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  1. Vectorial transmission is the principal path of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. In Argentina, Triatoma infestans is the principal vector; therefore, vector control is the ...

    Authors: L. Abrahan, M. J. Cavallo and I. Amelotti

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:98

    Content type: Research

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  2. Ethiopia has set the ambitious national targets of eliminating soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and schistosomiasis (SCH) as public health problems by 2020, and breaking their transmission by 2025. This system...

    Authors: Rosie Maddren, Anna Phillips, Alison Ower, Toby Landeryou, Birhan Mengistu, Ufaysa Anjulo, Ewnetu Firdawek, Nebiyu Negussu and Roy Anderson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:97

    Content type: Review

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  3. Belonging to the anopluran family Echinophthiriidae, Echinophthirius horridus, the seal louse, has been reported to parasitise a broad range of representatives of phocid seals. So far, only a few studies have foc...

    Authors: Jörg Hirzmann, David Ebmer, Guillermo J. Sánchez-Contreras, Ana Rubio-García, Gerd Magdowski, Ulrich Gärtner, Anja Taubert and Carlos Hermosilla

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:96

    Content type: Research

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  4. In the last two decades, recurrent epizootics of bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus have been reported in the western Palearctic region. These viruses affect domestic cattle, sheep, goats and wild rumina...

    Authors: Antoine Mignotte, Claire Garros, Simon Dellicour, Maude Jacquot, Marius Gilbert, Laetitia Gardès, Thomas Balenghien, Maxime Duhayon, Ignace Rakotoarivony, Maïa de Wavrechin and Karine Huber

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:93

    Content type: Research

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  5. Dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika are among the most important emerging infectious vector-borne diseases worldwide. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), increases in cases of dengue and outbreak...

    Authors: Francis Wat’senga Tezzo, Sylvie Fasine, Emile Manzambi Zola, Maria del Carmen Marquetti, Guillaume Binene Mbuka, Gillon Ilombe, Richard Mundeke Takasongo, Nathalie Smitz, Juan Andre Bisset, Wim Van Bortel and Veerle Vanlerberghe

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:92

    Content type: Research

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  6. The Barotse floodplains of the upper Zambezi River and its tributaries are a highly dynamic environment, with seasonal flooding and transhumance presenting a shifting mosaic of potential larval habitat and hum...

    Authors: Dónall Eoin Cross, Chris Thomas, Niall McKeown, Vincent Siaziyu, Amy Healey, Tom Willis, Douglas Singini, Francis Liywalii, Andrew Silumesii, Jacob Sakala, Mark Smith, Mark Macklin, Andy J. Hardy and Paul W. Shaw

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:91

    Content type: Research

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  7. Spots and coloring patterns evaluated quantitatively can be used to discriminate and identify possible cryptic species. Species included in the Triatoma dimidiata (Reduviidae: Triatominae) complex are major disea...

    Authors: Daryl D. Cruz, Dennis Denis, Elizabeth Arellano and Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:90

    Content type: Research

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  8. Fecal examinations in pet cats and dogs are key components of routine veterinary practice; however, their accuracy is influenced by diagnostic methodologies and the experience level of personnel performing the...

    Authors: Yoko Nagamori, Ruth Hall Sedlak, Andrew DeRosa, Aleah Pullins, Travis Cree, Michael Loenser, Benjamin S. Larson, Richard Boyd Smith, Cory Penn and Richard Goldstein

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:89

    Content type: Short report

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  9. Taenia spp. are responsible for a substantial health and economic burden in affected populations. Knowledge of the fate of the eggs of Taenia spp. in the environment and of other factors facilitating the transmis...

    Authors: Famke Jansen, Pierre Dorny, Sarah Gabriël, Veronique Dermauw, Maria Vang Johansen and Chiara Trevisan

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:88

    Content type: Review

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  10. Small non-coding RNAs play critical regulatory roles in post-transcription. However, their characteristics in Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of human sexually transmitted trichomoniasis, still remain ...

    Authors: Zhen-Sheng Wang, Hong-Chang Zhou, Chun-Yan Wei, Zhi-Hua Wang, Xiao Hao, Lian-Hui Zhang, Jing-Zhong Li, Zeng-Lei Wang and Heng Wang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:87

    Content type: Research

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  11. With the rapid development and spread of resistance to insecticides among anopheline malaria vectors, the efficacy of current World Health Organization (WHO)-approved insecticides targeting these vectors is un...

