Open Access

A review of the mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of Bangladesh

  • Seth R. Irish1Email author,
  • Hasan Mohammad Al-Amin2,
  • Mohammad Shafiul Alam2 and
  • Ralph E. Harbach3
Parasites & Vectors20169:559

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1848-z

Received: 22 July 2016

Accepted: 13 October 2016

Published: 22 October 2016

Abstract

Background

Diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens remain an important source of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh. To better control the vectors that transmit the agents of disease, and hence the diseases they cause, and to appreciate the diversity of the family Culicidae, it is important to have an up-to-date list of the species present in the country. Original records were collected from a literature review to compile a list of the species recorded in Bangladesh.

Results

Records for 123 species were collected, although some species had only a single record. This is an increase of ten species over the most recent complete list, compiled nearly 30 years ago. Collection records of three additional species are included here: Anopheles pseudowillmori, Armigeres malayi and Mimomyia luzonensis.

Conclusions

While this work constitutes the most complete list of mosquito species collected in Bangladesh, further work is needed to refine this list and understand the distributions of those species within the country. Improved morphological and molecular methods of identification will allow the refinement of this list in years to come.

Keywords

Species listMosquitoesBangladeshCulicidae

Background

Several diseases in Bangladesh are caused by mosquito-borne pathogens. Malaria remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the Chittagong Hill tracts and in the border belt areas [1]. Lymphatic filariasis continues to be a problem, despite multiple rounds of mass drug administration [2]. Dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and chikungunya viruses are also transmitted by mosquitoes in Bangladesh [3]. As knowledge of faunal diversity and vector control is often an important component of disease control, it is important to correctly identify and understand the bionomics of the species involved in transmission.

To this end, previous authors have worked to compile lists of the mosquito species present in Bangladesh, by compiling species records from the country. The mosquitoes of Bangladesh have been recorded in several such lists over the past century. James [4], Covell [5, 6], Christophers [7], Barraud [8] and Puri [9, 10] described the mosquito fauna of British India, from which some records for locations in present-day Bangladesh can be extracted. After the separation of Pakistan and India in 1947, Aslamkhan [11] published checklists for mosquito species, indicating which were found in East Pakistan (Bangladesh). After the independence of Bangladesh in 1971, Ahmed [12] published an updated checklist in 1987, including many new records. More recently, Bashar et al. [13] published a checklist for the Anopheles mosquitoes of Bangladesh, but no comprehensive list of all species of mosquitoes present in the country has been published for nearly 30 years. Over the decades, deforestation and increased agricultural practices may have altered the diversity and abundance of mosquitoes throughout the country [1416]. Therefore, the aim of this work was to produce an updated list of all mosquito species reportedly present in Bangladesh, with information on their collection.

Methods

PubMed and the US Armed Forces Pest Management Board Literature Retrieval Service (before it was terminated), were searched using the terms “mosquito” and “Bangladesh.” Articles found were searched for the descriptions of the original collections of mosquitoes identified to species. Articles only citing another article’s collections (second-hand accounts) were not included. The reference list of collected articles was searched for additional articles. National libraries of Bangladesh were also searched for articles. All articles were entered onto a spreadsheet to facilitate calculation of the number of species and the number of records for each species.

Additionally, one of us (HMA) provided records from studies that included the use of light traps (CDC miniature light trap, model 512, John W. Hock Co., Gainesville, Florida, USA), resting collections and BG-Sentinel traps (Biogents AG, Regensberg, Germany) (publications in preparation). The descriptions of the collection sites are provided in the discussion below.

Results

Records were found for 123 species of Culicidae reported from Bangladesh. The records ranged in date from 1908 to 2016. These species are listed below, alphabetically by genus, subgenus, and species. Aedes species follow the classification provided by Wilkerson et al. [17], whereas all other genera follow the classification provided by the Mosquito Taxonomic Inventory [18]. In accordance with Article 51.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the authorship and date of species names enclosed in parentheses indicate that the species was originally described as a member of a genus other than the one in which it is currently placed, e.g. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) was originally described as Culex aegypti Linnaeus, 1762. The numbers following species names refer to articles where the records were published.

Genus Aedeomyia Theobald, 1901

Subgenus Aedeomyia Theobald, 1901

1. Ad. (Ady.) catastica Knab, 1909 [11, 19]

Genus Aedes Meigen, 1818

Subgenus Aedimorphus Theobald, 1903

2. Ae. (Adm.) caecus (Theobald, 1901) [12, 2022]

3. Ae. (Adm.) pallidostriatus (Theobald, 1907) [12, 20, 21]

4. Ae. (Adm.) punctifemoris (Ludlow, 1921) [12, 2023]

5. Ae. (Adm.) vexans (Meigen, 1830) [12, 19, 24, 25]

Subgenus Christophersiomyia Barraud, 1923

6. Ae. (Chr.) thomsoni (Theobald, 1905) [21]

Subgenus Collessius Reinert, Harbach & Kitching, 2006

7. Ae. (Col.) pseudotaeniatus (Giles, 1901) [26]

Subgenus Dendroskusea Edwards, 1929

8. Ae. (Dsk.) reginae Edwards, 1922 [26]

Subgenus Downsiomyia Vargas, 1950

9. Ae. (Dow.) albolateralis (Theobald, 1908) [27]

10. Ae. (Dow.) niveus (Ludlow, 1903) [12, 24, 28, 29]

Subgenus Edwardsaedes Belkin, 1962

11. Ae. (Edw.) imprimens (Walker, 1861) [30]

Subgenus Fredwardsius Reinert, 2000

12. Ae. (Fre.) vittatus (Bigot, 1861) [26]

Subgenus Hulecoeteomyia Theobald, 1904

13. Ae. (Hul.) chrysolineatus (Theobald, 1907) [12, 20, 28, 31]

Subgenus Kenknightia Reinert, 1990

14. Ae. (Ken.) dissimilis (Leicester, 1908) [12, 28, 32]

Subgenus Mucidus Theobald, 1901

15. Ae. (Muc.) scatophagoides (Theobald, 1901) [12, 20, 21, 24, 27, 31, 33, 34]

Subgenus Neomelaniconion Newstead, 1907

16. Ae. (Neo.) lineatopennis (Ludlow, 1905) [12, 1921, 24, 31, 3537]

Subgenus Petermattinglyius Reinert, Harbach & Kitching, 2009

17. Ae. (Pet.) iyengari Edwards, 1923 [26]

Subgenus Phagomyia Theobald, 1905

18. Ae. (Phg.) assamensis (Theobald, 1908) [11, 12, 21, 24, 2729, 38, 39]

19. Ae. (Phg.) khazani Edwards, 1922 [8, 12, 24, 26, 28, 29]

20. Ae. (Phg.) lophoventralis (Theobald, 1910) [11, 12, 28, 29, 36, 37]

Subgenus Stegomyia Theobald, 1901

21. Ae. (Stg.) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) [12, 25, 26, 28, 34, 36, 37, 4054]

22. Ae. (Stg.) albopictus (Skuse, 1895) [12, 1921, 2428, 31, 36, 37, 40, 42, 4446, 49, 50, 5258]

23. Ae. (Stg.) annandalei (Theobald, 1910) [11, 12, 20, 26, 28]

24. Ae. (Stg.) desmotes (Giles, 1904) [59]

25. Ae. (Stg.) gardnerii imitator (Leicester, 1908) [60]

26. Ae. (Stg.) w-albus (Theobald, 1905) [12, 28]

Genus Anopheles Meigen, 1818

Subgenus Anopheles Meigen, 1818

27. An. (Ano.) aitkenii James, 1903 [12, 13, 21, 6164]

28. An. (Ano.) baileyi Edwards, 1929 [7, 9, 63]

29. An. (Ano.) barbirostris van der Wulp, 1884 (s.l.) [5, 6, 9, 10, 1216, 1921, 24, 31, 3437, 40, 47, 51, 6182]

30. An. (Ano.) barbumbrosus Strickland & Chowdhury, 1927 [83]

31. An. (Ano.) bengalensis Puri, 1930 [12, 34]

32. An. (Ano.) gigas Giles, 1901 [6, 34, 63, 84]

33. An. (Ano.) nigerrimus Giles, 1900 [5, 6, 1215, 1921, 26, 3437, 40, 47, 48, 6164, 66, 68, 69, 72, 73, 82, 85]

34. An. (Ano.) peditaeniatus (Leicester, 1908) [12, 13, 15, 19, 20, 24, 31, 34, 41, 42, 47, 6164, 66, 67, 71, 86]

35. An. (Ano.) umbrosus (Theobald, 1903) [5, 6, 1315, 35, 6164, 68]

Subgenus Cellia Theobald, 1902

36. An. (Cel.) aconitus Dönitz, 1902 [6, 9, 10, 1216, 20, 21, 24, 31, 34, 36, 37, 48, 51, 63, 68, 70, 72, 73, 7578, 8082, 87, 88]

37. An. (Cel.) annularis van der Wulp, 1884 (s.l.) [5, 6, 10, 1216, 1921, 24, 25, 31, 3437, 4042, 45, 51, 6165, 6773, 7578, 8082, 86, 88]

38. An. (Cel.) baimaii Sallum & Peyton, 2005 [1215, 21, 24, 6164, 8183, 87, 8994]

39. An. (Cel.) culicifacies Giles, 1901 (s.l.) [5, 6, 10, 1214, 16, 20, 21, 24, 25, 31, 34, 36, 37, 45, 63, 70, 72, 73, 87]

40. An. (Cel.) fluviatilis James, 1902 (s.l.) [5, 6, 12, 13, 24, 34, 48, 6163, 87]

41. An. (Cel.) jamesii Theobald, 1901 [5, 6, 10, 1216, 20, 24, 31, 34, 36, 37, 47, 48, 6164, 67, 68, 70, 71, 73, 78, 81, 82]

42. An. (Cel.) jeyporiensis James, 1902 [5, 6, 10, 1215, 20, 21, 24, 31, 6164, 68, 70, 73, 78, 81, 82, 87]

43. An. (Cel.) karwari (James, 1903) [6, 9, 1215, 20, 24, 35, 6164, 68, 81, 82]

44. An. (Cel.) kochi Dönitz, 1901 [46, 10, 1215, 24, 34, 35, 6164, 68, 70, 71, 73, 8183, 85, 87]

45. An. (Cel.) maculatus Theobald, 1901 [1215, 24, 34, 6164, 68, 81]

46. An. (Cel.) majidi Young & Majid, 1928 [12, 13, 24, 63]

47. An. (Cel.) minimus Theobald, 1901 (s.l.) [6, 1215, 24, 6164, 68, 70, 77, 78, 80, 82, 87, 95, 96]

48. An. (Cel.) nivipes (Theobald, 1903) [1315, 62, 64]

49. An. (Cel.) pallidus Theobald, 1901 [6, 10, 12, 13, 16, 20, 24, 34, 6164, 70, 72, 73, 77, 80]

50. An. (Cel.) philippinensis Ludlow, 1902 [5, 6, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 20, 24, 31, 34, 35, 6164, 68, 7073, 77, 78, 8082, 87, 93, 95, 97, 98]

51 An. (Cel.) pseudojamesi Strickland & Chowdhury, 1927 [6, 10, 12, 13, 16, 3537, 6264, 7073, 77, 78]

52. An. (Cel.) pseudowillmori (Theobald, 1910) [Al-Amin, in preparation]

53. An. (Cel.) splendidus Koidzumi, 1920 [6, 12, 13, 62, 63, 99]

54. An. (Cel.) stephensi Liston, 1901 [47, 100]

55. An. (Cel.) subpictus Grassi, 1899 (s.l.) [5, 6, 10, 1216, 1921, 24, 27, 31, 3437, 4042, 47, 48, 51, 6172, 7779, 81, 82, 87, 101]

