycin and 0.15 % NaHCO3. Tachyzoites of the wild-type T.gondii RH strain were maintained in monolayers of Vero cells in DMEM supplemented with 1 % FCS, L-glutamine, penicillin, streptomycin and 0.15 % NaHCO3 .
All animal work has been conducted according to the national guidelines of Japan. The protocol was approved by the Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experiments of Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary (Permit Number: 25–26).
Toxoplasma antibody titers were determined using Toxo Check-MT according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Eiken, Tokyo, Japan).
Serum samples for biochemical analysis were examined with a clinical chemistry automated analyzer (Toshiba Medical Systems Co., Tochigi, Japan). Concentrations of total protein, sodium, potassium, chloride, albumin, glucose, cholesterols, aspartate transaminase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen in the serum samples were measured by using specific detection reagents (Denka Seiken, Tokyo, Japan).
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT–PCR)
Organs including spleen, liver, kidney, lungs, lymph nodes, heart and brain were harvested, placed in Trizol Reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) and lysed for RNA and genomic DNA extraction in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Total RNA was isolated by using the ReliaPrep Miniprep System (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) and then reverse transcribed to first-strand cDNA (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) following the manufacturer’s instructions. Parasite burden was determined in genomic DNA samples (adjusted to 50 ng/μl) by using an ABI Prism Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, CA, USA) with SYBR Green (Applied Biosystems) and specific primers . The expression of cytokines was analyzed by means of qRT-PCR with the specific primers listed in the (Additional file 1: Table S1). The primers for qRT-PCR were designed with the Primer Express software (Applied Biosystems). Specific gene expression was normalized to the expression of ubiquitin by using swine β-actin as the housekeeping gene. Relative gene expression was calculated by using the 2−ΔΔCt method.
Pathological analyses of experimental pigs
Collected samples were fixed in 15 % neutral buffered formalin, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 5 μm, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for histological examination. For objective observation, major lesions were counted and the number of lesion per unit area was calculated. The counted number was divided by the tissue area of the organ on a glass slide, which was measured by using image analysis software (BZX_Analyzer, version 18.104.22.168, Keyence Corporation, Osaka, Japan) to obtain the number of foci per unit area. The sections of liver and lung were also subjected to immunohistochemical examination. These examinations were performed using a rabbit polyclonal anti-T gondii antibody (1:50 dilution, Abcam, CA, USA, ab15170) as the primary antibody and the simple stain MAX-PO polymer reagent (Nichirei Bioscience, Tokyo, Japan) after autoclave pretreatment for antigen retrieval (121 °C for 20 min in 0.01 M citrate buffer, pH 6.0). For objective analyses, the number of positive reactions per unit area was calculated. Positive reactions were identified and counted according to the following criteria by two pathologists, who were not part of the live pig experiments or the necropsies and were blinded to the group name and pig ID: independent brown round to oval substance was counted as 1, regardless of its size; macrophages containing fine positive granules were counted as 1, regardless of the amount contained. The number of organisms was then divided by the tissue area of the organ on the glass slide.
Pathological analyses of experimental mice
The tail veins of four mice were injected with 2.5 mg, 250 μg, 25 μg, or 2.5 μg of DS10 or with PBS, respectively, to analyze the toxic effects of intravenous injection of DS10 to animals. Thus, we examined a total 20 mice before performing the pig experiments with DS10. The body weights of the mice were calculated every day until autopsy at 5 days post-injection. The collected samples were subjected to HE staining for histologic examination.
DS10 suppresses the symptoms of toxoplasmosis and reduces parasite burden in organs
To analyze the toxic effects of intravenous DS injection to animals, we performed pathological experiments with 20 mice before proceeding with DS experiments using pigs. We found that mice intravenously administered DS experienced neither significant weight loss nor pathological effects (data not shown). We, therefore, proceeded with the pig experiments.
Next, we performed biochemical analyses of serum samples collected from the pigs on day 5 post-infection to assess the effects of treatment on organ function. Serum levels of GOT, GPT, γGTP and TG (as indictors of liver function) were within the normal ranges of healthy pigs for all of the pigs tested. In contrast, the serum CRE and BUN levels (as indicators of kidney function) were slightly elevated in pigs G and H (data not shown). These pigs exhibited symptoms of toxoplasmosis consistent with the high parasite burden in their livers and kidneys.
Infection, but not treatment with DS, triggers inflammatory responses in organs
Treatment with DS alleviates hepatic and pulmonary lesions caused by T. gondii infection
To gain further insights into the effects of DS on the pathogenesis of T. gondii infection, we performed histological analyses of the pigs’ spleen, liver, kidney, lungs, lymph nodes, heart and brain. These histological analyses revealed hepatic and pulmonary lesions, and follicular reactions in the hilar lymph nodes.
