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  1. Cattle fever ticks (CFT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, are vectors of microbes causing bovine babesiosis and pose a threat to the economic viability of the US livestock industry. Eff...

    Authors: Hsiao-Hsuan Wang, William E. Grant, Pete D. Teel, Kimberly H. Lohmeyer and Adalberto A. Pérez de León

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:231

    Content type: Research

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  2. There are more than 300 species of capillariids that parasitize various vertebrate groups worldwide. Species identification is hindered because of the few taxonomically informative structures available, making...

    Authors: Victor Hugo Borba, Coralie Martin, José Roberto Machado-Silva, Samanta C. C. Xavier, Flávio L. de Mello and Alena Mayo Iñiguez

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:230

    Content type: Research

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  3. Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, but is not endemic in all areas where this vector is found. For example, the relatively sparse distribution of cases in West Afri...

    Authors: Michael Amoa-Bosompem, Daisuke Kobayashi, Kentaro Itokawa, Katsunori Murota, Astri Nur Faizah, Faustus Akankperiwen Azerigyik, Takaya Hayashi, Mitsuko Ohashi, Joseph H. Kofi Bonney, Samuel Dadzie, Cuong Chi Tran, Phong Vu Tran, Ryosuke Fujita, Yoshihide Maekawa, Shinji Kasai, Shoji Yamaoka…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:228

    Content type: Research

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  4. Dirofilariosis is a vector-borne parasitosis caused by filarial nematodes of the genus Dirofilaria. In humans, who represent accidental hosts, dirofilariosis is mostly caused by Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria...

    Authors: Katharina Riebenbauer, Philipp B. Weber, Julia Walochnik, Franz Karlhofer, Stefan Winkler, Sonja Dorfer, Herbert Auer, Julia Valencak, Martin Laimer and Alessandra Handisurya

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:227

    Content type: Research

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  5. The current studies compared ProHeart® 12, Heartgard® Plus and Interceptor® Plus for preventive efficacy against JYD-34, a macrocyclic lactone (ML)-resistant strain of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs.

    Authors: Tom L. McTier, Susan Holzmer, Kristina Kryda, Sean Mahabir, John W. McCall, Jami Trombley and Steven J. Maeder

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:226

    Content type: Research

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  6. Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease that affects millions of people’s health worldwide. Because of the increasing drug resistance to praziquantel (PZQ), which is the primary drug for schistosomiasis...

    Authors: Gongming Li, Qingqing Guo, Chao Feng, Huan Chen, Wenjiao Zhao, Shu Li, Yang Hong and Dequn Sun

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:225

    Content type: Research

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  7. Various heartworm (HW) diagnostic testing modalities detect products of, or reactions to, different life cycle stages of Dirofilaria immitis. Microfilariae (Mf) can be directly visualized in blood, antigen (Ag) f...

    Authors: Jennifer N. Lane, Annette Litster, Susan E. Little, Jessica Y. Rodriguez, Kennedy K. Mwacalimba, Kellee D. Sundstrom, E. Susan Amirian, Simone D. Guerios, Maria A. Serrano, Kellie M. Hays and Julie K. Levy

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:224

    Content type: Research

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  8. Cattle are intermediate hosts of six Sarcocystis species, among which Sarcocystis hominis and Sarcocystis heydorni can infect humans through the consumption of raw or undercooked meat. In addition to the zoonotic...

    Authors: Selene Rubiola, Tiziana Civera, Felice Panebianco, Davide Vercellino and Francesco Chiesa

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:223

    Content type: Research

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  9. Schsistosomiasis is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It is transmitted by intermediate host snails such as Bulinus and Biomphalaria. An understanding of the abundance and distribution of snail vectors is important ...

    Authors: Tawanda Manyangadze, Moses John Chimbari, Owen Rubaba, White Soko and Samson Mukaratirwa

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:222

    Content type: Research

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  10. The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of Sarcoptiformes mites typically contain 37 genes. Although the loss of genes is rare in Sarcoptiformes mite mitogenomes, two of the six previously reported oribatid mites (Acar...

    Authors: Xue-Bing Zhan, Bing Chen, Yu Fang, Fang-Yuan Dong, Wei-Xi Fang, Qian Luo, Ling-Miao Chu, Rui Feng, Yan Wang, Xuan Su, Ying Fang, Jiao-Yang Xu, Ze-Tao Zuo, Xing-Quan Xia, Jie-Gen Yu and En-Tao Sun

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:221

    Content type: Research

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  11. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are a major cause of poor health in low- and middle-income countries. In particular, hookworm is known to cause anaemia in children and women of reproductive age (WRA). One go...

    Authors: Carolin Vegvari, Federica Giardina, Sumali Bajaj, Veronica Malizia, Robert J. Hardwick, James E. Truscott, Antonio Montresor, Sake J. de Vlas, Luc E. Coffeng and Roy M. Anderson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:220

    Content type: Research

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  12. The systematic of several marine diphyllobothriid tapeworms of pinnipeds has been revised in recent years. However, 20 species of Diphyllobothrium from phocids and otariids are still recognized as incertae sedis....

    Authors: Jesús S. Hernández-Orts, Tetiana A. Kuzmina, Luis A. Gomez-Puerta and Roman Kuchta

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:219

    Content type: Research

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  13. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Sinnathamby N. Surendran, Tibutius T. P. Jayadas, Vaikunthavasan Thiruchenthooran, Selvarajah Raveendran, Annathurai Tharsan, Sharanga Santhirasegaram, Kokila Sivabalakrishnan, Suthakar Karunakaran, Bharathy Ponnaiah, Laksiri Gomes, Gathsaurie N. Malavige and Ranjan Ramasamy

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:218

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:162

  14. Dogs are the main reservoir hosts of Leishmania infantum; nevertheless, recent investigations indicate a likely role for cats in the epidemiology of Leishmania infection. Feline leishmaniosis (FeL) remains poorly...

    Authors: Giulia Savioli, Joy Archer, Emanuele Brianti, Giovanni Benelli, Manuela Schnyder, Roberta Iatta, Domenico Otranto and Cinzia Cantacessi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:217

    Content type: Short report

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  15. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) has a worldwide distribution and is especially prevalent in North African countries. With a mean annual surgical incidence (ASI) of CE of 12.7 per 100,000 inhabitants, Tunisia is one...

    Authors: Selim M’rad, Raja Chaâbane-Banaoues, Massaouda Ghrab, Hamouda Babba and Myriam Oudni-M’rad

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:216

    Content type: Research

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  16. There is a high prevalence of malaria and viral hepatitis in South Africa. Co-infection with Plasmodium malaria (leading to cerebral malaria) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a rare phenomenon.

    Authors: Syeda Sahra, Abdullah Jahangir, Qasim Zafar Iqbal, Neville Mobarakai, Allison Glaser and Ahmad Jahangir

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:215

    Content type: Short report

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  17. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a recently emerged coronavirus that is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 in humans is characteriz...

    Authors: Velmurugan Balaraman, Barbara S. Drolet, Dana N. Mitzel, William C. Wilson, Jeana Owens, Natasha N. Gaudreault, David A. Meekins, Dashzeveg Bold, Jessie D. Trujillo, Leela E. Noronha, Juergen A. Richt and Dana Nayduch

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:214

    Content type: Research

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  18. Biliary tract infection with the carcinogenic human liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, provokes chronic inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis, and even cholangiocarcinoma. Complications are pro...

    Authors: Jung-Woong Kim, Junyeong Yi, Jinhong Park, Ji Hoon Jeong, Jinho Kim, Jihee Won, Seok Chung, Tong-Soo Kim and Jhang Ho Pak

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:213

    Content type: Research

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  19. The impact of single-dose mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin for onchocerciasis on mosquito populations was investigated in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Authors: Olaitan Olamide Omitola, Cynthia Uchechukwu Umunnakwe, Adedotun Ayodeji Bayegun, Samuel Akinjide Anifowose, Hammed Oladeji Mogaji, Akinola Stephen Oluwole, Simon Nnayere Odoemene, Taiwo Sam Awolola, Adebola Adedoyin Osipitan, Sammy Olufemi Sam-Wobo and Uwem Friday Ekpo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:212

    Content type: Research

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  20. Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes toxoplasmosis. Urine is an easily obtained clinical sample that has been widely applied for diagnostic purposes. However, changes in the urinary...

    Authors: Lin-Lin Cui, Chun-Xue Zhou, Bing Han, Sha-Sha Wang, Si-Ying Li, Shi-Chen Xie and Dong-Hui Zhou

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:211

    Content type: Research

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  21. Babesia bovis reproduces sexually in the gut of its tick vector Rhipicephalus microplus, which involves expression of 6cys A and 6cys B proteins. Members of the widely conserved 6cys superfamily are candidates fo...

    Authors: Heba F. Alzan, Reginaldo G. Bastos, Massaro W. Ueti, Jacob M. Laughery, Vignesh A. Rathinasamy, Brian M. Cooke and Carlos E. Suarez

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:210

    Content type: Research

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  22. Anopheles arabiensis is an opportunistic malaria vector that rests and feeds outdoors, circumventing current indoor vector control methods. Furthermore, this vector will readily feed on both animals and humans. T...

    Authors: Blaženka D. Letinić, Marinela Contreras, Yael Dahan-Moss, Ingrid Linnekugel, José de la Fuente and Lizette L. Koekemoer

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:209

    Content type: Research

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  23. Cryptosporidium parvum is an enteric protozoan parasite with zoonotic importance and can cause cryptosporidiosis in humans as well as domestic and wild animals worldwide. The IId subtype family (SF) is one of the...

    Authors: Fuchang Yu, Kaihui Zhang, Yilin Wang, Dongfang Li, Zhaohui Cui, Jianying Huang, Sumei Zhang, Xiaoying Li and Longxian Zhang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:208

    Content type: Research

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  24. The rapid and widespread evolution of insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing malaria control programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the insecticide resistance status of...

    Authors: Daniel N. Munywoki, Elizabeth D. Kokwaro, Joseph M. Mwangangi, Ephantus J. Muturi and Charles M. Mbogo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:207

    Content type: Research

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  25. The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a parasite of salmonid fish. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exhibit only a limited and ineffective immune response when infested with this parasite. Prostaglandins (PG...

    Authors: Sussie Dalvin, Christiane Eichner, Michael Dondrup and Aina-Cathrine Øvergård

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:206

    Content type: Research

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  26. Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector, recently implicated as contributing to ongoing residual malaria transmission in South Africa, which feeds and rests both indoors and outdoors. This species is, ther...

    Authors: Maria L. Kaiser, Oliver R. Wood, David Damiens, Basil D. Brooke, Lizette L. Koekemoer and Givemore Munhenga

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:205

    Content type: Research

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  27. Previously, twelve Rickettsia species were identified in ticks, fleas, sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus), bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) and a tick-bitten patient in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) in ...

    Authors: Gang Liu, Shanshan Zhao, Wenbo Tan, Sándor Hornok, Wumei Yuan, Ligu Mi, Suwen Wang, Zhiqiang Liu, Yanyan Zhang, Wurelihazi Hazihan, Xinli Gu and Yuanzhi Wang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:204

    Content type: Short report

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  28. Onchocerca lupi is an emerging, zoonotic filarioid nematode associated with ocular disease in companion animals in North America and the Old World. The areas where this parasite is assumed to be endemic in the US...

    Authors: Guilherme G. Verocai, Caroline Sobotyk, Allegra Lamison, Mindy M. Borst and Erin E. Edwards

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:203

    Content type: Short report

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  29. Insecticide resistance is threatening the effectiveness of efforts to control malaria vectors in Benin. This study explores the levels and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae s.l. to pyrethroids.

    Authors: Hermann Watson Sagbohan, Casimir D. Kpanou, Razaki Osse, Fortuné Dagnon, Germain G. Padonou, André Aimé Sominahouin, Albert Sourou Salako, Aboubakar Sidick, Wilfried Sewade, Bruno Akinro, Saadani Ahmed, Daniel Impoinvil, Clément Agbangla and Martin Akogbeto

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:202

    Content type: Research

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  30. Besnoitia darlingi, B. neotomofelis and B. oryctofelisi are closely related coccidian parasites with felids as definitive hosts. These parasites use a variety of animal species as intermediate hosts. North Americ...

    Authors: Gereon Schares, Maike Joeres, Franziska Rachel, Mareen Tuschy, Gábor Á. Czirják, Pavlo Maksimov, Franz J. Conraths and Bettina Wachter

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:201

    Content type: Research

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  31. Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal protozoan found worldwide. Based on gene analysis, 17 subtypes (STs, ST1–ST17) have been identified, 9 of which have been isolated from humans. Differences in clinical cons...

    Authors: Violetta Sulżyc-Bielicka, Lidia Kołodziejczyk, Małgorzata Adamska, Bogumiła Skotarczak, Sylwia Jaczewska, Krzysztof Safranow, Paweł Bielicki, Józef Kładny and Dariusz Bielicki

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:200

    Content type: Research

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  32. Onchocerca lupi and Cercopithifilaria spp. are vector-borne filarioids of dogs, which harbour skin microfilariae (mfs), the former being of zoonotic concern. Proper treatment studies using compounds with microfil...

    Authors: Domenico Otranto, Vito Colella, Marcos Antônio Bezerra-Santos, Jairo Alfonso Mendoza-Roldan, Maria Alfonsa Cavalera, André Pereira, Roland Schaper and Carla Maia

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:199

    Content type: Research

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  33. The in vitro activity of the brown seaweed Dictyota spiralis against both Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in a previous study. Processing by bio-guided fractionation resulted in the iso...

    Authors: Olfa Chiboub, Ines Sifaoui, Manef Abderrabba, Mondher Mejri, José J. Fernández, Ana R. Díaz-Marrero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales and José E. Piñero

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:198

    Content type: Research

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  34. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato  (s.l.). The treatment of CE mainly relies on the use of benzimidazoles, which can commonly cause adverse s...

    Authors: Mohammad Reza Shiee, Eshrat Beigom Kia, Farzaneh Zahabiun, Mahmood Naderi, Elahe Motevaseli, Shahram Nekoeian, Majid Fasihi Harandi and Ahmad Reza Dehpour

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:197

    Content type: Research

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  35. Current data about Pseudaliidae show contrasting patterns of host specificity between congeneric species. We investigated how both contact and compatibility between hosts and parasites contributed to the patte...

    Authors: Rachel Pool, Clara Romero-Rubira, Juan Antonio Raga, Mercedes Fernández and Francisco Javier Aznar

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:196

    Content type: Research

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  36. Triatomine bugs, the vectors of Chagas disease, associate with vertebrate hosts in highly diverse ecotopes. It has been proposed that occupation of new microhabitats may trigger selection for distinct phenotyp...

    Authors: Fernando Abad-Franch, Fernando A. Monteiro, Márcio G. Pavan, James S. Patterson, M. Dolores Bargues, M. Ángeles Zuriaga, Marcelo Aguilar, Charles B. Beard, Santiago Mas-Coma and Michael A. Miles

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:195

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:235

  37. Infectious blood meal experiments have been frequently performed with different virus-vector combinations to assess the transmission potential of arthropod-borne (arbo)viruses. A wide variety of host blood sou...

    Authors: Sandra R. Abbo, Tessa M. Visser, Constantianus J. M. Koenraadt, Gorben P. Pijlman and Haidong Wang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:194

    Content type: Research

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  38. Understanding the ecology of larval malaria and lymphatic filariasis mosquitoes in a changing environment is important in developing effective control tools or programmes. This study characterized the breeding...

    Authors: Isaac A. Hinne, Simon K. Attah, Benedicta A. Mensah, Akua O. Forson and Yaw A. Afrane

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:193

    Content type: Research

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  39. A study conducted at the International Airport of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, with the aim of investigating the presence/absence of invasive Aedes mosquito species resulted in finding Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobal...

    Authors: Cintia Horváth, Cristina Daniela Cazan and Andrei Daniel Mihalca

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:192

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:229

  40. Rickettsial diseases associated with the spotted fever group constitute a growing number of newly identified Rickettsia pathogens and their tick vectors in various parts of the world. At least 15 distinct tick sp...

    Authors: Misbah Tariq, Jun-Won Seo, Da Young Kim, Merlin Jayalal Lawrence Panchali, Na Ra Yun, You Mi Lee, Choon-Mee Kim and Dong-Min Kim

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:191

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  41. Plant-based mosquito control methods may use as a supplementary malaria vector control strategy. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of smoking ethno-medicinal plants on indoor density and feeding activity...

    Authors: Tekle Olbamo, Endashaw Esayas, Tizazu Gebre and Fekadu Massebo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:190

    Content type: Research

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  42. Growing evidence points towards a role of gastrointestinal (GI) helminth parasites of ruminants in modifying the composition of the host gut flora, with likely repercussions on the pathophysiology of worm infe...

    Authors: James Rooney, Alba Cortés, Riccardo Scotti, Daniel R. G. Price, Yvonne Bartley, Karen Fairlie-Clarke, Tom N. McNeilly, Alasdair J. Nisbet and Cinzia Cantacessi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:189

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are a serious threat to humans, wildlife and livestock, and cause severe economic losses in many tropical drylands. The effective control of TBDs has been constrained by limited unde...

    Authors: Richard Chepkwony, Severine van Bommel and Frank van Langevelde

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:188

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Ioana A. Matei, Alexandra Corduneanu, Attila Sándor, Angela Monica Ionica, Luciana Panait, Zsuzsa Kalmár, Talida Ivan, Ionel Papuc, Cosmina Bouari, Nicodim Fit and Andrei Daniel Mihalca

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:187

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:107

  45. Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that can infect nearly all invertebrates and vertebrates, posing a threat to public health and causing large economic losses to animal industries such as thos...

    Authors: Yingfei Ruan, Xiaofei Xu, Qiang He, Li Li, Junrui Guo, Jialing Bao, Guoqing Pan, Tian Li and Zeyang Zhou

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:186

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  46. Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Although schistosomiasis is well documented in school-aged children in Burkina Faso, prevalence data among preschool-aged children (...

    Authors: Mamoudou Cisse, Ibrahim Sangare, Arthur D. Djibougou, Marc C. Tahita, Souleymane Gnissi, Jonathan K. W. Bassinga, Salifou Konda and Abdoulaye H. Diallo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:185

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  47. Vector surveillance is essential in determining the geographical distribution of mosquito vectors and understanding the dynamics of malaria transmission. With the elimination of human malaria cases, knowlesi m...

    Authors: Nantha Kumar Jeyaprakasam, Sandthya Pramasivan, Jonathan Wee Kent Liew, Lun Van Low, Wan-Yusoff Wan-Sulaiman, Romano Ngui, Jenarun Jelip and Indra Vythilingam

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:184

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  48. Migratory birds can cross geographical and environmental barriers and are thereby able to facilitate transmission of tick-borne pathogens both as carriers of infected ticks and as reservoirs of pathogenic micr...

    Authors: Peter Wilhelmsson, Olga Pawełczyk, Thomas G. T. Jaenson, Jonas Waldenström, Björn Olsen, Pia Forsberg and Per-Eric Lindgren

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:183

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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