Distribution and molecular characteristics of rickettsiae found in ticks across Central Mongolia
- Bazartseren Boldbaatar†1,
- Rui-Ruo Jiang†2,
- Michael E. von Fricken3, 4Email authorView ORCID ID profile,
- Sukhbaatar Lkhagvatseren1,
- Pagbajab Nymadawa5,
- Bekhochir Baigalmaa6,
- Ya-Wei Wang2,
- Benjamin D. Anderson3,
- Jia-Fu Jiang2 and
- Gregory C. Gray3
© The Author(s). 2017
Received: 25 October 2016
Accepted: 12 January 2017
Published: 2 February 2017
Little is known regarding tick-borne diseases in Mongolia, despite having 26% of the population still living nomadic pastoral lifestyles. A total of 1497 adult unfed ticks: 261 Ixodes persulcatus, 795 Dermacentor nuttalli, and 441 Hyalomma asiaticum, were collected from three ecologically distinct regions in Central Mongolia. Tick pools (n = 299) containing ~5 ticks each, were tested for Rickettsia and Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) using nested polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcription-PCR, and quantitative real-time RT-PCR.
Assays yielded pooled prevalence of 92.5% (49/53) and 1.9% (1/53) for pooled I. persulcatus testing positive for “Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae” and TBEV, respectively, while Rickettsia raoultii was found in 72.8% (115/158) of pooled D. nuttalli samples. When calculating a maximum likelihood estimation, an estimated 46.6% (95% CI: 35.2–63.6%) of I. persulcatus ticks in the pooled sample were infected with “Candidatus R. tarasevichiae”.
Both “Candidatus R. tarasevichiae” and R. raoultii are recognized as emerging tick-borne pathogens, with this being one of the first reports of “Candidatus R. tarasevichiae” in Mongolia. Given that “Candidatus R. tarasevichiae” shares the same vector (I. persulcatus) as TBEV, and infections may present with similar symptoms, Mongolian physicians treating suspected cases of TBEV should include “Candidatus R. tarasevichiae” infection in their differential diagnosis and consider prescribing antimicrobial therapy.
KeywordsRickettsia Mongolia Ixodes persulcatus
In recent years we have become increasingly aware of the diversity of pathogens that ticks may transmit to humans or animals [1–5]. Pathogen transmission typically occurs when humans or other animals come into contact with infected ticks, some of which feed indiscriminately on vertebrate hosts. Consequently, occupations or populations that frequently enter tick habitats are at an increased risk of tick-borne disease. This holds true in Mongolia, where pastoral-herders, who make up 26% of the country’s population of 3 million, spend prolonged periods of each day outdoors moving livestock from pasture to pasture. Despite this, little is known about the scope of tick-borne disease in Mongolia. While epidemiological studies examining spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia have been conducted [6–8], few have employed molecular techniques. Several additional studies have examined tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a serious tick disease found in northern Mongolia [9–12]. As a number of rural Mongolians have developed severe illnesses subsequent to tick bites, at the request of the Ministry of Health we conducted a survey for ticks in three ecologically unique regions: forested taiga, central steppe grassland, and the Gobi region of Mongolia. By implementing molecular detection methods, we sought to describe the genetic profiles and distribution of SFG Rickettsia among ticks located in varying ecotones and latitudes, across central Mongolia.
Summary of unfed adult ticks and their environment’s characteristics including elevation above sea level and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), collected in Mongolia, from April 24th to May 16th 2015
Mean NDVI annual amplitude (range)
Elevation above sea level (m)
Sampling occurred between April 24th and May 16th 2015, with 884 unfed ticks collected from the environment by dragging, and an additional 613 unfed ticks removed from livestock returning from pasture. All immature life stages of ticks and engorged or partially blood fed adult ticks were excluded from analysis, as some pathogens are killed by host complement system during tick feeding.
After collection, live ticks were stored at -80 °C in vials separated by genus (based on visual identification of morphological characteristics) and sampling location. A total of 299 pools of five ticks each (±1) were aggregated by tick genus and sampling site. Ticks were then homogenized with sterile mortar and pestle, with homogenate centrifuged in PBS to collect supernatant. Genomic DNA and RNA were manually extracted from tick supernatant using TaKaRa kits (TaKaRa Bio Inc, Shiga, Japan), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Species were then identified using the partial mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene  targeting Ixodes, Hyalomma and Dermacentor tick DNA.
A nested PCR assay was used to amplify the outer membrane protein A (ompA) and citrate synthase (gltA) gene, using the Thermo Scientific DreamTaq Green PCR Master Mix (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, USA). Primer for ompA include Rr190.70p/Rr190.602n (530 bp) outer primers and 190.70-38s1/190.602-384r1 (340 bp) inner primers, which have been used in similar studies [15–18]. Primers for gltA include CS2d/CSEndr outer primers (1300 bp) and RpCS877p/RpCS1258n (381 bp) inner primers . Amplified product was visualized on a 1.2% (w/v) agarose gel using gel electrophoreses, with positive amplicons directly sequenced on a 3730 Sequencer (Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, USA) by a commercial company (Tianyi, Beijing, China). The assembled sequences were compared against the NCBI nt/nr database (PubMed website: https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi) and later submitted to GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, version 5.
RNA from I. persulcatus and D. nuttalli tick pools collected from Selenge and Tov aimags, were also screened for TBEV on the 7500 Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems, Waltham, USA), using a commercial real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) kit provided by Liferiver™, (Shanghai ZJ Bio-Tech Co., LTD, Shanghai, China), in which TBEV RNA was transcribed into cDNA and then amplified, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. A maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) and a minimum infection rate (MIR) were calculated using PooledinRate software (http://www.cdc.gov/westnile/resourcepages/mosqSurvSoft.html) to predict pool infection rates based on number of ticks per pool and infection status of pool.
Results and discussion
Summary of molecular study results from ticks collected in Mongolia April 24th and May 16th 2015
Pathogens detected (%)
"Candidatus R. tarasevichiae"
Using minimum infection rates and maximum likelihood estimations to calculate tick infection rates by species and aimag
Minimum infection rate (95% CI)
Maximum likelihood infection rate (95% CI)
"Candidatus R. tarasevichiae"
Previous entomological surveys focusing on ticks in Mongolia have reported a countrywide distribution of D. nuttalli, while H. asiaticum and I. persulcatus have clearly defined ecological niches on opposite sides of Mongolia , thus influencing the geographical distribution of species-specific tick-borne diseases. Living in close proximity to coniferous regions in the northern aimags of Mongolia likely remains a significant risk factor for exposure to diseases transmitted by I. persulcatus hard ticks [7, 11, 12, 19, 20, 24–26]. Rickettsia raoultii detection among D. nuttalli ticks were observed in all five sampling districts, suggesting a wider distribution of disease, even extending into China as indicated by other reports [21, 27]. These findings expand upon previous findings which described R. raoultii as the predominant SFG Rickettsia infection found in 179 D. nuttalli ticks collected in four northern Mongolian provinces .
The presence of “Candidatus R. tarasevichiae” in ticks should be of concern, given that the ompA and gltA sequences from this study shared 100% identity with severely ill cases of “Candidatus R. tarasevichiae” infection that were recently described [15, 22]. To date there has only been one other study that has reported evidence of “Candidatus R. tarasevichiae” in Mongolia . While little is known about the full clinical spectrum of this disease, some patients in China infected with “Candidatus R. tarasevichiae” presented with meningitis-like symptoms that are atypical to SFG rickettsiosis, resulting in initial misdiagnosis. This may prove problematic in Mongolia, where TBEV infections commonly presents with fever and meningitis-like symptoms, and is considered a high risk disease in Selenge. However, our analysis of ticks in this region indicated only one positive I. persulcatus pool for TBEV (1.9%), which matches similar reports of TBEV from other studies in this region [11, 19]. This is in contrast to the 92.5% positive pool detection prevalence or 46.6% tick infection rate based on MLE, of “Candidatus R. tarasevichiae” from the same tick pools.
Future studies are needed to determine if “Candidatus R. tarasevichiae” or R. raoultii are causing clinical disease in Mongolia. Until then, both Mongolian nationals and foreign travellers who visit the countryside during late spring and summer, should take additional precautions to prevent exposure to ticks and be aware of the risks they pose. Mongolian physicians treating suspected cases of TBEV should include “Candidatus R. tarasevichiae” infection in their differential diagnosis and consider prescribing antimicrobial therapy.
This study was made possible due to the assistance and support provided by the National Center for Zoonotic Diseases (NCZD), the Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology (BIME), and the Mongolian Academy of Medical Sciences (MAMS). We thank Sophia Papageorgiou, for her early contributions to this study and Dr. Enkhamgalan for her ongoing administrative support.
Funding for this work was provided by the National Key Technology Support Program of China (JF Jiang PI) and by the National Institutes of Health, Fogarty International Center grant, D43TW009373, “One Health Innovation Fellowships for Zoonotic Disease Research in Mongolia” (GC Gray PI).
Availability of data and materials
Sequences were submitted to the GenBank database under accession numbers KU361212–KU361217.
Study design: BB, SL, PN and GCG; sample collection: BB and SL; Lab analysis: RJ, BB, MVF, BB, YW and JJ; manuscript preparation: MV, RJ, BA and GCG. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Dantas-Torres F, Chomel BB, Otranto D. Ticks and tick-borne diseases: a one health perspective. Trends Parasitol. 2012;28(10):437–46.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pfäffle M, Littwin N, Muders SV, Petney TN. The ecology of tick-borne diseases. Int J Parasitol. 2013;43(12–13):1059–77.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Parola P, Paddock CD, Socolovschi C, Labruna MB, Mediannikov O, Kernif T, et al. Update on tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: a geographic approach. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2013;26(4):657–702.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Fang LQ, Liu K, Li XL, Liang S, Yang Y, Yao HW, et al. Emerging tick-borne infections in mainland China: an increasing public health threat. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15(12):1467–79.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Eremeeva ME, Dasch GA. Challenges posed by tick-borne rickettsiae: eco-epidemiology and public health implications. Front Public Health. 2015;3:55.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Lewin MR, Bouyer DH, Walker DH, Musher DM. Rickettsia sibirica infection in members of scientific expeditions to northern Asia. Lancet. 2003;362(9391):1201–2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Speck S, Derschum H, Damdindorj T, Dashdavaa O, Jiang J, Kaysser P, et al. Rickettsia raoultii, the predominant Rickettsia found in Mongolian Dermacentor nuttalli. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2012;3(4):227–31.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Anu D, Gill BC, Lee SE, Hong SH, Sh CH, Lee WJ, et al. Molecular detection of Rickettsia species in some ticks in Mongolia. Mongolian J Infect Dis. 2015;4(63):3–6.Google Scholar
- Hayasaka D, Ivanov L, Leonova GN, Goto A, Yoshii K, Mizutani T, et al. Distribution and characterization of tick-borne encephalitis viruses from Siberia and far-eastern Asia. J Gen Virol. 2001;82(6):1319–28.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leonova GN, Maystrovskaya OS, Kondratov IG, Takashima I, Belikov SI. The nature of replication of tick-borne encephalitis virus strains isolated from residents of the Russian far east with inapparent and clinical forms of infection. Virus Res. 2014;189:34–42.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Muto M, Bazartseren B, Tsevel B, Dashzevge E, Yoshii K, Kariwa H. Isolation and characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Ixodes persulcatus in Mongolia in 2012. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2015;6(5):623–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Walder G, Lkhamsuren E, Shagdar A, Bataa J, Batmunkh T, Orth D, et al. Serological evidence for tick-borne encephalitis, borreliosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Mongolia. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296:69–75.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hay SI, Tatem AJ, Graham AJ, Goetz SJ, Rogers DJ. Global environmental data for mapping infectious disease distribution. Adv Parasitol. 2006;62:37–77.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Black WC, Piesman J. Phylogeny of hard- and soft-tick taxa (Acari: Ixodida) based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1994;91(21):10034–8.Google Scholar
- Jia N, Zheng YC, Jiang JF, Ma L, Cao WC. Human infection with Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(12):1178–80.Google Scholar
- Mediannikov OY, Sidelnikov Y, Ivanov L, Mokretsova E, Fournier PE, Tarasevich I, et al. Acute tick-borne rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia heilongjiangensis in the Russian far east. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(5):810–7.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Pacheco RC, Moraes-Filho J, Marcili A, Richtzenhain LJ, Szabó MPJ, Catroxo MHB, et al. Rickettsia monteiroi sp. nov., infecting the tick Amblyomma incisum in Brazil. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77(15):5207–11.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Regnery RL, Spruill CL, Plikaytis BD. Genotypic identification of rickettsiae and estimation of intraspecies sequence divergence for portions of two rickettsial genes. J Bacteriol. 1991;173(5):1576–89.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Frey S, Mossbrugger I, Altantuul D, Battsetseg J, Davaadorj R, Tserennorov D, et al. Isolation, preliminary characterization, and full-genome analyses of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Mongolia. Virus Genes. 2012;45(3):413–25.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Javkhlan G, Enkhtaivan B, Baigal B, Myagmarsuren P, Battur B, Battsetseg B. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia. West Pac Surveill Response J. 2014;5(1):21–4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jia N, Zheng YC, Ma L, Huo QB, Ni XB, Jiang BG, et al. Human infections with Rickettsia raoultii, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):866–8.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Liu W, Li H, Lu QB, Cui N, Yang ZD, Hu JG, et al. Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae infection in eastern Central China: a case series. Ann Intern Med. 2016;164(10):641–8.Google Scholar
- Dash M, Biambaa B, Neronov V. The ixodid tick fauna of the Mongolian People's Republic. I. The species distribution. Med Parazitol (Mosk). 1988;(3):37–42.Google Scholar
- Masuzawa T, Masuda S, Fukui T, Okamoto Y, Bataa J, Oikawa Y, et al. PCR detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Mongolia. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2014;67(1):47–9.Google Scholar
- Scholz HC, Margos G, Derschum H, Speck S, Tserennorov D, Erdenebat N, et al. High prevalence of genetically diverse Borrelia bavariensis-like strains in Ixodes persulcatus from Selenge Aimag, Mongolia. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013;4(1–2):89–92.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tuvshintulga B, Sivakumar T, Battsetseg B, Narantsatsaral SO, Enkhtaivan B, Battur B, et al. The PCR detection and phylogenetic characterization of Babesia microti in questing ticks in Mongolia. Parasitol Int. 2015;64(6):527–32.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wen J, Jiao D, Wang JH, Yao DH, Liu ZX, Zhao G, et al. Rickettsia raoultii, the predominant Rickettsia found in Dermacentor silvarum ticks in China–Russia border areas. Exp Appl Acarol. 2014;63(4):579–85.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar