Isolation and identification of culturable bacteria from wild Anopheles culicifacies, a first step in a paratransgenesis approach
© Chavshin et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 13 August 2014
Accepted: 17 August 2014
Published: 4 September 2014
Due to the effect of midgut bacteria on proliferation of parasites and their potential as paratransgenesis tools, their identification in malaria vector mosquitoes is important. Anopheles culicifacies s.l. is one of the main malaria vectors in Asia; however, its midgut microbiota remains un-studied. This work was primarily designed to isolate potential candidates for use in a paratransgenesis approach, but also to give a picture of the midgut microbiota of wild-caught An. culicifacies larvae and adults from the southeast corner of Iran, which has the highest malaria endemicity in the country.
A total of 68 larvae and 34 adult females (newly eclosed and older) from three different biotopes in Iran were analyzed for their midgut microflora. The mosquitoes had their midgut bacterial contents plated on three different culture media (brain heart agar, nutrient agar and blood agar) yielding 57 bacterial isolates. The 16S rRNA genes of the isolates were sequence analyzed for species designation, which then was confirmed by biochemical analysis.
A total of twelve bacterial genera were identified: Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Bacillus, Chryseobacterium, Delftia, Exiguobacterium, Kurthia, Microbacterium, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Thorsellia and Variovorax. In older females, only Gram-negative bacteria were found, whereas larvae and newly-eclosed adults also harbored Gram-positive bacteria. The diversity of isolates also varied between sampling sites and mosquito stages, with the largest number of genera found in the Anguri district and in larvae, respectively. Pseudomonas was the most common genus retrieved from all sampling sites, and in both larvae and adults, suggesting a potential transstadial passage of these bacteria. Interestingly, identical 16S sequences of Pseudomonas were found in mosquitoes originating from different habitats at least 45 km apart, which could suggest that these bacteria have been adapted to the mosquitoes.
The study of vector mosquito microbiota has recently gathered increased interest because of the potential influence on vector competence. By adding data from a hitherto uncharacterized malaria mosquito, a better picture of gut flora in vector mosquitoes was obtained. Furthermore, some species of the predominant genus Pseudomonas will be evaluated for the selection of a paratransgenesis candidate.
Vector-borne diseases cause health problems in several parts of the world and among them malaria is the most important with almost 700,000 deaths annually . Malaria control programs focused on mosquito vectors have reduced mortality and morbidity, but emerging insecticide-resistant vectors and environmental issues related to application of pesticides have necessitated development of new control strategies with less environmental impacts/damage and higher efficacy [2, 3].
One of the control approaches under development is paratransgenesis, which has been defined as using symbiotic organisms (such as bacteria) to deliver anti-parasitic effector molecules to wild vector populations . Initial steps of developing paratransgenesis against malaria have been taken in laboratory experiments on An. gambiae mosquitoes. In an early study, a single-chain antibody targeting Plasmodium berghei ookinete Pbs21 was linked to the lytic peptide Shiva-1 and expressed in Escherichia coli, which resulted in 95.6% transmission blockage . More recently, it was shown that engineered Pantoea agglomerans bacteria isolated from mosquitoes inhibited development of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei by up to 98% .
In mosquitoes, obligate symbionts are yet to be found; therefore, a first step in paratransgenesis is to identify the normal midgut microbiota of mosquitoes and to isolate candidates for further modification [7, 8]. So far, a limited number of studies have been carried out on the microbiota of Anopheles mosquitoes . The studied species include: laboratory-reared Anopheles stephensi, An. gambiae, and An. albimanus, field-collected An. albimanus from southern Mexico , field-collected An. gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and An. funestus from western Kenya , field-collected An. darlingi from Brazil , laboratory-reared and wild-caught An. stephensi from India , semi-field collected An. gambiae from Kenya , field-collected An. maculipennis and An. stephensi from Iran , and field-collected An. stephensi from Iran .
An. culicifacies Giles is one of the main malaria vectors in the tropical parts of South and Southwest Asia [18–23], where it transmits both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. In this study, culturable midgut bacteria isolated from wild-caught An. culicifacies in southeastern Iran are identified using 16S rRNA sequence analysis with the aim of selecting potential candidates for paratransgenesis.
Prior to the approval of all projects by the Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), they are reviewed and endorsed by the ethical committee of the TUMS. Mosquito collection was carried out from private dwellings. At least one week prior to any mosquito collection, the owners were informed by the Local Health System officers. The research and its objectives were explained by Ali Reza Chavshin (ARC), to residents. Owners of the land (for larval collection) and dwellings (for adult mosquito collection) gave permission to conduct the study on these sites. After their permission, the samples were collected at an agreed date and time. The whole process was coordinated, managed and documented by the “Local manager of malaria control program” and “Local Health System officer” in the study areas and signed by ARC. Also it is declared that the collected species is not endangered or protected in the area of investigation.
Field collection of An. culicifacies and isolation of midgut bacteria
The geographical and ecological properties of the sampling sites
27° 12' 27.94"
60° 39' 54.42"
26° 40' 51.24"
61° 12' 47.99"
Palm and fruit trees
27° 7' 46.82"
60° 52' 32.10"
Rice field and fruit trees
A standard dipping technique was used for larval sample collection (350 ml dipper). Adult mosquitoes were collected by aspiration from the walls and the roofs of dwellings and pit shelters where adults normally rest after feeding . The live specimens were transferred to the laboratory of Iranshahr, National Institute of Health Research (NIHR). All collected samples were identified to species level using standard morphological keys . In this part of Iran, An. culicifacies subspecies A is the most abundant . Among the identified species, the An. culicifacies s.l. were separated and analyzed for midgut microbiota. Specimens analyzed for midgut microbiota were from three sources: 1) wild-caught females, 2) wild-caught fourth instar larvae, and 3) newly emerged female adults (immediately dissected after emergence from pupa reared from a subset of the larvae in 2).
Preparation, sterilization and dissection of specimens were done according to a previously described method . Obtained midguts were mashed and suspended in 500 μL of Brain Heart Infusion (BHI). A 100 μL aliquot of the contents was serially diluted up to 10-6 and plated onto different media: 1) Brain Heart agar (BHA), 2) Nutrient agar (NA), and 3) Blood agar (BA) (Merck, Germany) and incubated at 28 ± 2°C for 24-48 hours. The sterility of all reagents was checked and controls for the efficiency of sterilization were treated like the other samples. Continuous sub-culture of every grown bacterial colony was performed in order to isolate single purified colonies of the bacteria. The single colonies of the bacteria were later used for DNA extraction and PCR, and biochemical investigations.
DNA extraction, 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing
Each purified bacterial colony was subjected to genomic DNA extraction using the QIAGEN DNeasy Kit (Qiagen, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The 16S rRNA universal primers 16suF 5′-GAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG-3′ and 16suR 5′-GTTACCTTGTTACGACTT-3′  were used to amplify about 1500 bp long sequences. The PCR program had an initial denaturation at 94°C for 10 min, followed by 35 cycles of denaturation at 95°C for 30 s, annealing at 56.5°C for 40 s, and extension at 72°C for 30 s, followed by a final extension at 72°C for 8 min. All amplicons were sent for sequencing to SeqLab (Germany). The Mallard program (http://www.bioinformatics-toolkit.org) was used for all acquired sequences to check the presence of probable chimeric sequences and the specimens with suspicious sequences were removed from the data set. The resultant sequences were compared to the data-bases of the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP II; Michigan State University, http://rdp.cme.msu.edu) and the GenBank (http//:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BLAST) for confident sequence analysis and their seq-match and sequences similarity check tools were used.
The MEGA5.05  software was used for phylogenetic analysis and tree construction. Phylogenetic trees were built using Maximum Likelihood (ML) based on the Tamura 3-parameter model  (1000 bootstrap replicates) analyses.
The number of purified colonies from midguts of An. culicifacies in relation to the culture media and life stage of mosquitoes
Life stage of dissected An. culicifacies
Number of purified colonies
Newly emerged adulta
Newly emerged adulta
Number of Gram-negative and Gram-positive isolates in different mosquito life stages and areas
Newly emerged adulta
The isolated genera of bacteria from the midgut of An. culicifacies in relation to mosquito life stage and sampling locations
Newly emerged adults
Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus
Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Bacillus, Chryseobacterium, Delftia, Exiguobacterium, Pseudomonas, Thorsellia, Variovorax
Aeromonas, Kurthia, Microbacterium, Pseudomonas
Identification of gut bacteria in vector mosquitoes has received notable attention since recent studies suggest that the composition of the vector gut microbiota affects the outcome of mosquito infection with Plasmodium parasites [34, 35]. This corroborates earlier results, for example that some bacteria have a natural anti-Plasmodium effect [10, 11, 36]. Although a number of studies have been carried out to identify the bacterial microbiota of Anopheles mosquitoes, several important vectors remain un-studied. Among those was An. culicifacies, which has been investigated in the current study, and from which aerobic midgut bacteria have been isolated and identified. Strikingly, as seen by the lack of branch length differences between the isolates in Figure 2, many are very similar despite coming from different stages and different areas. This suggests that the bacteria acquired by An. culicifacies is not a random selection, but instead points to possible co-adaptation between bacteria and mosquitoes and/or their breeding waters.