56. An. (Cel.) sundaicus (Rodenwaldt, 1925) (s.l.) [6, 10, 12, 13, 16, 48, 63, 72, 73, 77, 79, 95]

57. An. (Cel.) tessellatus Theobald, 1901 [5, 6, 10, 1216, 19, 20, 24, 34, 36, 37, 6164, 68, 70, 72, 73, 81, 83]

58. An. (Cel.) theobaldi Giles, 1901 [5, 6]

59. An. (Cel.) turkhudi Liston, 1901 [14, 48]

60. An. (Cel.) vagus Dönitz, 1902 [6, 9, 10, 1216, 1921, 2426, 31, 3437, 4042, 47, 48, 51, 6172, 7578, 80, 82, 8688]

61. An. (Cel.) varuna Iyengar, 1924 [6, 10, 1216, 19, 20, 24, 34, 48, 6163, 68, 70, 72, 73, 77, 82, 87]

62. An. (Cel.) willmori (James, 1903) [6, 1215, 24, 6264, 68]

Genus Armigeres Theobald, 1901

Subgenus Armigeres Theobald, 1901

63. Ar. (Arm.) kesseli Ramalingam, 1987 [19]

64. Ar. (Arm.) kuchingensis Edwards, 1915 [12, 19, 20, 24, 28, 3537, 41, 42, 47, 48]

65. Ar. (Arm.) malayi (Theobald, 1901) [Al-Amin, in preparation]

66. Ar. (Arm.) subalbatus (Coquillett, 1898) [12, 1921, 2428, 34, 36, 37, 4042, 44, 45, 50, 51, 55, 65, 66, 86, 102]

67. Ar. (Arm.) theobaldi Barraud, 1934 [103]

Subgenus Leicesteria Theobald, 1904

68. Ar. (Lei.) annulitarsis (Leicester, 1908) [12]

69. Ar. (Lei.) dentatus Barraud, 1927 [12]

70. Ar. (Lei.) digitatus (Edwards, 1914) [12, 24, 31]

71. Ar. (Lei.) flavus (Leicester, 1908) [11, 12, 24, 34, 102]

72 Ar. (Lei.) inchoatus Barraud, 1927 [12]

73. Ar. (Lei.) magnus (Theobald, 1908) [11, 12, 20, 21, 24, 27, 102]

74. Ar. (Lei.) omissus (Edwards, 1914) [12]

Genus Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905

Subgenus Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905

75. Cq. (Coq.) crassipes (van der Wulp, 1881) [12, 19, 20, 24, 27, 31, 48, 104]

76. Cq. (Coq.) ochracea (Theobald, 1903) [12, 104]

Genus Culex Linnaeus, 1758

Subgenus Culex Linnaeus, 1758

77. Cx. (Cux.) annulus Theobald, 1901 [35, 47, 48]

78. Cx. (Cux.) fuscocephala Theobald, 1907 [12, 1921, 2426, 31, 3537, 41, 42, 44, 45, 48, 50, 51, 6567, 86, 105108]

79. Cx. (Cux.) gelidus Theobald, 1901 [12, 1921, 24, 25, 27, 31, 3437, 4042, 50, 51, 55, 6567, 86, 106, 109]

80. Cx. (Cux.) hutchinsoni Barraud, 1924 [12, 19, 34, 35, 47, 48, 50]

81. Cx. (Cux.) mimulus Edwards, 1915 [12, 35, 66, 108, 109]

82. Cx. (Cux.) pseudovishnui Colless, 1957 [12, 19, 20, 34, 108]

83. Cx. (Cux.) quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 [12, 1921, 2428, 31, 3437, 4042, 4448, 50, 51, 55, 57, 6567, 108, 110114]

84. Cx. (Cux.) sitiens Wiedemann, 1828 [27, 34, 47]

85. Cx. (Cux.) theileri Theobald, 1903 [21]

86. Cx. (Cux.) tritaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901 [12, 1921, 24, 25, 31, 3437, 4042, 45, 50, 51, 55, 6567, 86, 108, 109, 115]

87. Cx. (Cux.) vagans Wiedemann, 1828 [21]

88. Cx. (Cux.) vishnui Theobald, 1901 [12, 19, 20, 2427, 31, 34, 35, 41, 42, 50, 65, 67, 83, 86, 108, 109]

89. Cx. (Cux.) whitei Barraud, 1923 [36, 37, 108]

90. Cx. (Cux.) whitmorei (Giles, 1904) [12, 1921, 24, 31, 3437, 86, 108]

Subgenus Culiciomyia Theobald, 1907

91. Cx. (Cui.) fragilis Ludlow, 1903

92. Cx. (Cui.) nigropunctatus Edwards, 1926 [8, 12]

93. Cx. (Cui.) pallidothorax Theobald, 1905 [12, 24, 26, 116]

94. Cx. (Cui.) pullus Theobald, 1905 [116]

Subgenus Eumelanomyia Theobald, 1909

95. Cx. (Eum.) brevipalpis (Giles, 1902) [12, 24, 26, 28, 117]

96. Cx. (Eum.) malayi (Leicester, 1908) [12, 24]

Subgenus Lophoceraomyia Theobald, 1905

97. Cx. (Lop.) minutissimus (Theobald, 1907) [12]

Subgenus Oculeomyia Theobald, 1907

98. Cx. (Ocu.) bitaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901 [12, 1921, 24, 27, 31, 3437, 41, 42, 51, 55, 6567, 86, 108, 109]

99. Cx. (Ocu.) epidesmus (Theobald, 1910) [12, 1921, 24, 31, 34, 35, 47, 48, 108]

100. Cx. (Ocu.) infula Theobald, 1901 [19, 27, 108, 118]

101. Cx. (Ocu.) sinensis Theobald, 1903 [12, 1921, 24, 31, 34, 35, 66, 86]

Genus Ficalbia Theobald, 1903

102. Fi. minima (Theobald, 1901) [8, 12, 27, 33, 34, 36, 37, 119]

Genus Heizmannia Ludlow, 1905

Subgenus Heizmannia Ludlow, 1905

103. Hz. (Hez.) covelli Barraud, 1929 [26]

Genus Lutzia Theobald, 1903

Subgenus Metalutzia Tanaka, 2003

104. Lt. (Mlt.) fuscana (Wiedemann, 1820) [12, 19, 20, 24, 28, 31, 34, 36, 37, 41, 42, 120]

105. Lt. (Mlt.) halifaxii (Theobald, 1903) [12, 34, 83]

Genus Malaya Leicester, 1908

106. Ml. genurostris Leicester, 1908 [8, 12, 20, 24, 28, 121]

107. Ml. jacobsoni (Edwards, 1930) [8]

Genus Mansonia Blanchard, 1901

Subgenus Mansonioides Theobald, 1907

108. Ma. (Mnd.) annulata Leicester, 1908 [19]

109. Ma. (Mnd.) annulifera (Theobald, 1901) [11, 12, 1921, 24, 25, 27, 31, 3437, 41, 42, 45, 50, 65, 67, 104]

110. Ma. (Mnd.) dives (Schiner, 1868) [12, 104]

111. Ma. (Mnd.) indiana Edwards, 1930 [12, 1921, 24, 31, 34, 35, 50, 65]

112. Ma. (Mnd.) uniformis (Theobald, 1901) [12, 1921, 24, 25, 27, 31, 3437, 41, 42, 45, 50, 55, 65, 67, 104]

Genus Mimomyia Theobald, 1903

Subgenus Etorleptiomyia Theobald, 1904

113. Mi. (Eto.) luzonensis (Ludlow, 1905) [Al-Amin, in preparation]

Subgenus Mimomyia Theobald, 1903

114. Mi. (Mim.) chamberlaini Ludlow, 1904 [12, 33, 40, 122]

115. Mi. (Mim.) hybrida (Leicester, 1908) [8, 119]

Genus Orthopodomyia Theobald, 1904

116. Or. anopheloides (Giles, 1903) [26, 123, 124]

Genus Toxorhynchites Theobald, 1901

Subgenus Toxorhynchites Theobald, 1901

117. Tx. (Tox.) bengalensis Rosenberg & Evenhuis, 1985 [125]

118. Tx. (Tox.) splendens (Wiedemann, 1819) [12, 26, 28, 36, 45, 126, 127]

Genus Tripteroides Giles, 1904

Subgenus Rachionotomyia Theobald, 1905

119. Tp. (Rah.) aranoides (Theobald, 1901) [12, 21, 24, 28, 47]

Genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribálzaga, 1891

Subgenus Pseudoficalbia Theobald, 1912

120. Ur. (Pfc.) novobscura Barraud, 1934 [12]

Subgenus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribálzaga, 1891

121. Ur. (Ura.) campestris Leicester, 1908 [12, 20]

122. Ur. (Ura.) rampae Peyton & Klein, 1970 [19]

Genus Verrallina Theobald, 1903

Subgenus Neomacleaya Theobald, 1907

123. Ve. (Nma.) andamanensis (Edwards, 1922) [8, 27, 128]

Discussion

A need for improved knowledge of the mosquito species present in Bangladesh has led to the updated list presented here. In some cases previously known species have been found to be species complexes, while in other cases the names of species have been changed or subspecies elevated to species status. In several cases, new collections have resulted in species representing new country records being added to the list.

Among the listed mosquitoes, Anopheles species complexes that are worthy of note here include the Subpictus, Culicifacies, Sundaicus, Annularis, Barbirostris, Fluviatilis, Maculatus, Minimus, and Dirus Complexes. The Subpictus Complex includes four sibling species (informally designated species A, B, C, and D), which are distinguishable based on morphological, chromosomal, and molecular differences [129, 130]. As of yet, no determination has been made of which species of the Subpictus Complex are present in Bangladesh. Anopheles culicifacies is an important malaria vector in the Indian Sub-continent, but its importance in Bangladesh appears to be limited. The Culicifacies Complex is comprised of species A, B, C, D, and E [131]. Little is known of the species present in Bangladesh, particularly as very few specimens have been found in the past 20 years [22, 63], but recently species B, C, and E were found in Kuhalong, near Bandarban town [14]. The Sundaicus Complex comprises four coastal species: An. sundaicus, An. epiroticus, An. sundaicus D, and An. sundaicus E [132]. While it would appear that An. epiroticus is most likely the species present in coastal areas of Bangladesh, due to the limited geographic provenance of the other species, this awaits confirmation using molecular methods [132]. Anopheles annularis is a complex of two species, A and B [133], which can be distinguished using chromosomal or molecular methods [134]. The Fluviatilis Complex is composed of four sibling species, S, T, U, and V [135], but it is not known which species are present in Bangladesh. The Maculatus Complex (a.k.a. Maculatus Group) consists of nine species, but Anopheles maculatus is comprised of chromosomal forms B and E [136, 137]. Rongnoparut et al. [138] stated that chromosomal form B is found north of 13°N, but further work on the group is necessary to know which members are present in Bangladesh. The Barbirostris Complex is composed of seven formally named species, but it seems more species will be added [139, 140]. Only An. barbirostris (s.l.) has been reported from Bangladesh, but it is clear that more work is needed to know which species of the complex are present in the country. The Minimus Complex includes three species: An. harrisoni, An. minimus and An. yaeyamaensis (known only from Japan). Anopheles minimus (s.l.) has been found in Bangladesh [14], but further work is needed to know if An. harrisoni (previously known as species C) is present in the country [141]. Finally, the Dirus Complex comprises seven species, of which it appears An. baimaii is the species present in Bangladesh [14, 92, 142].

Some of the species included in the most recent previous list published by Ahmed [12] have undergone taxonomic changes. Anopheles gigas var. baileyi was elevated to species status by Harrison et al. [143] and is now known as Anopheles baileyi. Similarly, Anopheles maculatus var. willmori (as willmorei) was restored to species status by Rattanarithikul & Green [144] and is now known as An. willmori. Anopheles pseudojamesi is the current name (senior synonym) of the formerly accepted An. ramsayi [79]. Culex afridi was synonymized with Cx. infula [109]. Culex quinquefasciatus was listed as “Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus” in the list provided by Ahmed, but Cx. quinquefasciatus is now accepted as a distinct species [145, 146]. The species formerly known as Cx. fuscanus and Cx. halifaxii are now included in the genus Lutzia as Lt. fuscana and Lt. halifaxii, respectively [147].

There are a number of species that have only been reported in Bangladesh since the list of Ahmed [12]. Larvae of Ae. gardnerii imitator were collected from a tree hole in a botanical garden in Dhaka during 2004 [60]. Adults of Ar. kesseli were taken in resting collections and light traps in Rajshahi Division [19], and adults of Ar. theobaldi were collected in a forested area in Habiganj district (Sylhet Division) [103]. Culex annulus has been collected in Habiganj and Moulavibazar districts in Sylhet Division, as well as on St. Martin’s Island, and in the Sundarbans [35, 47, 48]. Two adults of Ma. annulata and three of Ur. rampae were collected in light traps in Rajshahi Division [19]. Culex fragilis was collected in resting catches in Patrokhola tea garden, Moulavibazar (Sylhet Division) [35]. Additionally, one of us (HMA) recently identified three species new to Bangladesh, which will be reported in publications currently in preparation. Anopheles pseudowillmori were collected in light traps placed in a room with sleeping people (18:00 to 06:00). Nine specimens were collected in Kuhalong and Rajbila unions of Bandarban district between 2009 and 2012. Three Ar. malayi females were collected in BG-Sentinel traps that were placed indoors in Rajshahi and Chapai Nawabganj districts between November 2014 and September 2015. Mimomyia luzonensis was collected using the same method in Dhaka and Chapai Nawabganj districts, and four specimens were collected between September 2014 and September 2015.

Two species listed in Ahmed [12] are excluded from the list. Ahmed [12] listed Ae. pipersalatus with reference to Barraud [30]. In the older reference, a record is provided for Madhupur in Bengal, attributed to Charles Paiva, an entomologist educated in Calcutta, who then took up a position at the Indian Museum in Calcutta where he worked until his death in 1919 [148]. There is a sub-district called Madhupur near Dhaka in Bangladesh, however, there is also a Madhupur in West Bengal in India. As we could not find any further evidence to which Madhupur was intended, and as no further records of Ae. pipersalatus in Bangladesh were found, we have removed this species from the list of species known to occur in the country. We have also removed the separate listing of An. gigas subspecies simlensis [149], which has been reported only once, from Rangpur [6], as it is represented by An. gigas in the species list.

Armigeres obturbans has been listed in several records, but it appears that this species was regularly confused with the common Ar. subalbatus. Furthermore, Thurman [150] noted that the distribution of Ar. obturbans is limited to Sulawesi, so it seems likely that the records for Ar. obturbans in Bangladesh refer to Ar. subalbatus. We have therefore removed Ar. obturbans from the species list for Bangladesh.

The inclusion of certain species in previous lists was the result of single records. This was the case for Ae. thomsoni, Ae. pseudotaeniatus, Ae. reginae, Ae. albolateralis, Ae. imprimens, Ae. vittatus, Ae. iyengari, Ae. desmotes, Ae. gardnerii imitator, An. barbumbrosus, Ar. kesseli, Ar. theobaldi, Ar. annulitarsis, Ar. dentatus, Ar. inchoatus, Ar. omissus, Cx. fragilis, Cx. theileri, Cx. vagans, Cx. pullus, Cx. minutissimus, Hz. covelli, Ml. jacobsoni, Ma. annulata, Tx. bengalensis, Ur. novobscura, and Ur. rampae. While several of these species represent recent records for Bangladesh, others, such as Ae. pseudotaeniatus, Ae. reginae, Ae. albolateralis, Ae. imprimens, Ae. vittatus, Ae. iyengari, Cx. pullus, Hz. covelli, and Ml. jacobsoni, have not been found in Bangladesh in the past 50 years. Further collections, particularly of culicines, would be helpful in improving our knowledge of the species that are present in the country.

Conclusions

The list provided here is the most complete list compiled since the work of Ahmed [12], nearly 30 years ago. The up-dated list will serve as a basis for the development of identification keys and will hopefully spur on research on the bionomics of these species. These tools will be important for the reduction of diseases in Bangladesh caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

Declarations

Acknowledgements

Not applicable.

Funding

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) is grateful to the Governments of Bangladesh, Canada, Sweden and the UK for providing core/unrestricted support. The publishing costs for this manuscript were paid by the President’s Malaria Initiative (USAID/CDC).

Availability of data and material

Not applicable.

Authors’ contributions

SRI conceived the study; SRI and HMA drafted the manuscript; MSA and REH critically revised the manuscript for intellectual and taxonomic content. SRI is the guarantor of the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Entomology Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(2)
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh (icddr,b)
(3)
Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum

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