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  1. Canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a life-threatening infection of dogs with a global distribution. Information on the prevalence of D. immitis and associated risk factors for canine heartworm antigen posi...

    Authors: Jessica L. Panetta, Nichola Eliza Davies Calvani, Bronwyn Orr, Aldo Gianfranco Nicoletti, Michael P. Ward and Jan Šlapeta

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:393

    Content type: Research

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  2. Tabanids are a neglected group of haematophagous dipterans despite containing 4434 species, regrouped in > 144 genera. They are mechanical vectors of important pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and protoz...

    Authors: Silas L. Sevidzem, Aubin A. Koumba, Genevieve L. Yao-Acapovi and Jacques F. Mavoungou

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:392

    Content type: Research

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  3. The diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections in ruminants is routinely based on morphological/morphometric analysis of parasite specimens recovered by coprological methods, followed by larval cu...

    Authors: Nikol Reslova, Lucie Skorpikova, Iveta Angela Kyrianova, Jaroslav Vadlejch, Johan Höglund, Philip Skuce and Martin Kasny

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:391

    Content type: Research

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  4. During the last decades, filarial infections caused by Dirofilaria spp. have spread rapidly within dog populations of several European countries. Increasing scientific interest in filariasis, and the availability...

    Authors: Mirabela Oana Dumitrache, Gianluca D’Amico, Eugeniu Voiniţchi, Serghei Maximenco, Viorica Mircean and Angela Monica Ionică

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:390

    Content type: Research

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  5. Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite with a worldwide distribution. Congenital infection in humans and animals may lead to severe symptoms in the offspring, especially in the brain. A suitable ...

    Authors: Thomas Grochow, Britta Beck, Zaida Rentería-Solís, Gereon Schares, Pavlo Maksimov, Christina Strube, Johannes Seeger, Lisa Raqué, Reiner Ulrich, Arwid Daugschies and Simone A. Fietz

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:389

    Content type: Research

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  6. Schistosomiasis a neglected tropical disease  endemic in Brazil. It is caused by the trematode Schistosoma mansoni, which is transmitted by snails of the genus Biomphalaria. Among measures used to control and eli...

    Authors: Silvia Gonçalves Mesquita, Floria Gabriela dos Santos Neves, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho Scholte, Omar dos Santos Carvalho, Cristina Toscano Fonseca and Roberta Lima Caldeira

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:388

    Content type: Research

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  7. Mosquito-borne diseases affect over half of the human population globally. Multiple studies have shown that chemical insecticides are ineffective because of resistance. Therefore, environmentally safe mosquito...

    Authors: Xiaowen Fei, Yang Zhang, Lili Ding, Sha Xiao, Xiaoqing Xie, Yajun Li and Xiaodong Deng

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:387

    Content type: Research

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  8. The salivary glands of female ticks degenerate rapidly by apoptosis and autophagy after feeding. Bcl-2 family proteins play an important role in the apoptosis pathways, but the functions of these proteins in t...

    Authors: Shanming Hu, Yanan Wang, Zhengmao Xu, Yongzhi Zhou, Jie Cao, Houshuang Zhang and Jinlin Zhou

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:386

    Content type: Research

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  9. Relatively little is known about how pathogens transmitted by vector insects are affected by changing temperatures analogous to those occurring in the present global warming scenario. One expectation is that, ...

    Authors: Berenice González-Rete, Ana E. Gutiérrez-Cabrera, José Antonio de Fuentes-Vicente, Paz María Salazar-Schettino, Margarita Cabrera-Bravo and Alex Córdoba-Aguilar

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:385

    Content type: Short report

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  10. The impacts and limitations of personal protection measures against exposure to vectors of malaria and other mosquito-borne pathogens depend on behavioural interactions between humans and mosquitoes. Therefore...

    Authors: Gerry F. Killeen, April Monroe and Nicodem J. Govella

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:384

    Content type: Review

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  11. The transmission of vector-borne diseases is governed by complex factors including pathogen characteristics, vector–host interactions, and environmental conditions. Temperature is a major driver for many vecto...

    Authors: Fadoua El Moustaid, Zorian Thornton, Hani Slamani, Sadie J. Ryan and Leah R. Johnson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:382

    Content type: Research

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  12. Leishmania infantum and Dirofilaria immitis are among the most important canine vector-borne pathogens (CVBPs) of zoonotic concern in Europe. In endemic areas for both of these CVBPs, the use of systemic ectopar...