In the lung, alveolar wall thickening due to mononuclear cell infiltration was observed. In the TG-control and DS-L groups, the lesions were moderate and diffuse (Fig. 4g). Moderate to mild or diffuse lesions were focally observed in the DS-M group (Fig. 4h), whereas the lesions were slighter and smaller in the DS-H group (Fig. 4i). Slight bronchitis and bronchocentric infiltration of mononuclear cells into the parenchyma were observed in all of the pigs including the DS-control group.
Infected pigs and pork products are important sources of T. gondii infection for humans and other animals. The discovery and development of effective drugs to treat these infections is therefore particularly important for the pork industry . In the present study, we evaluated the effects of intravenous administration of DS10 to pigs experimentally infected with T. gondii. Treatment with various doses of DS10 was effective in reducing the clinical symptoms and parasite burden in the organs of the infected pigs. These results are consistent with our previous data showing that DS10 inhibits the growth of parasites in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model . One possible explanation for our findings is that DS10 restricted the growth of the parasite in the lungs and thus prevented its spread to other organs. Indeed, previous studies have shown that lung is the first organ that is preferably invaded by T. gondii in experimental infections [16, 17]. Moreover, a related study showed that parasite burden is highest in the brain tissue followed by lungs and muscles in pigs after experimental infection . The absence of parasite burden in the brain tissue in our study probably reflects the date of sampling (5 days post-infection). When we sampled later in the previous experiment, we detected parasites in this tissue.
In this study, we administered DS intravenously, which is not the route of drug administration that is widely utilized in animal husbandry. So, we need additional experiments to determine how effective oral administration would be against infection. Likewise, we only tested the effect of DS on the acute infection. Experiments on chronic infection would be needed when we foresee the real world usage of this treatment.
Our analysis of mRNA cytokine profiles revealed that the up-regulation in gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was consistent with the elevated parasite burden in the lymph nodes and lungs of the pigs. Moreover, low IL-10 gene expression was detected in all studied pigs. In general, experimental infections with T. gondii elicit a dominant Th1 response, characterized by high production of IFN-γ and IL-12 during the acute stage of the infection, and Th2-associated cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-10, which appear relatively late in infection to limit immune pathology [18–20].
In the current study, histopathological lesions were observed in the liver and lungs of all of the T. gondii-infected pigs; multi-focal necrotic foci and inflammatory foci in the liver as well as interstitial pneumonia were observed. These lesions were similar to those previously reported in naturally infected pigs [2, 21, 22]. Generally, experimental T. gondii infection rarely causes histopathological lesions in pigs [3, 5, 7, 9, 23], and only one report has described necrotic or inflammatory lesions of visceral organs . T. gondii parasites were immunohistochemically detected in the liver and lungs, mainly within the lesions. Taken together, our data suggest that infection of juvenile piglets via intravenous administration of T. gondii provides a relevant model for investigating acute phase infection, producing similar pathological lesions to those observed in natural infections. The severity of the hepatic and pulmonary lesions and the amount of detected T. gondii antigen were remarkably different among animals and dependent on the injected dosage of DS10. Severe lesions and high parasite burdens were observed in pigs that received low-dose DS10, but the number of lesions and the burden gradually decreased as the dosage of the drug was increased. These results demonstrate that it is important to dose DS10 appropriately to obtain its inhibitory effect on T. gondii growth in pigs. Moreover, DS10 exhibited its degenerative effects on pig hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that high-dose DS10 may require strict attention to limit its side effects. No inflammatory changes were detected in the colon despite previous reports that oral administration of dextran induces colitis in pigs . Of note, Kim et al.  previously reported that intravenous injection of DS10 does not trigger any signs of colitis. Any side effect of DS10 is likely dependent on the dosage as well as the injection route.
Our study revealed that DS10 is a promising agent for the treatment of toxoplasmosis, although high doses can cause adverse effects on hepatic cells in pigs. Our data suggest that a dose of approximately 0.05 mg of DS10 per average body weight of 4,199 g is an effective dose for swine because it led to minimal clinical symptoms of T. gondii infection and caused little hepatocellular degeneration in our pig model. In this study it is possible to potentially reduce parasite burden and cytokine up-regulation but further work is necessary to identify the drug targets or future inhibitors. These data should be very beneficial to those interested in the control of toxoplasmosis in pigs.
We thank the veterinarians and staff of the Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry & Toxicology for help with the pig infection experiments. This study was supported by grants-in-aid for Young Scientists, Exploratory Research, and Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (3308 and 3407) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Science, Sports, and Technology (MEXT) of Japan, by the Bio-oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution (BRAIN), by the Program to Disseminate Tenure Tracking System and the Adaptable & Seamless Technology Transfer Program through Target-driven R&D (A-STEP) from the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), by the Ito Foundation, and by the Promotion for Young Research Talent and Network from Northern Advancement Center for Science & Technology (NOASTEC).
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Tenter AM, Heckeroth AR, Weiss LM. Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans. Int J Parasitol. 2000;30(12–13):1217–58.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Dubey JP. Toxoplasmosis in pigs - the last 20 years. Vet Parasitol. 2009;164(2–4):89–103.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beverley JK, Henry L. Experimental toxoplasmosis in young piglets. Res Vet Sci. 1978;24(2):136–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pinckney RD, Lindsay DS, Blagburn BL, Boosinger TR, McLaughlin SA, Dubey JP. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of vaccination of nursing pigs with living tachyzoites of two strains of Toxoplasma gondii. J Parasitol. 1994;80(3):438–48.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Garcia JL, Gennari SM, Machado RZ, Navarro IT. Toxoplasma gondii: detection by mouse bioassay, histopathology, and polymerase chain reaction in tissues from experimentally infected pigs. Exp Parasitol. 2006;113(4):267–71.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jungersen G, Jensen L, Riber U, Heegaard PM, Petersen E, Poulsen JS, et al. Pathogenicity of selected Toxoplasma gondii isolates in young pigs. Int J Parasitol. 1999;29(8):1307–19.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wingstrand A, Lind P, Haugegaard J, Henriksen SA, Bille-Hansen V, Sorensen V. Clinical observations, pathology, bioassay in mice and serological response at slaughter in pigs experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Vet Parasitol. 1997;72(2):129–40.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dubey JP, Urban Jr JF, Davis SW. Protective immunity to toxoplasmosis in pigs vaccinated with a nonpersistent strain of Toxoplasma gondii. Am J Vet Res. 1991;52(8):1316–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dubey JP. Long-term persistence of Toxoplasma gondii in tissues of pigs inoculated with T. gondii oocysts and effect of freezing on viability of tissue cysts in pork. Am J Vet Res. 1988;49(6):910–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carruthers VB, Hakansson S, Giddings OK, Sibley LD. Toxoplasma gondii uses sulfated proteoglycans for substrate and host cell attachment. Infect Immun. 2000;68(7):4005–11.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Monteiro VG, Soares CP, de Souza W. Host cell surface sialic acid residues are involved on the process of penetration of Toxoplasma gondii into mammalian cells. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1998;164(2):323–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Blumenschein TM, Friedrich N, Childs RA, Saouros S, Carpenter EP, Campanero-Rhodes MA, et al. Atomic resolution insight into host cell recognition by Toxoplasma gondii. Embo J. 2007;26(11):2808–20.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Friedrich N, Santos JM, Liu Y, Palma AS, Leon E, Saouros S, et al. Members of a novel protein family containing microneme adhesive repeat domains act as sialic acid-binding lectins during host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites. J Biol Chem. 2010;285(3):2064–76.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Gong H, Kobayashi K, Sugi T, Takemae H, Kurokawa H, Horimoto T, et al. A novel PAN/apple domain-containing protein from Toxoplasma gondii: characterization and receptor identification. PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e30169.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ishiwa A, Kobayashi K, Takemae H, Sugi T, Gong H, Recuenco FC, et al. Effects of dextran sulfates on the acute infection and growth stages of Toxoplasma gondii. Parasitol Res. 2013;112(12):4169–76.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Derouin F, Garin YJ. Toxoplasma gondii: blood and tissue kinetics during acute and chronic infections in mice. Exp Parasitol. 1991;73(4):460–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jurankova J, Basso W, Neumayerova H, Balaz V, Janova E, Sidler X, et al. Brain is the predilection site of Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally inoculated pigs as revealed by magnetic capture and real-time PCR. Food Microbiol. 2014;38:167–70.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dawson HD, Beshah E, Nishi S, Solano-Aguilar G, Morimoto M, Zhao A, et al. Localized multigene expression patterns support an evolving Th1/Th2-like paradigm in response to infections with Toxoplasma gondii and Ascaris suum. Infect Immun. 2005;73(2):1116–28.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Lee YH, Channon JY, Matsuura T, Schwartzman JD, Shin DW, Kasper LH. Functional and quantitative analysis of splenic T cell immune responses following oral Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice. Exp Parasitol. 1999;91(3):212–21.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Verhelst D, De Craeye S, Entrican G, Dorny P, Cox E. Parasite distribution and associated immune response during the acute phase of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep. BMC Vet Res. 2014;10:293.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Dubey JP. A review of toxoplasmosis in pigs. Vet Parasitol. 1986;19(3–4):181–223.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gelmetti D, Sironi G, Finazzi M, Gelmini L, Rosignoli C, Cordioli P, et al. Diagnostic investigations of toxoplasmosis in four swine herds. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1999;11(1):87–90.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miranda FJ, Souza DB, Frazao-Teixeira E, Oliveira FC, Melo JC, Mariano CM, et al. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2015;110(1):95–100.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bassaganya-Riera J, Hontecillas R. CLA and n-3 PUFA differentially modulate clinical activity and colonic PPAR-responsive gene expression in a pig model of experimental IBD. Clin Nutr. 2006;25(3):454–65.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim HS, Berstad A. Experimental colitis in animal models. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1992;27(7):529–37.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar