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  1. Sichuan province is located in the southwest of China, and was previously a malaria-endemic region. Although no indigenous malaria case has been reported since 2011, the number of imported cases is on the rise...

    Authors: Weiping Qian, Nian Liu, Yan Yang, Juan Liu, Jianhan He, Zuhua Chen, Mei Li and Xinghui Qiu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:169

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. The incidence of Lyme borreliosis and other tick-borne diseases is increasing in Europe and North America. There is currently much interest in identifying the ecological factors that determine the density of i...

    Authors: Cindy Bregnard, Olivier Rais and Maarten Jeroen Voordouw

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:168

    Content type: Research

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  3. In 2015, an outbreak of Zika virus spread across Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Public health programs promoted vector control behaviors, including covering water storage containers with lids. Such app...

    Authors: Jessie Pinchoff, Martha Silva, Kathryn Spielman and Paul Hutchinson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:167

    Content type: Research

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  4. Nematodes of the family Cosmocercidae (Ascaridomorpha: Cosmocercoidea) are mainly parasitic in the digestive tract of various amphibians and reptiles worldwide. However, our knowledge of the molecular phylogen...

    Authors: Hui-Xia Chen, Xiao-Hong Gu, Xue-Feng Ni and Liang Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:165

    Content type: Research

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  5. Recent climate and environmental changes have resulted in the geographical expansion of Mediterranean Leishmania infantum vectors towards northern latitudes and higher altitudes in different European countries, i...

    Authors: Alice Michelutti, Federica Toniolo, Michela Bertola, Marika Grillini, Giulia Simonato, Silvia Ravagnan and Fabrizio Montarsi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:164

    Content type: Short report

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  6. Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted by arthropods. They have been an issue of growing importance in recent years; however, there is limited information abou...

    Authors: Ana Mafalda Dordio, Relja Beck, Telmo Nunes, Isabel Pereira da Fonseca and Jacinto Gomes

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:163

    Content type: Research

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  7. The larval bionomics of Aedes across the Jaffna peninsula in northern Sri Lanka was investigated to obtain information needed for developing more effective larval source reduction measures to control endemic arbo...

    Authors: Sinnathamby N. Surendran, Tibutius T. P. Jayadas, Vaikunthavasan Thiruchenthooran, Selvarajah Raveendran, Annathurai Tharsan, Sharanga Santhirasegaram, Kokila Sivabalakrishnan, Suthakar Karunakaran, Bharathy Ponnaiah, Laksiri Gomes, Gathsaurie N. Malavige and Ranjan Ramasamy

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:162

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:218

  8. During the last decades a northward and upward range shift has been observed among many organisms across different taxa. In the northern hemisphere, ticks have been observed to have increased their latitudinal...

    Authors: Nicolas De Pelsmaeker, Lars Korslund and Øyvind Steifetten

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:161

    Content type: Research

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  9. Entamoeba species harbored by humans have different degrees of pathogenicity. The present study explores the intra- and interspecific diversity, phylogenetic relationships, prevalence and distribution of tetra- a...

    Authors: Deiviane Aparecida Calegar, Kerla Joeline Lima Monteiro, Polyanna Araújo Alves Bacelar, Brenda Bulsara Costa Evangelista, Mayron Morais Almeida, Jéssica Pereira dos Santos, Márcio Neves Boia, Beatriz Coronato-Nunes, Lauren Hubert Jaeger and Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:160

    Content type: Research

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  10. Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens) complex, which acts as a vector of viruses and is widespread and abundant worldwide, including West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Sindbis virus, can cause serious vector...

    Authors: Xixi Li, Shengli Hu, Haitao Yin, Hongbo Zhang, Dan Zhou, Yan Sun, Lei Ma, Bo Shen and Changliang Zhu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:159

    Content type: Research

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  11. Theileria orientalis is a tick-borne hemoparasite that causes anemia, ill thrift, and death in cattle globally. The Ikeda strain of T. orientalis is more virulent than other strains, leading to severe clinical si...

    Authors: Kelcey D. Dinkel, David R. Herndon, Susan M. Noh, Kevin K. Lahmers, S. Michelle Todd, Massaro W. Ueti, Glen A. Scoles, Kathleen L. Mason and Lindsay M. Fry

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:157

    Content type: Research

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  12. Scabies and impetigo are endemic in many tropical, low- and middle-income countries. Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin has emerged as a control strategy for these conditions. In 2019, Timor-Leste ...

    Authors: Alexander Matthews, Brandon Le, Salvador Amaral, Paul Arkell, Merita Monteiro, Naomi Clarke, Terlinda Barros, Joaquim de Jesus Mendonça, Sonia Maria Exposto Gusmão, Leonia Maria dos Reis Seixas, João Henrique Araújo da Piedade, Daniel Engelman, Andrew C. Steer, Nicholas S. S. Fancourt, Jennifer Yan, John Kaldor…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:156

    Content type: Research

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  13. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Sara Rahimi, Ali Khamesipour, Amir Ahmad Akhavan, Javad Rafnejad, Reza Ahmadkhaniha, Mahmood Bakhtiyari, Arshad Veysi and Kamran Akbarzadeh

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:155

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:40

  14. Besnoitia besnoiti is an Apicomplexan protozoa causative of bovine besnoitiosis, a chronic and debilitating disease of cattle, with a variety of pathological findings that could alter some laboratory parameters. ...

    Authors: Luca Villa, Alessia Libera Gazzonis, Sergio Aurelio Zanzani, Silvia Mazzola, Alessia Giordano and Maria Teresa Manfredi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:154

    Content type: Research

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  15. Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that primarily infects through the oral route. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) play crucial roles in the immune responses generated during par...

    Authors: Jia-Qi Chu, Fei Fei Gao, Weiyun Wu, Chunchao Li, Zhaobin Pan, Jinhui Sun, Hao Wang, Cong Huang, Sang Hyuk Lee, Juan-Hua Quan and Young-Ha Lee

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:153

    Content type: Research

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  16. The NF-κB signalling pathway has been reported to be related to liver fibrosis, and we investigated whether the NF-κB signalling pathway is involved in liver fibrosis caused by secreted phospholipase A2 of Clonor...

    Authors: Yin-Juan Wu, Qing He, Mei Shang, Ying-Xuan Yin, Ye Li, Xue Du and Xue-Rong Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:152

    Content type: Research

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  17. With the increasing threat of the worldwide spread of mosquito-borne infectious diseases, consumer interest in anti-mosquito textiles that protect against mosquito bites is also increasing. Accordingly, repell...

    Authors: Yasue Morimoto, Hitoshi Kawada, Kan-ya Kuramoto, Takuya Mitsuhashi, Toshinobu Saitoh and Noboru Minakawa

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:151

    Content type: Research

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  18. The spread of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors threatens the effectiveness of standard long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN). Synergist nets combine pyrethroid (Py) and piperonyl-butoxide (PBO) to enha...

    Authors: Jackline L. Martin, Franklin W. Mosha, Eliud Lukole, Mark Rowland, Jim Todd, Jacques D. Charlwood, Jacklin F. Mosha and Natacha Protopopoff

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:150

    Content type: Research

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  19. An accurate test for the diagnosis and post-treatment follow-up of patients with schistosomiasis is needed. We assessed the performance of different laboratory parameters, including the up-converting reporter ...

    Authors: Francesca Tamarozzi, Tamara Ursini, Pytsje T. Hoekstra, Ronaldo Silva, Cecilia Costa, Federico Gobbi, Gerardo B. Monteiro, Leonardo Motta, Govert J. van Dam, Paul L. Corstjens, Lisette van Lieshout and Dora Buonfrate

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:149

    Content type: Research

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  20. Scabies is caused by burrowing of the mite Sarcoptes scabiei into the stratum corneum. Currently, diagnosis via routine skin scraping is very difficult, and information on the allergenic identification of S. scab...

    Authors: Nengxing Shen, Yuhang Chen, Wenrui Wei, Lang Xiong, Yuanyuan Tao, Jie Xiao, Song Liu, Xue He, Xiaodi Du, Xiaobin Gu, Yue Xie, Jing Xu, Xuerong Peng and Guangyou Yang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:148

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  21. Among Dermanyssoidea, the chicken red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) and the northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) are considered to be the cause of high economic losses endured by the poultry industry in the...

    Authors: Sándor Hornok, Nóra Takács, Gábor Sipos, Pál Morandini, Attila D. Sándor, Sándor Szekeres, Andrea Grima and Jenő Kontschán

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:147

    Content type: Short report

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  22. Species of Trichinella are globally important foodborne parasites infecting a number of domestic and wild vertebrates, including humans. Free-ranging carnivores can act as sentinel species for detection of Trichi...

    Authors: Rajnish Sharma, N. Jane Harms, Piia M. Kukka, Thomas S. Jung, Sarah E. Parker, Sasha Ross, Peter Thompson, Benjamin Rosenthal, Eric P. Hoberg and Emily J. Jenkins

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:146

    Content type: Research

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  23. The prevalence of avian haemosporidian parasites and the factors influencing infection in the Colorado Rocky Mountains are largely unknown. With climate change expected to promote the expansion of vector and a...

    Authors: Marina D. Rodriguez, Paul F. Doherty, Antoinette J. Piaggio and Kathryn P. Huyvaert

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:145

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  24. Louping ill virus (LIV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) are tick-borne flaviviruses that are both transmitted by the major European tick, Ixodes ricinus. Despite the importance of I. ricinus as an arthro...

    Authors: Manon Lemasson, Grégory Caignard, Yves Unterfinger, Houssam Attoui, Lesley Bell-Sakyi, Edouard Hirchaud, Sara Moutailler, Nicholas Johnson, Damien Vitour, Jennifer Richardson and Sandrine A. Lacour

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:144

    Content type: Research

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  25. Capillaria aerophila and Capillaria boehmi parasitize the respiratory system of wild and domestic carnivores. Capillaria aerophila inhabits the trachea and bronchi of dogs and cats, while C. boehmi affects the na...

    Authors: Angela Di Cesare, Simone Morelli, Giulia Morganti, Giulia Simonato, Fabrizia Veronesi, Mariasole Colombo, Michele Berlanda, Wilfried Lebon, Matilde Gallo, Frederic Beugnet and Donato Traversa

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:143

    Content type: Research

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  26. To ensure food security, sub-Saharan Africa has initiated massive water resource development projects, such as irrigated agriculture, in recent years. However, such environmental modifications affect the survi...

    Authors: Dawit Hawaria, Solomon Kibret, Assalif Demissew, Arega Tsegaye, Denekew Bitew, Guiyun Yan and Delenasaw Yewhalaw

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:142

    Content type: Research

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  27. Since their detection in 2013, Aedes aegypti has become a widespread urban pest in California. The availability of cryptic larval breeding sites in residential areas and resistance to insecticides pose significan...

    Authors: Lindsey K. Mack, Erin Taylor Kelly, Yoosook Lee, Katherine K. Brisco, Kaiyuan Victoria Shen, Aamina Zahid, Tess van Schoor, Anthony J. Cornel and Geoffrey M. Attardo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:141

    Content type: Research

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  28. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Vicky Wilkinson, Kotaro Takano, David Nichols, Alynn Martin, Roz Holme, David Phalen, Kate Mounsey, Michael Charleston, Alexandre Kreiss, Ruth Pye, Elizabeth Browne, Christina Næsborg-Nielsen, Shane A. Richards and Scott Carver

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:140

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:18

  29. Credelio™ (lotilaner; Elanco) is indicated for the treatment of flea and tick infestations on cats at a recommended lotilaner dose rate of 6–24 mg/kg. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of lotilaner ...

    Authors: Tandy Paarlberg, Daniela Karadzovska and Rainer Helbig

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:139

    Content type: Research

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  30. Chikungunya virus is an alphavirus, primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. In late 2017–2018, an outbreak of chikungunya occurred in Mombasa county, Kenya, and investigations were conducted to...

    Authors: Joel Lutomiah, Francis Mulwa, James Mutisya, Edith Koskei, Solomon Langat, Albert Nyunja, Hellen Koka, Samson Konongoi, Edith Chepkorir, Victor Ofula, Samuel Owaka, Fredrick Eyase and Rosemary Sang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:138

    Content type: Research

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  31. Blood parasites have been the subject of much research, with numerous reports of the presence of microfilariae in the peripheral blood (circulating microfilariae) of birds belonging to many orders. Current lim...

    Authors: Rasa Binkienė, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes Chagas, Rasa Bernotienė and Gediminas Valkiūnas

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:137

    Content type: Research

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  32. Tick-borne diseases are common throughout Europe. Ticks transmit pathogens to the host while feeding and together with mosquitoes, they are major vectors of infectious agents worldwide. In recent years, there ...

    Authors: Tania Audino, Alessandra Pautasso, Veronica Bellavia, Valerio Carta, Alessio Ferrari, Federica Verna, Carla Grattarola, Barbara Iulini, Maria Domenica Pintore, Mauro Bardelli, Germano Cassina, Laura Tomassone, Simone Peletto, Valeria Blanda, Alessandra Torina, Maria Caramelli…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:136

    Content type: Research

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  33. Ticks are ectoparasites that feed on blood of a broad taxonomical range of terrestrial and flying vertebrates and are distributed across a wide range of environmental settings. To date, the species identity, d...

    Authors: Qi Zhou, Jiao Li, Xianguang Guo, Jinlong Liu, Qi Song, Xiong Gong, Han Chen, Jianhui Zhang, Jinlei He, Zhiwan Zheng, Dali Chen and Jianping Chen

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:135

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  34. In March 2017, Togo was declared the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to eliminate lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem, but post-validation surveillance has been lacking. In some areas of the co...

    Authors: Monique Ameyo Dorkenoo, Martin Kouame Tchankoni, Degninou Yehadji, Kossi Yakpa, Mawèké Tchalim, Efoe Sossou, Rachel Bronzan and Didier Koumavi Ekouevi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:134

    Content type: Research

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  35. Schistosomiasis is a highly prevalent parasitic disease that can lead to adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. To our knowledge, there has been no systematic review and meta-analysis of schistosomiasis duri...

    Authors: Ishag Adam, Nadiah A. ALhabardi, Osama Al-Wutayd and Ammar H. Khamis

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:133

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  36. Protozoa in the genus Babesia are transmitted to humans through tick bites and cause babesiosis, a malaria-like illness. Vertical transmission of Babesia spp. has been reported in mammals; however, the exact timi...

    Authors: Katarzyna Tołkacz, Anna Rodo, Agnieszka Wdowiarska, Anna Bajer and Małgorzata Bednarska

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:132

    Content type: Research

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  37. Parasites of the genus Trichinella are the pathogenic agents of trichinellosis, which is a widespread and severe foodborne parasitic disease. Trichinella spiralis resides primarily in mammalian skeletal muscle ce...

    Authors: Xiaoxiang Hu, Xiaolei Liu, Chen Li, Yulu Zhang, Chengyao Li, Yanfeng Li, Yingxi Chen, Heng Guo, Xue Bai and Mingyuan Liu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:130

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. The departure of the mature larvae of the horse stomach bot fly from the host indicates the beginning of a new infection period. Gasterophilus pecorum is the dominant bot fly species in the desert steppe of the K...

    Authors: Ke Zhang, Heqing Huang, Ran Zhou, Boru Zhang, Chen Wang, Make Ente, Boling Li, Dong Zhang and Kai Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:129

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Jack Pilgrim, Stefanos Siozios, Matthew Baylis, Gert Venter, Claire Garros and Gregory D. D. Hurst

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:128

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:100

  40. Studies show that the novel isoxazoline, lotilaner (Credelio™ CAT; Elanco Animal Health), which is administered orally to cats, provides rapid and sustained flea kill for least 1 month following administratio...

    Authors: Kimberly Chappell, Tandy Paarlberg, Wolfgang Seewald, Daniela Karadzovska and Steve Nanchen

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:127

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that has caused major health problems. Variations in dengue virus (DENV) genes are important features of epidemic outbreaks. However, the associations of DEN...

    Authors: Mengmeng Ma, Sean Wu, Zhenjian He, Lihong Yuan, Zhijun Bai, Liyun Jiang, John Marshall, Jiahai Lu, Zhicong Yang and Qinlong Jing

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:126

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. Dirofilaria repens is a filarioid nematode transmitted by mosquitoes. Adult D. repens are typically localized in the subcutaneous tissue of the host, but other, atypical localizations have also been reported. The...

    Authors: Georgiana Deak, Angela Monica Ionică, Izabela Szasz, Marian Taulescu and Andrei Daniel Mihalca

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:125

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  43. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Xiaodong Weng, Zhiqiang Mu, Xu Wei, Xu Wang, Qingqiu Zuo, Shuo Ma, Youzhong Ding, Xiaoming Wang, Weiping Wu, Philip S. Craig and Zhenghuan Wang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:124

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:207

  44. Epidemics of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are occurring more frequently and spreading faster and farther than before in many areas of the world. The present study aimed to assess a long-lasting emerging epidem...

    Authors: Taiebeh Karimi, Iraj Sharifi, Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian, Behnaz Aflatoonian, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Ehsan Salarkia, Zahra Babaei, Farzaneh Zarinkar, Fatemeh Sharifi, Nima Hatami, Ahmad Khosravi, Arsalan Eskandari, Elyas Solimani, Mehdi Shafiee, Masoumeh Mozaffari, Amireh Heshmatkhah…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:122

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Aerial applications of insecticides that target adult mosquitoes are widely used to reduce transmission of West Nile virus to humans during periods of epidemic risk. However, estimates of the reduction in abun...

    Authors: Karen M. Holcomb, Robert C. Reiner and Christopher M. Barker

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:120

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Onchocerciasis (river blindness) and lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) are two human neglected tropical diseases that cause major disabilities. Mass administration of drugs targeting the microfilarial stage...

    Authors: Christina A. Bulman, Laura Chappell, Emma Gunderson, Ian Vogel, Brenda Beerntsen, Barton E. Slatko, William Sullivan and Judy A. Sakanari

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:118

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

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