Albeit the number of isolates in this study is moderate, the data suggest that Gram-negative bacteria dominate the flora of An. culicifacies (Table 3). This agrees with earlier results from culture-based studies on An. stephensi and An. maculipennis in Iran  and An. gambiae and An. funestus in Kenya and Mali , and also data from sequence-based studies on An. darlingi in Brazil  and An. gambiae in Kenya  all showing predominance for Gram-negative bacteria. In Wang et al. , the proportion of Gram-negative bacteria increases from larvae to adults, similar to what we see for An. culicifacies.
Comparing the results of this study with other similar studies showed that some bacteria are common among several important vectors. For instance the genus Thorsellia, which was isolated from An. arabiensis and An. stephensi and also found in An. gambiae s.l. [15, 38], has now been identified in An. culicifacies (this study). In two different Kenyan populations of An. gambiae mosquitoes, Thorsellia was the dominant genus [15, 38]. Briones et al.  consistently isolated T. anophelis from the water surface micro-layer (SML), i.e., where Anopheles larvae feed, as well as in 40% of the adults, while Wang et al.  found that almost 70% of the bacteria in young adults belonged to the Thorsellia genus. Thorsellia is adapted to a life in mosquitoes with high tolerance for the alkaline conditions found in the larvae and with increased growth rates in blood medium . Thorsellia has only been found in vector mosquitoes and their breeding waters, and appears to be a unique genus of bacteria only distantly related to other members of gamma-proteobacteria .
Another common bacterial genus is Pseudomonas, which has been found among several mosquito vectors in Asia and the Americas [11, 13, 14, 17, 36]; however, a recent study found Pseudomonas only at a low level in Kenyan mosquitoes . In this study, we identified Pseudomonas as the most frequently isolated bacteria from An. culicifacies. The same finding was made previously in An. stephensi midguts . It should be noted that although Pseudomonas is the most frequently isolated species, other non-culturable species may be important constituents of the midgut microbiota in An. culicifacies. However, even in studies on mosquito gut flora mainly using PCR-based methods for identification, those bacteria possible to grow under laboratory conditions dominate the gut flora [13, 15, 40]. The high frequency of Pseudomonas isolates is promising for a paratransgenesis approach also because of its possibility to grow in cell-free and ordinary culture media and suitability for genetic transformation . However, characteristics such as transstadial transmission, non-pathogenicity, immunological and physiological adaptation to mosquito midgut conditions, colonization in the mosquito midgut including effective competition with resident bacteria and persistency in the gut for a reasonable time, should be studied before selection of the isolates for paratransgenesis. A note of caution is that among the more than 100 Pseudomonas species some are pathogenic; for example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen in severely immunocompromised patients . Therefore, care must be taken so that for a paratransgenesis approach only Pseudomonas species that are non-pathogenic should be selected.
In a paratransgenesis strategy against mosquito-borne diseases, it would be an advantage if the transformed bacteria expressing effector molecules could remain in the vector population. Some kind of transstadial transmission would therefore be an essential characteristic for an ideal paratransgenesis candidate. However, it was suggested that most bacteria are lost during metamorphosis in the pupal stage . In this study, the sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that some isolates of the genus Pseudomonas were common and present in field-collected larvae, adults, and newly emerged adults from field-collected larvae. Some of the Pseudomonas isolates found in different stages of An. culicifacies from the same area have 16S sequences with 100% sequence identity suggesting transstadial transmission. This finding is similar to a possible transstadial transmission of some Pseudomonas isolates in An. stephensi, but needs to be further investigated.
This is the first study on microbiota in An. culicifacies, an important vector of malaria in Asia. Further studies are needed regarding the biological characteristics of the bacteria and interactions between the gut microbiota and the host. The fact that Pseudomonas bacteria with identical 16S sequences are present both in different locations and different stages could suggest that this species has adapted to a life in An. culicifacies. The potential symbiotic relationship between An. culicifacies and Pseudomonas makes it a good candidate for paratransgenesis.
The authors would like to thank the staff of the Iranshahr research center and National Institute of Health Research (NIHR-TUMS) for their valuable help and support. This work was supported by the Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
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