    Authors: Rossella Panarese, Roberta Iatta, Jairo Alfonso Mendoza-Roldan, Andrea Zatelli, Frederic Beugnet and Domenico Otranto

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:381

    Content type: Research

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  13. Aedes aegypti can transmit arboviruses worldwide, and Bacillus thuringiensis svar. israelensis (Bti)-based larvicides represent an effective tool for controlling this species. The safety of Bti and lack of resist...

    Authors: Karine da Silva Carvalho, Duschinka Ribeiro Duarte Guedes, Mônica Maria Crespo, Maria Alice Varjal de Melo-Santos and Maria Helena Neves Lobo Silva-Filha

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:379

    Content type: Research

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  14. Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) could accelerate malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion. This study was performed to characterize the bionomics of Anopheles in Surat Thani province, Thailan...

    Authors: Narenrit Wamaket, Oranicha Khamprapa, Sittinont Chainarin, Panisa Thamsawet, Ubolrat Ninsaeng, Suttipong Thongsalee, Veerast Suwan, Jira Sakolvaree, Ratree Takhampunya, Silas A. Davidson, Patrick W. McCardle, Patiwat Sa-angchai, Mavuto Mukaka, Kirakorn Kiattibutr, Amnat Khamsiriwatchara, Wang Nguitragool…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:378

    Content type: Research

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  15. Aedes mosquitoes are important invasive species contributing to the spread of chikungunya, dengue fever, yellow fever, zika virus, and other dangerous vector-borne diseases. Aedes albopictus is native to southeas...

    Authors: Jiyeong Shin and Jongwoo Jung

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:377

    Content type: Research

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  16. Active surveillance aimed at the early detection of invasive mosquito species is usually focused on seaports and airports as points of entry, and along road networks as dispersion paths. In a number of cases, ...

    Authors: Roger Eritja, Sarah Delacour-Estrella, Ignacio Ruiz-Arrondo, Mikel A. González, Carlos Barceló, Ana L. García-Pérez, Javier Lucientes, Miguel Á. Miranda and Frederic Bartumeus

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:375

    Content type: Research

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  17. Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a zoonotic parasitic nematode described for the first time in 1971 by Pedro Morera and Rodolfo Céspedes in Costa Rica. This parasite causes an infection known as abdominal angiost...

    Authors: Alicia Rojas, Arnaldo Maldonado-Junior, Javier Mora, Alessandra Morassutti, Rubens Rodriguez, Alberto Solano-Barquero, Anamariela Tijerino, Marianela Vargas and Carlos Graeff-Teixeira

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:374

    Content type: Review

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  18. Plasmodium sp., which causes malaria, must first develop in mosquitoes before being transmitted. Upon ingesting infected blood, gametes form in the mosquito lumen, followed by fertilization and differentiation of...

    Authors: Kazuhiko Nakayama, Yuta Kimura, Yu Kitahara, Akira Soga, Asako Haraguchi, Jun Hakozaki, Makoto Sugiyama, Kodai Kusakisako, Shinya Fukumoto and Hiromi Ikadai

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:373

    Content type: Research

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  19. Freshwater fauna of the Middle East encompass elements shared with three continents—Africa, Asia, and Europe—and the Middle East is, therefore, considered a historical geographic crossroad between these three ...

    Authors: Michal Benovics, Farshad Nejat, Asghar Abdoli and Andrea Šimková

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:372

    Content type: Research

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  20. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodiae) in the Republic of Moldova have been understudied for decades. Our study provides a first update on their occurrence, species composition and bloodmeal sources aft...

    Authors: Tatiana Șuleșco, Ozge Erisoz Kasap, Petr Halada, Gizem Oğuz, Dimian Rusnac, Marketa Gresova, Bulent Alten, Petr Volf and Vit Dvorak

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:371

    Content type: Research

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  21. Epidemiological surveys in Oman have revealed a high prevalence of the co-occurrence of the pathogenic Theileria lestoquardi and the non-pathogenic Theileria ovis among sheep in the Barka region, Oman. Our most r...

    Authors: Salama Al-Hamidhi, Elshafie I. Elshafie, Saeed Yaghfoori, W. Ivan Morrison, Eugene H. Johnson and Hamza A. Babiker

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:370

    Content type: Research

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  22. Different genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) isolated from livestock and humans have been identified based on cox1 and nad1 genomic fragments. The present study was performed to differentia...

    Authors: Saeed Shahabi, Bahador Sarkari and Afshin Barazesh

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:369

    Content type: Short report

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  23. Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly described relapsing fever spirochete transmitted by ixodid tick species. Little is known about the prevalence of B. miyamotoi infections in humans and ticks in Inner Mongolia, China....

    Authors: Gaowa, Wulantuya, Kozue Sato, Dan Liu, Yunhong Cui, Xuhong Yin, Lihua Zhang, Hong Li, Tingfu Wang, Rongxin Liu, Lijing Wu, Saixia Lu, Ting Gao, Zitong Zhang, Minzhi Cao, Guodong Wang…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:368

    Content type: Research

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  24. The cryopreservation of filarial nematodes has been studied for nearly 70 years. Largely, these studies examined the effectiveness of cryopreservation methods by using the post-thaw survival of microfilariae (...

    Authors: Erich W. Zinser, Tom L. McTier, Nicole S. Kernell and Debra J. Woods

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:367

    Content type: Research

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  25. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), a central component of the antioxidant defence system of most organisms, removes excess superoxide anions by converting them to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. As iron (Fe) SOD is abs...

    Authors: Ana Maria Murta Santi, Paula Alves Silva, Isabella Fernandes Martins Santos and Silvane Maria Fonseca Murta

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:366

    Content type: Short report

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  26. Cryptosporidium is an opportunistic pathogen that infects a wide variety of vertebrates. The aim of the present study was to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. isolates from Bactrian camels and to foster further u...

    Authors: Luyang Wang, Letian Cao, Shuangjian Zheng, Yankai Chang, Kaihui Zhang, Sumei Zhang and Longxian Zhang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:365

    Content type: Research

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  27. Studies on ticks infesting equids are lacking in various parts of the world, including Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity of ticks infesting equids, assoc...

    Authors: Abid Ali, Hafsa Zahid, Ismail Zeb, Muhammad Tufail, Sulaiman Khan, Muhammad Haroon, Muhammad Tufail, Muhammad Bilal, Majid Hussain, Abdulaziz S. Alouffi, Sebastián Muñoz-Leal and Marcelo B. Labruna

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:363

    Content type: Research

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  28. Dengue suppression often relies on control of the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, through applications of insecticides of which the pyrethroid group has played a dominant role. Insecticide resistance is prevalent...

    Authors: Nancy M. Endersby-Harshman, AboElgasim Ali, Basim Alhumrani, Mohammed Abdullah Alkuriji, Mohammed B. Al-Fageeh, Abdulaziz Al-Malik, Mohammed S. Alsuabeyl, Samia Elfekih and Ary A. Hoffmann

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:361

    Content type: Research

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  29. Several ungulate species are feeding and propagation hosts for the tick Ixodes ricinus as well as hosts to a wide range of zoonotic pathogens. Here, we focus on Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi ...

    Authors: Nannet D. Fabri, Hein Sprong, Tim R. Hofmeester, Hans Heesterbeek, Björn F. Donnars, Fredrik Widemo, Frauke Ecke and Joris P. G. M. Cromsigt

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:360

    Content type: Research

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  30. Trichinella spiralis ranks seventh in the risk posed by foodborne parasites. It causes most human cases of trichinellosis and is the most frequent cause of Trichinella outbreaks on pig farms and in wild boar, wor...

    Authors: Ewa Bilska-Zajac, Daniele Tonanzi, Edoardo Pozio, Miroslaw Rozycki, Tomasz Cencek, Peter C. Thompson, Benjamin M. Rosenthal and Giuseppe La Rosa

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:359

    Content type: Research

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  31. Giardia duodenalis is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis in mammals. The presentation of giardiasis ranges from asymptomatic to severe diarrhea, and the World Health Organization lists it ...

    Authors: Panpan Zhao, Lili Cao, Xiaocen Wang, Jianhua Li, Jingquan Dong, Nan Zhang, Xin Li, Shan Li, Min Sun, Xichen Zhang, Min Liang, Xudong Pu and Pengtao Gong

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:358

    Content type: Research

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  32. A small number of human cases of the zoonotic malaria Plasmodium knowlesi have been reported in Palawan Island, the Philippines. Identification of potential vector species and their bionomics is crucial for under...

    Authors: Richard Paul B. Malijan, Frank Mechan, Jessie C. Braganza Jr, Kristelle Mae R. Valle, Ferdinand V. Salazar, Majhalia M. Torno, Wilfredo E. Aure, Brian A. Bacay, Fe Esperanza Espino, Stephen J. Torr, Kimberly M. Fornace, Chris Drakeley and Heather M. Ferguson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:357

    Content type: Research

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  33. Direct membrane feeding assays (DMFA) are an important tool to study parasite transmission to mosquitoes. Mosquito feeding rates in these artificial systems require optimization, as there are a number of facto...

    Authors: Lincoln Timinao, Rebecca Vinit, Michelle Katusele, Louis Schofield, Thomas R. Burkot and Stephan Karl

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:356

    Content type: Research

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  34. Triatomine control campaigns have traditionally consisted of spraying the inside of houses with pyrethroid insecticides. However, exposure to sublethal insecticide doses after the initial application is a comm...

    Authors: Julieta Nattero, Gastón Mougabure-Cueto, Vincent Debat and Ricardo E. Gürtler

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:355

    Content type: Research

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  35. Zoonotic diseases are a serious threat to both public health and animal conservation. Most non-human primates (NHP) are facing the threat of forest loss and fragmentation and are increasingly living in closer ...

    Authors: C. Sirima, C. Bizet, H. Hamou, B. Červená, T. Lemarcis, A. Esteban, M. Peeters, E. Mpoudi Ngole, I. M. Mombo, F. Liégeois, K. J. Petrželková, M. Boussinesq and S. Locatelli

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:354

    Content type: Research

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  36. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Adamu Haruna Mamman, Vincenzo Lorusso, Babagana Mohammed Adam, Goni Abraham Dogo, Kevin J. Bown and Richard J. Birtles

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:353

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:242

  37. Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of Leishmania spp. At least 27 species of sand flies have been recorded in Thailand. Although human leishmaniasis cases in Thailand are mainly imported, autochthonous leishmani...

    Authors: Orawan Phuphisut, Chanyapat Nitatsukprasert, Nattaphol Pathawong, Boonsong Jaichapor, Arissara Pongsiri, Poom Adisakwattana and Alongkot Ponlawat

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:352

    Content type: Research

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  38. The Culicoides obsoletus species complex (henceforth ‘Obsoletus complex’) is implicated in the transmission of several arboviruses that can cause severe disease in livestock, such as bluetongue, African horse sic...

    Authors: Cecilia Aguilar-Vega, Belén Rivera, Javier Lucientes, Isabel Gutiérrez-Boada and José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:351

    Content type: Research

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  39. The tribe Rhodniini is a monophyletic group composed of 24 species grouped into two genera: Rhodnius and Psammolestes. The genus Psammolestes includes only three species, namely P. coreodes, P. tertius and P. art...

    Authors: Amanda Ravazi, Jader de Oliveira, Fabricio Ferreria Campos, Fernanda Fernandez Madeira, Yago Visinho dos Reis, Ana Beatriz Bortolozo de Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela de Azeredo-Oliveira, João Aristeu da Rosa, Cleber Galvão and Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:350

    Content type: Research

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  40. Malaria control primarily depends on two vector control strategies: indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Both IRS and LLIN target indoor-biting mosquitoes. However,...

    Authors: Takalani I. Makhanthisa, Leo Braack and Heike Lutermann

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:349

    Content type: Research

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  41. Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common vector-borne disease in Europe. Monitoring changes in the prevalence of different Borrelia species in ticks may be an important indicator of risk assessment and of differe...

    Authors: Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Małgorzata Bednarska, Adrianna Hamera, Emilia Religa, Milena Poryszewska, Ewa J. Mierzejewska and Renata Welc-Falęciak

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:348

    Content type: Research

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  42. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have played an important role in reducing the global malaria burden since 2000. They are a core prevention tool used widely by people at risk of malaria. The Vector Contr...

    Authors: Cyntia-Muriel Y. Clegban, Soromane Camara, A. Alphonsine Koffi, Ludovic P. Ahoua Alou, Jean-Paul Kabran Kouame, A. Fernand Koffi, Philippe K. Kouassi, Nicolas Moiroux and Cédric Pennetier

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:347

    Content type: Research

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  43. Ticks are blood-sucking ectoparasites that play a pivotal role in the transmission of various pathogens to humans and animals. In Korea, Haemaphysalis longicornis is the predominant tick species and is recognized...

    Authors: Ju Yeong Kim, Myung-hee Yi, Alghurabi Areej Sabri Mahdi and Tai-Soon Yong

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:346

    Content type: Research

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  44. Ovine psoroptic mange (sheep scab) is a highly pathogenic contagious infection caused by the mite Psoroptes ovis. Following 21 years in which scab was eradicated in the UK, it was inadvertently reintroduced in 19...

    Authors: Emily Joanne Nixon, Ellen Brooks-Pollock and Richard Wall

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:344

    Content type: Research

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  45. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) belongs to the genus Orthonairovirus (Nairovididae) and is a (re)emerging tick-borne pathogen. It is endemic in most parts of Africa, Asia and southern Europe, and ca...

    Authors: A. Schulz, Y. Barry, F. Stoek, M. J. Pickin, A. Ba, L. Chitimia-Dobler, M. L. Haki, B. A. Doumbia, A. Eisenbarth, A. Diambar, M. Y. Bah, M. Eiden and M. H. Groschup

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:342

    Content type: Research

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times. Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.