- Open Access
Evaluation of protective efficacy induced by virus-like particles containing a Trichinella spiralis excretory-secretory (ES) protein in mice
© The Author(s). 2016
- Received: 3 March 2016
- Accepted: 22 June 2016
- Published: 4 July 2016
The frequent outbreaks of human trichinellosis globally underscore the need to develop effective vaccine. We hypothesized that a novel vaccine could improve vaccine efficacy against Trichinella spiralis.
In this study, we developed virus-like particles (VLPs) containing the 53 KDa excretory/secretory (ES) protein of T. spiralis and the influenza matrix protein 1 (M1) as a core protein, and investigated the protective efficacy of the VLPs alone or with cholera toxin (CT) in a mouse model.
Intramuscular immunization induced T. spiralis-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibody responses before and after challenge infections in the sera. These antibody responses were significantly enhanced in mice immunized with adjuvanted VLPs. Upon challenge infection, vaccinated mice showed significantly reduced worm burden in the diaphragm. Protective immune responses and efficacy of protection were significantly improved by immunization with VLPs together with CT adjuvant.
Our results are informative for a better understanding of the protective immunity induced by T. spiralis VLPs, and will provide insight into designing safe and effective vaccines.
- Trichinella spiralis
- Virus-like particle
- Cholera toxin
Trichinellosis is a parasitic infection caused by Trichinella spiralis, which is a serious parasitic zoonosis and a globally endemic disease [1–3]. Human infection is commonly the result of eating raw or undercooked meat containing Trichinella larvae. Pork and its products are closely associated with outbreaks of human trichinellosis. The global prevalence of trichinellosis is difficult to evaluate, but as many as 11 million people may be infected. The frequent outbreaks of human trichinellosis globally underscore the need to develop an effective vaccine [4–6]. The development of vaccines would have significant impact towards the ultimate goal of disease elimination [7, 8].
Natural parasite extracts, recombinant protein, synthetic peptides, attenuated phage display and genetic immunization have been used for vaccine studies. Radiation, ultraviolet-attenuated or DNA-plasmid vaccines for Trichinella spiralis were found to be highly protective in experimental animals. However, such vaccines are not well suited for field use [5, 6, 9–11].
Recombinant vaccines based on virus-like particles (VLPs) or nanoparticles have displayed promising safety and efficacy in preclinical and clinical studies . Virus-like particles resemble viruses, but do not contain any viral genetic material. Thus, they do not replicate, having advantages for safety [13–15]. VLPs contain repetitive high density displays of viral surface proteins, which present conformational epitopes that can elicit strong cellular and humoral immune responses .
Immunization with T. spiralis ES protein elicits a robust immune response, and resulted in complete protection against infective larvae . The 53 kDa protein of T. spiralis has been used as an immunomodulatory protein for treating inflammatory disease such as bowel diseases . The T. spiralis 53 kDa protein is reported to be a novel serological marker and vaccine candidate . The 53-kDa recombinant proteins provide early and species-specific antibody responses in mice infected with T. spiralis . However, there is no report on vaccine efficacy of T. spiralis 53 kDa against challenge infection. Thus, we were interested to test the hypothesis that T. spiralis 53 kDa protein in virus-like nanoparticle form could be an important immunogen which could induce humoral and/or cellular immunity.
To the best of our knowledge, in this study for the first time VLPs derived from parasite T. spiralis were produced. These novel VLPs containing T. spiralis 53 kDa protein and influenza matrix M1 as a core protein were evaluated as a potential vaccine. We also investigated the effect of CT as an adjuvant for the VLP vaccine.
Parasite, virus, cells and antibodies
Korean isolate of T. spiralis was obtained from specific pathogen-free female, inbred Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats, aged 8 weeks, maintained by serial oral passage. Influenza virus (A/PR/8/34) was used to infect MDCK cells. Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells were maintained in suspension in serum-free SF900II medium (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, USA) at 27 °C in spinner flasks at a speed of 130 to 140 rpm. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin A (IgA) and G (IgG), IgG1 and IgG2a were purchased from Southern Biotech (Birmingham, USA).