    Authors: Elodie Ekoka, Surina Maharaj, Luisa Nardini, Yael Dahan-Moss and Lizette L. Koekemoer

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:86

    Content type: Review

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  12. Numerous laboratory and fewer field-based studies have found that ixodid ticks develop more quickly and survive better at temperatures between 18 °C and 26 °C and relative humidity (RH) between 75 and 94%. Ixodes...

    Authors: Natasha Bansal, William E. Pomroy, Allen C. G. Heath and Isabel Castro

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:85

    Content type: Research

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  13. Malaria transmission persists despite the scale-up of interventions such as long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Understanding the entomological drivers of transmis...

    Authors: Brian Bartilol, Irene Omedo, Charles Mbogo, Joseph Mwangangi and Martin K. Rono

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:84

    Content type: Review

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  14. The guts of blood-sucking insects host a community of bacteria that can shift dramatically in response to biotic and abiotic factors. Identifying the key factors structuring these microbial communities has imp...

    Authors: Ephantus J. Muturi, Teresia M. Njoroge, Christopher Dunlap and Carla E. Cáceres

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:83

    Content type: Research

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  15. Since the late 1990s, malaria control programmes have relied extensively on mass bednet distribution and indoor residual spraying. Both interventions use pesticides and target mosquitoes coming indoors either ...

    Authors: Amadou Guindo, Patric Stephane Epopa, Sidy Doumbia, Abdoul-Azize Millogo, Brehima Diallo, Franck Adama Yao, Bilkissou Yagoure, Frederic Tripet, Abdoulaye Diabate and Mamadou B. Coulibaly

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:82

    Content type: Research

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  16. Nosema bombycis is a unicellular eukaryotic pathogen of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and is an economic and occupational hazard in the silkworm industry. Because of its long incubation period and horizontal and ver...

    Authors: Shiyi Zheng, Yukang Huang, Hongyun Huang, Bin Yu, Ni Zhou, Junhong Wei, Guoqing Pan, Chunfeng Li and Zeyang Zhou

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:81

    Content type: Research

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  17. Trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma vivax is one of the diseases threatening the health and productivity of livestock in Africa and Latin America. Trypanosoma vivax is mainly transmitted by tsetse flies; however...

    Authors: Eyerusalem Fetene, Samson Leta, Fikru Regassa and Philippe Büscher

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:80

    Content type: Research

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  18. Mosquitoes are vectors for diseases such as dengue, malaria and La Crosse virus that significantly impact the human population. When multiple mosquito species are present, the competition between species may a...

    Authors: Emma Stump, Lauren M. Childs and Melody Walker

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:79

    Content type: Research

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  19. Hammondia hammondi and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related protozoan parasites, but only T. gondii is zoonotic. Both species use felids as definitive hosts and cannot be differentiated by oocyst morphology. In

    Authors: Gereon Schares, Majda Globokar Vrhovec, Mareen Tuschy, Maike Joeres, Andrea Bärwald, Bretislav Koudela, Jitender P. Dubey, Pavlo Maksimov and Franz J. Conraths

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:78

    Content type: Research

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  20. Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with a complex life cycle and a cosmopolitan host range. The asexual part of its life cycle can be perpetually sustained in a variety of intermediate hosts through a comb...

    Authors: Wen Han Tong, Chris Pavey, Ryan O’Handley and Ajai Vyas

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:77

    Content type: Primer

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  21. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak to be a pandemic. As the mosquito season progressed, the understandable concern that mosquitoes c...

    Authors: Claudia Fortuna, Fabrizio Montarsi, Francesco Severini, Giulia Marsili, Luciano Toma, Antonello Amendola, Michela Bertola, Alice Michelutti, Silvia Ravagnan, Gioia Capelli, Giovanni Rezza and Marco Di Luca

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:76

    Content type: Short report

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  22. Mosquito-borne diseases are a global health problem, causing hundreds of thousands of deaths per year. Pathogens are transmitted by mosquitoes feeding on the blood of an infected host and then feeding on a new...

    Authors: Fiona Teltscher, Sophie Bouvaine, Gabriella Gibson, Paul Dyer, Jennifer Guest, Stephen Young and Richard J. Hopkins

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:75

    Content type: Research

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  23. Two species of deer ked (Lipoptena cervi and L. mazamae) have been identified as vectors of Bartonella bacteria in cervids in Europe and the USA. In an earlier study we showed that Japanese sika deer (Cervus nipp...

    Authors: Shingo Sato, Hidenori Kabeya, Sayuri Ishiguro, Yasuhiro Shibasaki and Soichi Maruyama

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:73

    Content type: Research

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  24. Myanmar commenced a lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination programme in 2000. Whilst the country has made considerable progress since then, a number of districts have demonstrated persistent transmission after ...

    Authors: Benjamin F. R. Dickson, Patricia M. Graves, Ni Ni Aye, Thet Wai Nwe, Tint Wai, San San Win, Myint Shwe, Janet Douglass, Peter Wood, Kinley Wangdi and William J. McBride

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:72

    Content type: Research

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  25. Detection of Dirofilaria immitis, or heartworm, through antigen in sera is the primary means of diagnosing infections in dogs. In recent years, the practice of heat-treating serum prior to antigen testing has dem...

    Authors: Jeff M. Gruntmeir, Nina M. Thompson, Maureen T. Long, Byron L. Blagburn and Heather D. S. Walden

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:71

    Content type: Short report

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  26. Schistosomes are trematode worms that dwell in their definitive host’s blood vessels, where females lay eggs that need to be discharged into the environment with host excreta to maintain their life-cycle. Both...

    Authors: Jean Pierre Kambala Mukendi, Risa Nakamura, Satoshi Uematsu and Shinjiro Hamano

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:70

    Content type: Research

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  27. Cryptosporidiosis is a gastrointestinal disease with global distribution. It has been a reportable disease in Canada since 2000; however, routine molecular surveillance is not conducted. Therefore, sources of ...

    Authors: Rebecca A. Guy, Christine A. Yanta, Pia K. Muchaal, Marisa A. Rankin, Karine Thivierge, Rachel Lau and Andrea K. Boggild

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:69

    Content type: Research

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  28. The DeWorm3 project is an ongoing cluster-randomised trial assessing the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) through mass drug administration (MDA) using study site...

    Authors: James E. Truscott, Robert J. Hardwick, Marleen Werkman, Puthupalayam Kaliappan Saravanakumar, Malathi Manuel, Sitara S. R. Ajjampur, Kristjana H. Ásbjörnsdóttir, Kalua Khumbo, Stefan Witek-McManus, James Simwanza, Gilles Cottrell, Parfait Houngbégnon, Moudachirou Ibikounlé, Judd L. Walson and Roy M. Anderson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:67

    Content type: Research

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  29. The waterborne pathogens Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Cyclospora cayetanensis can cause intestinal diseases in humans. An understanding of their occurrence and transport i...

    Authors: Yingying Fan, Xinrui Wang, Ruohong Yang, Wentao Zhao, Na Li, Yaqiong Guo, Lihua Xiao and Yaoyu Feng

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:66

    Content type: Research

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  30. Rickettsia spp. are human pathogens that cause a number of diseases and are transmitted by arthropods, such as ixodid ticks. Estonia is one of few regions where the distribution area of two medically important ti...

    Authors: Maria Vikentjeva, Julia Geller, Jaanus Remm and Irina Golovljova

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:65

    Content type: Research

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  31. Semi-field experiments with human landing catch (HLC) measure as the outcome are an important step in the development of novel vector control interventions against outdoor transmission of malaria since they pr...

    Authors: Adrian Denz, Margaret M. Njoroge, Mgeni M. Tambwe, Clara Champagne, Fredros Okumu, Joop J. A. van Loon, Alexandra Hiscox, Adam Saddler, Ulrike Fillinger, Sarah J. Moore and Nakul Chitnis

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:64

    Content type: Research

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  32. The rapid growth of Qatar in the last two decades has been associated with an enormous expansion of building programs in its cities and in the provision of new service industries. This in turn has attracted a ...

    Authors: Nadin Younes, Jerzy M. Behnke, Ahmed Ismail and Marawan A. Abu-Madi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:63

    Content type: Research

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  33. Soil-transmitted helminthiases are important neglected tropical diseases that result in a notably high number of disability-adjusted life years worldwide. Characterizing the interactions between the human inte...

    Authors: Hongliang Chen, Matteo Mozzicafreddo, Elisa Pierella, Vanessa Carletti, Angela Piersanti, Said M. Ali, Shaali M. Ame, Chunfeng Wang and Cristina Miceli

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:62

    Content type: Research

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  34. Babesia is a protozoan parasite that infects red blood cells in some vertebrates. Some species of Babesia can induce zoonoses and cause considerable harm. As the largest immune organ in mammals, the spleen plays ...

    Authors: Xiaomin Xue, Shuguang Ren, Xiaohong Yang, Abolfazl Masoudi, Yuhong Hu, Xiaoshuang Wang, Hongxia Li, Xiaojing Zhang, Minjing Wang, Hui Wang and Jingze Liu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:61

    Content type: Research

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  35. Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of vertebrate hosts and transmit the widest range of pathogenic organisms of any arthropod vector. Seven tick species are known to feed on bare-nosed wombats (Vomba...

    Authors: Danielle Beard, Hayley J. Stannard and Julie M. Old

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:60

    Content type: Research

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  36. The rapid spread of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors and the rebound in malaria cases observed recently in some endemic areas underscore the urgent need to evaluate and deploy new effective control in...

    Authors: Dieudonné Diloma Soma, Barnabas Zogo, Domonbabele François de Sales Hien, Aristide Sawdetuo Hien, Didier Alexandre Kaboré, Mahamadi Kientega, Anicet Georges Ouédraogo, Cédric Pennetier, Alphonsine Amanan Koffi, Nicolas Moiroux and Roch Kounbobr Dabiré

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:58

    Content type: Research

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  37. The avian haematophagous ectoparasite Dermanyssus gallinae, commonly known as the poultry red mite, causes significant economic losses to the egg-laying industry worldwide and also represents a significant welfar...

    Authors: Wan Chen, Kathryn Bartley, Francesca Nunn, Alan S. Bowman, Jeremy M. Sternberg, Stewart T. G. Burgess, Alasdair J. Nisbet and Daniel R. G. Price

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:57

    Content type: Research

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  38. Species of Sarcocystis are parasitic protozoa in poikilothermic and homeothermic animals. Out of the 26 valid species in birds as intermediate hosts, none has been reported in those of the order Musophagiformes, ...

    Authors: Ondřej Máca and David González-Solís

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:56

    Content type: Research

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  39. Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses and inflict biting nuisance on humans, companion animals and livestock. In temperate regions, tr...

    Authors: Laura A. Tugwell, Marion E. England, Simon Gubbins, Christopher J. Sanders, Jessica E. Stokes, Joanne Stoner, Simon P. Graham, Alison Blackwell, Karin E. Darpel and Simon Carpenter

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:55

    Content type: Research

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  40. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) are of public health concern in Merti sub-County, Kenya, but epidemiological data on transmission, vector abundance, distribution, and res...

    Authors: Barrack O. Owino, Jackline Milkah Mwangi, Steve Kiplagat, Hannah Njiriku Mwangi, Johnstone M. Ingonga, Alphine Chebet, Philip M. Ngumbi, Jandouwe Villinger, Daniel K. Masiga and Damaris Matoke-Muhia

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:53

    Content type: Research

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  41. With visceral leishmaniasis (VL) incidence at its lowest level since the 1960s, increasing attention has turned to early detection and investigation of outbreaks.

    Authors: Khushbu Priyamvada, Joy Bindroo, Madan Prashad Sharma, Lloyd A. C. Chapman, Pushkar Dubey, Tanmay Mahapatra, Allen W. Hightower, Caryn Bern and Sridhar Srikantiah

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:52

    Content type: Research

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  42. Borrelia miyamotoi, a bacterium that causes relapsing fever, is found in ixodid ticks throughout the northern hemisphere. The first cases of human infection with B. miyamotoi were identified in 2011. In the easte...

    Authors: F. Keesing, D. J. McHenry, M. H. Hersh and R. S. Ostfeld

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:51

    Content type: Research

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  43. In the 1980s and 1990s, great strides were taken towards the elimination of tsetse and animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) in Zimbabwe. However, advances in recent years have been limited. Previously freed ar...

    Authors: William Shereni, Luis Neves, Rafael Argilés, Learnmore Nyakupinda and Giuliano Cecchi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:50

    Content type: Research

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  44. The lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum), an important vector of a wide range of human and animal pathogens, is very common throughout the East and Midwest of the USA. Ticks are known to carry non-pathogenic bac...

    Authors: L. Paulina Maldonado-Ruiz, Saraswoti Neupane, Yoonseong Park and Ludek Zurek

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:49

    Content type: Research

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  45. The Eucotylidae Cohn, 1904 (Superfamily: Microphalloidea), is a family of digeneans parasitic in kidneys of birds as adults. The group is characterized by the high level of morphological similarities among gen...

    Authors: Suleman, Nehaz Muhammad, Mian Sayed Khan, Vasyl V. Tkach, Hanif Ullah, Muhammad Ehsan, Jun Ma and Xing-Quan Zhu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:48

    Content type: Research

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