Preparation of T. spiralis antigen
Trichinella spiralis excretory/secretory (ES) product was produced as described previously [20–22]. Larvae of T. spiralis were isolated from rat muscle tissue by artificial digestion and washed. Clean larvae were incubated in a CO2 incubator for 24 h at 37 °C in Petri dish containing RPMI-1640 culture medium without FBS. The culture supernatants were collected by centrifugation. The supernatant was dialyzed and lyophilized. The protein concentration was determined by QuantiPro BCA Assay Kit (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, USA). Trichinella spiralis ES products were identified by SDS-PAGE (Additional file 1: Figure S1) and stored at -70 °C until use.
Construction of rBV expressing T. spiralis (T653K) and influenza M1
Total RNA was extracted from the T. spiralis larvae using RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, USA). The RNA was reverse transcribed to cDNA using the Prime Script 1st strand cDNA synthesis kit according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Takara, Otsu, Japan). The cDNA was used as a template to amplify the complete coding sequence of T653K by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The primers were designed according to the nucleotide sequence of T653K in GenBank (accession number: DQ399914): forward (5′-AAA GAA TTC ACC ATG TTC AGC ATC ACA TTA AA-3′) and reverse (5′-TTA CTC GAG TTA GAA CAA CAA CTG TAG T-3′) with EcoRI and XhoI restriction enzyme sites. The PCR product was inserted into the pFastBac vector (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, USA). For M1 gene cloning, A/PR/8/34 virus was inoculated into MDCK cells and total viral RNA was extracted using an RNeasy Mini kit (Qiagen, Valencia, USA). Reverse transcription (RT) and PCR were performed on extracted viral RNA using the One-Step RT-PCR system (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, USA) with gene specific oligonucleotide primers. The following primer pairs were used forward, M1 (5′- TCC CCC GGG CCA CCA TGA GCC TTC TGA CCG AGG TC -3′); reverse, M1 (5′- TTA CTT CTA GAT TAC TTG AAC CGT TGC ATC TG -3′) with SmaI and XbaI restriction enzyme sites. Following RT-PCR, a cDNA fragment containing the M1 gene was cloned into the pFastBac vector (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, USA). The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli DH5-alpha and transferred into a DH10-Bac. The nucleotide sequences of M1 (accession number: EF467824) and T653K (accession number; DQ399914.1) genes in the pFastBac vector were confirmed by DNA sequencing.
Production of recombinant baculovirus and VLPs
Transfections of DNA containing the above genes were accomplished using cellfectin II (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, USA) with Sf9 cells as recommended by the manufacturer, followed by transformation of pFastBac containing T653K or influenza M1 with white/blue screening. The rBVs were derived by using a Bac-to-Bac expression system (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, USA). To produce VLPs containing T653K and M1, Sf9 cells were co-infected with rBVs expressing T653Kand M1. Cell culture supernatants were collected on day 2 or 3 post-infection, cleared by centrifugation at 6,000 rpm for 30 min at 4 °C to remove cells. VLPs in the supernatants were pelleted by high-speed centrifugation (45,000× g for 30 min). The sedimented particles were resuspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 4 °C overnight and further purified through a 20–30–60 % discontinuous sucrose gradient at 45,000× g for 1 h at 4 °C. The VLP bands were collected and pelleted by high-speed centrifugation (45,000× g for 30 min). VLPs were resuspended in 500 μl phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) overnight at 4 °C and protein concentration was determined using a QuantiPro BCA Assay Kit (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, USA).
Characterization of VLPs
VLPs were characterized by Western blots and electron microscopy. For Western blot analysis, mouse serum was used to probe T653K protein. Serum was from BALB/c mice infected with the T. spiralis Korean isolate. Serum was collected at week 4 after infection. Monoclonal mouse anti-M1 antibody was used to determine M1 protein content. For electron microscopy, negative staining of VLPs was performed followed by transmission electron microscopy (Tecnai G2 spirit), (FEI, Hillsboro, USA).
VLP immunization schedule and challenge infection
Female, BALB/c mice (6–8 week-old) were divided into 4 groups; naïve control, T. spiralis infection control (TS control), T653K VLP and T653K VLP/CT. Mice were intramuscularly immunized with T653K VLPs with or without CT (25 μg VLPs/mouse, 2 μg CT/mouse, 10 mice in each group). All experimental groups were vaccinated at weeks 0 and 4. Four weeks after the last immunization, 10 mice of each group were challenged orally with 100 T. spiralis (Korea isolate) larvae per mouse. Mice were sacrificed 6 weeks after challenge infection, larvae were collected from the mouse diaphragm and counted after the diaphragm was digested with artificial digestion solution (1 % HCl - 1.5 % pepsin). The rate of reduction in larval burden was calculated according to the recovered larvae per gram muscle. Blood was collected from the retro-orbital plexus on week 0, 1, 5, 8 before challenge and on week 1, 4 and 6 after challenge infection. Sera were separated and stored at -20 °C until analyzed for specific antibodies. All animal experiments and husbandry involved in these studies were conducted under the guidelines of the Kyung Hee University IACUC. Kyung Hee IACUC operates under the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (NVRQS) and regulations of the World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH).
Evaluation of humoral immune responses
Sera from experimental mice were used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the levels of IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a against T. spiralis antigen. 96 well flat-immunoplate (SPL) were coated overnight at 4 °C with 100 μl of T. spiralis antigen at a concentration of 4 μg/ml in 0.05 M carbonate bicarbonate buffer (pH 9.6) per well. Serum samples diluted (1:100) in PBST (100 μl/well) were then added in duplicate.
Individual mouse spleens were collected 2.5 months after immunization from the immunized and naïve groups. Single-cell suspensions were prepared from each spleen. Cells were incubated in 96-well flat culture plates for 2 days at 37 °C in the presence of 5 % CO2. Cells in 100 μl of RPMI-1640 were stimulated with 100 μl of 2 μg/ml T. spiralis ES Ag. For the cytokine assay, supernatants of spleen cell cultures were collected from each well by separation and stored at -20 °C until use. OptEIA sets (BD Bioscience, San Jose, CA, USA) were used to determine the concentration of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in culture supernatants following the manufacturer’s procedures.
All parameters were recorded for individuals within all groups. Statistical comparisons of data were carried out using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Paired t-test of PC-SAS 9.3. A P-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant.
Generation of constructs
Production of VLPs
Humoral immune responses induced by immunization with T653k VLPs
Trichinella spiralis-specific antibody response after challenge infection
A VLP-induced protective immune response is different from DNA vaccine or protein vaccine. VLP vaccines are genetically engineered and produced in cell cultures. VLP vaccines contain multiple copies of protein antigens, inducing strong humoral and cellular immune responses . DNA vaccines present endogenously expressed antigens to the immune systems, showing relatively low immunogenicity . Recombinant protein vaccines consist of protein antigens produced in heterologous expression systems, inducing antibody response. Compared to VLP vaccines, DNA vaccine mainly induces cellular immunity. F DNA vaccine derived from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was not able to induce detectable levels of antibody responses . Compared to VLP vaccines, recombinant H5 HA vaccine is less immunogenic, and vaccination even with 5-fold higher dose did not induce protective immunity . Overall, VLPs offer many advantages in safety, immunogenicity and antigen stability. Taken together, VLP vaccines are promising vaccine candidates against different pathogens.
Virus-like particles (VLPs) represent one of the most exciting new vaccine technologies. VLPs do not contain any viral genetic material, and they have significant potential to elicit a strong immune response, without doing any actual harm [25, 26]. The early vaccines (live, inactivated, subunit) are no longer considered as the most appropriate for new vaccine development . Thus in our current study, for the first time, we used baculovirus expression/VLP technology in a parasite nematode to produce parasite VLPs containing T. spiralis T653K and influenza M1 proteins. Our findings provide evidence that T653K VLPs with cholera toxin (CT) or without CT can induce protective immunity against live T. spiralis larval infection. The adjuvanted VLPs vaccine significantly improved humoral responses and protection upon challenge infection compared to VLPs alone.
Trichinella spiralis excretory-secretory (ES) protein has been demonstrated to induce protective immunity against T. spiralis infection. Immunization with T. spiralis ES protein elicited T. spiralis-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibody responses . Vaccination with ES protein microencapsulated in methacrylic acid copolymers elevated the antigen-specific serum IgG1 and IgA antibody responses, inducing Th1/Th2 immune responses that are protective . Recombinant TspSP-1.2 protein derived from T. spiralis serine protease gene and Ts-ES-1 (20 kDa) secreted by T. spiralis induced partial protections, considering it is a potential candidate for vaccine development against T. spiralis infection [28, 29]. These recombinant proteins were produced from an E. coli expression system, and vaccine efficacy was not successful. In the current study, we used T653K derived from T. spiralis ES Ag 53 kDa as a surface protein of VLPs, for which vaccine efficacy has not been studied previously. Our study indicated that vaccination with T. spiralis T653K containing VLPs elicited T. spiralis-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibody responses and partial protection against T. spiralis challenge in mice.
Results shown in the present study indicate that the pattern of IgG1 and IgG2a immune responses is affected by challenge infection. T653K VLPs vaccination induced higher level of T. spiralis-specific IgG2a antibodies before challenge and subsequent challenge infection significantly increased the levels of IgG1 antibodies (Figs. 3, 4). An effective vaccine must direct T-helper cells toward the development of Th1, rather than Th2 responses. Moreover, a humoral response is necessary because specific antibodies limit the multiplication of parasite by killing extracellular parasite, either by activating the complement system or by opsonizing the parasites for phagocytosis and macrophage killing [30–32]. Importantly, in the present study, IgG1 antibodies before challenge and IgG2a antibody after challenge infection were also induced, indicating a Th1/Th2-mixed type of immune response, which is important for protective immunity against T. spiralis infection [33, 34]. Induction of IgG1 antibody responses upon challenge might be necessary since parasite-specific antibodies and the associated Th2 responses have been reported to limit worm establishment and may even play a role in diminishing the effect of challenge infections . Further studies are needed for better understanding of the immune mechanisms affecting the pattern of antibody isotypes induced by vaccination.
Cholera toxin (CT) is known to be a potent adjuvant. CT can induce maturation of dendritic cells and augment the priming of CD4+ T cells and the antigen presentation by dendritic cells and B cells [36–39]. However, the role of CT adjuvant in parasite vaccine fields is unknown. In the present study, for the first time, we investigated protective efficacy in mice immunized with VLPs alone or with CT-adjuvanted VLPs. Cholera toxin (CT) has been widely shown to be effective as a potent mucosal vaccine adjuvant. There is a strong supporting report, in which cholera toxin by nonconventional adjuvant pathway induces protective memory responses after epicutaneous vaccination . In the present study, mice intramuscularly immunized with CT-adjuvanted VLPs showed significantly enhanced T653K VLP-induced T. spiralis-specific immune response. All immunized mice were partially protected against challenge infection with T. spiralis, in which mice immunized with CT-adjuvanted VLPs showed significant decrease in worm burden compared to mice immunized with VLPs alone (Fig. 5), indicating that the adjuvant plays an important role in enhancing the protective efficacy. Mice immunized with CT-adjuvanted VLPs showed significantly improved protection, indicating the use of a safe and effective adjuvant would have a significant impact for developing VLP vaccines. Since a careful selection of adjuvant is important depending on specific vaccine antigens and desired types of protective immunity, further studies are needed for better understanding of the immune mechanisms induced by adjuvants .
Overall, the present studies provide new insight into T. spiralis VLPs-induced protective efficacy. Intramuscular immunization with VLPs alone or with CT elicited a systemic Th1/Th2-mixed type of immune response and produced a partial protection against T. spiralis infection in mice. CT-adjuvanted VLPs showed significantly increased immunogenicity.
CT, cholera toxin; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; ES, excretory/secretory; HRP, Horseradish peroxidase; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; SD’, Sprague–Dawley; SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; VLP, virus-like particle.
We thank Dr. Compans W. Richard for providing great help in improving manuscript.
This work was supported by a grant from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) (NRF-2014R1A2A2A01004899), a grant from the Agri-Bio Industry Technology Development Program (315030-03-1-HD020), IPET, MAFRA, KHIDI, and a grant from the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (HI15C2928).
Availability of data and materials
Data supporting the conclusions of this article are included within the article.
SH carried out the molecular genetic studies, participated in the sequence alignment, prepared VLPs and drafted the manuscript. SS carried out analysis and interpretation of data. DH and AR carried out animal experiment. FQ carried out the experiment design, analysis and interpretation of data and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
All animal experiments and husbandry involved in these studies were conducted under the guidelines of the Kyung Hee University IACUC. Kyung Hee IACUC operates under the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (NVRQS) and regulations of the World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH).
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Murrell KD, Pozio E. Worldwide occurrence and impact of human trichinellosis, 1986–2009. Emerging Infect Dis. 2011;17(12):2194–202.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kurdova-Mintcheva R, Jordanova D, Ivanova M. Human trichinellosis in Bulgaria - epidemiological situation and trends. Vet Parasitol. 2009;159(3):316–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ribicich M, Gamble H, Bolpe J, Scialfa E, Krivokapich S, Cardillo N, et al. Trichinella infection in wild animals from endemic regions of Argentina. Parasitol Res. 2010;107(2):377–80.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim G, Choi M, Kim J, Kang YM, Jeon HJ, Jung Y, et al. An outbreak of trichinellosis with detection of Trichinella larvae in leftover wild boar meat. J Korean Med Sci. 2011;26(12):1630–3.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Pompa-Mera E, Yépez-Mulia L, Ocana-Mondragon A, Garcia-Zepeda E, Ortega-Pierres G, Gonzalez-Bonilla C. Trichinella spiralis: intranasal immunization with attenuated Salmonella enterica carrying a gp43 antigen-derived 30mer epitope elicits protection in BALB/c mice. Exp Parasitol. 2011;129(4):393–401.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang Z, Cui J, Wei H, Han H, Zhang H, Li Y. Vaccination of mice with DNA vaccine induces the immune response and partial protection against T. spiralis infection. Vaccine. 2006;24(8):1205–12.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fang L, Sun L, Yang J, Gu Y, Zhan B, Huang J, et al. Heat shock protein 70 from Trichinella spiralis induces protective immunity in BALB/c mice by activating dendritic cells. Vaccine. 2014;32(35):4412–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liu X, Wang X, Bai X, Liu X, Wu X, Zhao Y, et al. Oral administration with attenuated Salmonella encoding a Trichinella cystatin-like protein elicited host immunity. Exp Parasitol. 2014;141:1–11.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gu Y, Li J, Zhu X, Yang J, Li Q, Liu Z, et al. Trichinella spiralis: characterization of phage-displayed specific epitopes and their protective immunity in BALB/c mice. Exp Parasitol. 2008;118(1):66–74.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McGuire C, Chan WC, Wakelin D. Nasal immunization with homogenate and peptide antigens induces protective immunity against Trichinella spiralis. Infect Immun. 2002;70(12):7149–52.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Liu P, Chi J, Liu RD, Wang M, Jiang P, Liu LN, Long SR, Li LG, Zhang SB, Zhang XZ, Wang ZQ. Protective immunity aginst Trichinella spiralis infection induced by TsNd vaccine in mice. Parasit Vectors. 2015;28(8):185–195.Google Scholar
- Akahata W, Yang Z, Andersen H, Sun S, Holdaway HA, Kong W, et al. A virus-like particle vaccine for epidemic Chikungunya virus protects nonhuman primates against infection. Nat Med. 2010;16(3):334–8.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Adolph KW, Butler PJ. Assembly of a spherical plant virus. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1976;276(943):113–22.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ding Y, Chuan YP, He L, Middelberg AP. Modeling the competition between aggregation and self‐assembly during virus‐like particle processing. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2010;107(3):550–60.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chromy LR, Pipas JM, Garcea RL. Chaperone-mediated in vitro assembly of Polyomavirus capsids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100(18):10477–82.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Quan F, Matsumoto T, Lee J, Timothy O, Lee J, Kim TS, et al. Immunization with Trichinella spiralis Korean isolate larval excretory-secretory antigen induces protection and lymphocyte subset changes in rats. Immunol Invest. 2004;33(1):15–26.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Du L, Tang H, Ma Z, Xu J, Gao W, Chen J, et al. The protective effect of the recombinant 53-kDa protein of Trichinella spiralis on experimental colitis in mice. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56(10):2810–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang L, Wang ZQ, Hu DD, Cui J. Proteomic analysis of Trichinella spiralis muscle larval excretory-secretory proteins recognized by early infection sera. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:139745.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Nagano I, Wu Z, Takahashi Y. Species-specific antibody responses to the recombinant 53-kilodalton excretory and secretory proteins in mice infected with Trichinella spp. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15(3):468–73.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Goyal P, Bolas-Fernandez F, Wakelin D. Immunization of mice against Trichinella spiralis and T. britovi using excretory and secretory antigens. J Helminthol. 1997;71(02):109–12.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Quan F, Matsumoto T, Shin Y, Min Y, Yang H, Othman T, et al. Relationships between IgG, IgM, IgE and resistance to reinfection during the early phase of infection with Clonorchis sinensis in rats. Immunol Invest. 2004;33(1):51–60.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Robinson K, Bellaby T, Wakelin D. Immunity to Trichinella spiralis transferred by serum from vaccinated mice not protected by immunization. Parasite Immunol. 1995;17(2):85–90.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee JS, Kwon Y, Hwang HS, Lee Y, Ko E, Yoo S, et al. Baculovirus-expressed virus-like particle vaccine in combination with DNA encoding the fusion protein confers protection against respiratory syncytial virus. Vaccine. 2014;32(44):5866–74.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Song J, Hossain J, Yoo D, Lipatov AS, Davis CT, Quan F, et al. Protective immunity against H5N1 influenza virus by a single dose vaccination with virus-like particles. Virology. 2010;405(1):165–75.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kang S, Song J, Quan F, Compans RW. Influenza vaccines based on virus-like particles. Virus Res. 2009;143(2):140–6.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Pitoiset F, Vazquez T, Bellier B. Enveloped virus-like particle platforms: vaccines of the future? Expert Rev Vaccines. 2015;14(7):913–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dea-Ayuela MA, Rama-Iñiguez S, Bolas-Fernández F. Vaccination of mice against intestinal Trichinella spiralis infections by oral administration of antigens microencapsulated in methacrilic acid copolymers. Vaccine. 2006;24(15):2772–80.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang B, Wang ZQ, Jin J, Ren HJ, Liu LN, Cui J. Cloning, expression and characterization of a Trichinella spiralis serine protease gene encoding a 35.5 kDa protein. Exp Parasitol. 2013;134(2):148–54.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bi K, Yang J, Wang L, Gu Y, Zhan B, Zhu X. Partially protective immunity induced by a 20 kDa protein secreted by Trichinella spiralis stichocytes. PloS one. 2015;10(8):e0136189.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Johnson LL, Sayles PC. Deficient humoral responses underlie susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii in CD4-deficient mice. Infect Immun. 2002;70(1):185–91.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kang H, Remington JS, Suzuki Y. Decreased resistance of B cell-deficient mice to infection with Toxoplasma gondii despite unimpaired expression of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. J Immunol. 2000;164(5):2629–34.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vercammen M, Scorza T, Bouhdidi A, Beeck K, Carlier Y, Dubremetz JF, et al. Opsonization of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites with nonspecific immunoglobulins promotes their phagocytosis by macrophages and inhibits their proliferation in nonphagocytic cells in tissue culture. Parasite Immunol. 1999;21(11):555–63.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang Y, Zhang Z, Yang J, Chen X, Cui S, Zhu X. Oral vaccination with Ts87 DNA vaccine delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium elicits a protective immune response against Trichinella spiralis larval challenge. Vaccine. 2010;28(15):2735–42.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Deville S, de Pooter A, Aucouturier J, Lainé-Prade V, Cote M, Boireau P, et al. Influence of adjuvant formulation on the induced protection of mice immunized with total soluble antigen of Trichinella spiralis. Vet Parasitol. 2005;132(1):75–80.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Blackwell NM, Else KJ. B cells and antibodies are required for resistance to the parasitic gastrointestinal nematode Trichuris muris. Infect Immun. 2001;69(6):3860–8.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Gagliardi MC, Sallusto F, Marinaro M, Langenkamp A, Lanzavecchia A, De Magistris MT. Cholera toxin induces maturation of human dendritic cells and licences them for Th2 priming. Eur J Immunol. 2000;30(8):2394–403.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lycke N. The mechanism of cholera toxin adjuvanticity. Res Immunol. 1997;148(8):504–20.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Freytag L, Clements J. Mucosal adjuvants. Vaccine. 2005;23(15):1804–13.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guebre-Xabier M, Hammond SA, Epperson DE, Yu J, Ellingsworth L, Glenn GM. Immunostimulant patch containing heat-labile enterotoxin from Escherichia coli enhances immune responses to injected influenza virus vaccine through activation of skin dendritic cells. J Virol. 2003;77(9):5218–25.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Olvera-Gomez I, Hamilton SE, Xiao Z, Guimaraes CP, Ploegh HL, Hogquist KA, et al. Cholera toxin activates nonconventional adjuvant pathways that induce protective CD8 T-cell responses after epicutaneous vaccination. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2012;109(6):2072–7.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Quan F, Ko E, Kwon Y, Joo KH, Compans RW, Kang S. Mucosal adjuvants for influenza virus-like particle vaccine. Viral Immunol. 2013;26(6):385–95.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar