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  1. Sand flies are vectors of Leishmania spp., the causative agents of leishmaniasis in vertebrates, including man. The sand fly saliva contains powerful pharmacologically active substances that prevent hemostasis an...

    Authors: Rafael Nacif-Pimenta, Luciana C. Pinto, Vera Volfova, Petr Volf, Paulo F. P. Pimenta and Nagila F. C. Secundino

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:441

    Content type: Research

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  2. Although Plasmodium parasites and intestinal helminths share common endemic areas, the mechanisms of these co-infections on the host immune response remain not fully understood. Liver involvement in severe Plasmo...

    Authors: Xu Mei, Zhanhong Ye, Yuqing Chang, Shiguang Huang, Jianping Song and Fangli Lu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:440

    Content type: Research

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  3. Mosquito rearing containers contain organic-rich water that nourishes numerous bacteria, some of which are capable of forming biofilms. Biofilm is broadly an extracellular polymeric matrix (EPS) in which livin...

    Authors: Catherine M. Hunt, C. Matilda Collins and Mark Q. Benedict

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:439

    Content type: Short report

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  4. Rodents, globally overpopulated, are an important source for zoonotic disease transmission to humans, including Enterocytozoon bieneusi (one of the most prevalent zoonotic pathogens). Here, we studied the prevale...

    Authors: Wei Zhao, Huanhuan Zhou, Ling Yang, Tianming Ma, Jingguo Zhou, Haiju Liu, Gang Lu and Huicong Huang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:438

    Content type: Research

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  5. An accurate understanding of the geographical distributions of both soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) and...

    Authors: Gemechu Tadesse Leta, Kalkidan Mekete, Yonas Wuletaw, Abeba Gebretsadik, Heven Sime, Sindew Mekasha, Adugna Woyessa, Oumer Shafi, Jozef Vercruysse, Jack E. T. Grimes, Iain Gardiner, Michael French, Bruno Levecke, Lesley Drake, Wendy Harrison and Alan Fenwick

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:437

    Content type: Research

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  6. Schistosoma japonicum, which inhabits the mesenteric vein of the mammalian hosts for about 20 to 30 years, is subjected to the oxidative stresses from the host defense mechanism during their intra-mammalian stage...

    Authors: Minh-Anh Dang-Trinh, Jose Ma. M. Angeles, Kharleezelle J. Moendeg, Adrian Miki C. Macalanda, Thu-Thuy Nguyen, Luna Higuchi, Shotaro Nakagun, Masashi Kirinoki, Yuichi Chigusa, Yasuyuki Goto and Shin-ichiro Kawazu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:436

    Content type: Research

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  7. Micro (mi)RNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that function in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. This study investigated host miRNA activity in the innate immune response...

    Authors: Guiling Zhang, Yajun Zhang, Ziwen Niu, Chenrong Wang, Fujie Xie, Juanfeng Li, Sumei Zhang, Meng Qi, Fuchun Jian, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang and Rongjun Wang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:435

    Content type: Research

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  8. Triatomines are hematophagous insects that play an important role as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. These insects have adapted to multiple blood-feeding sources that can affe...

    Authors: Luisa M. Arias-Giraldo, Marina Muñoz, Carolina Hernández, Giovanny Herrera, Natalia Velásquez-Ortiz, Omar Cantillo-Barraza, Plutarco Urbano, Andrés Cuervo and Juan David Ramírez

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:434

    Content type: Research

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  9. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are extensively used to dissect the molecular mechanisms of host-parasite interactions in human pathogens. However, ecological studies have yet to fully exploit th...

    Authors: Kristina Noreikiene, Mikhail Ozerov, Freed Ahmad, Toomas Kõiv, Siim Kahar, Riho Gross, Margot Sepp, Antonia Pellizzone, Eero J. Vesterinen, Veljo Kisand and Anti Vasemägi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:433

    Content type: Research

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  10. The tick vector Rhipicephalus microplus which transmits Babesia spp. and rickettsial pathogens has not been reported in Kenya since 1998. More recently, the pathogenic Babesia bovis has been detected in cattle bl...

    Authors: Esther G. Kanduma, David Emery, Naftaly W. Githaka, Edward K. Nguu, Richard P. Bishop and Jan Šlapeta

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:432

    Content type: Research

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  11. The characterization of Leishmania species is important for clinical management of the diseases and the epidemiological control of the parasite distribution. Most of the published polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ...

    Authors: Mahmoud Nateghi Rostami, Fatemeh Darzi, Mahin Farahmand, Mohsen Aghaei and Parviz Parvizi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:431

    Content type: Research

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  12. Malaria is still a heavy public health concern in Madagascar. Few studies combining parasitology and entomology have been conducted despite the need for accurate information to design effective vector control ...

    Authors: Jessy Goupeyou-Youmsi, Tsiriniaina Rakotondranaivo, Nicolas Puchot, Ingrid Peterson, Romain Girod, Inès Vigan-Womas, Richard Paul, Mamadou Ousmane Ndiath and Catherine Bourgouin

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:430

    Content type: Research

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  13. In the inner city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, insecticide resistance is expected in the main dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, because of the intensive local application of pyrethroid insecticides. However, detailed in...

    Authors: Juli Rochmijati Wuliandari, Ary A. Hoffmann, Warsito Tantowijoyo and Nancy M. Endersby-Harshman

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:429

    Content type: Research

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  14. Ticks are hematophagous arthropods responsible for maintenance and transmission of several pathogens of veterinary and medical importance. Current knowledge on species diversity and pathogens transmitted by ti...

    Authors: ThankGod E. Onyiche, Cristian Răileanu, Oliver Tauchmann, Susanne Fischer, Ana Vasić, Mandy Schäfer, Abdullahi A. Biu, Ndudim I. Ogo, Oriel Thekisoe and Cornelia Silaghi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:428

    Content type: Research

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  15. Investigating malaria transmission dynamics is essential to inform policy decision making. Whether multiplicity of infection (MOI) dynamic from individual infections could be a reliable malaria metric in high ...

    Authors: Paul Sondo, Karim Derra, Toussaint Rouamba, Seydou Nakanabo Diallo, Paul Taconet, Adama Kazienga, Hamidou Ilboudo, Marc Christian Tahita, Innocent Valéa, Hermann Sorgho, Thierry Lefèvre and Halidou Tinto

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:427

    Content type: Research

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  16. Avian schistosomes, the causative agents of human cercarial dermatitis (or swimmer’s itch), die in mammals but the mechanisms responsible for parasite elimination are unknown. Here we examined the role of reac...

    Authors: Tomáš Macháček, Barbora Šmídová, Jan Pankrác, Martin Majer, Jana Bulantová and Petr Horák

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:426

    Content type: Research

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  17. Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic pathogen worldwide. Extensive genetic diversity and complex population structures exist in C. parvum in different geographical regions and hosts. Unlike the IIa subtype family...

    Authors: Zhenjie Zhang, Suhui Hu, Wentao Zhao, Yaqiong Guo, Na Li, Zezhong Zheng, Longxian Zhang, Martin Kváč, Lihua Xiao and Yaoyu Feng

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:425

    Content type: Research

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  18. Gastrointestinal nematodes could release excretory-secretory (ES) proteins into the host environment to ensure their survival. These ES proteins act as immunomodulators to suppress or subvert the host immune r...

    Authors: Mingmin Lu, Xiaowei Tian, Yang Zhang, Kalibixiati Aimulajiang, Wenjuan Wang, Muhammad Ehsan, Charles Li, Ruofeng Yan, Lixin Xu, Xiaokai Song and Xiangrui Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:424

    Content type: Research

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  19. Understanding the mechanisms used by Anopheles mosquitoes to survive insecticide exposure is key to manage existing insecticide resistance and develop more suitable insecticide-based malaria vector control interv...

    Authors: Seun M. Atoyebi, Genevieve M. Tchigossou, Romaric Akoton, Jacob M. Riveron, Helen Irving, Gareth Weedall, Eric Tossou, Innocent Djegbe, Isaac O. Oyewole, Adekunle A. Bakare, Charles S. Wondji and Rousseau Djouaka

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:423

    Content type: Research

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  20. Almost 1000 cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis have been registered yearly in Rondônia State, Brazil. Little is known about the Leishmania transmission cycle (vectors and reservoirs) in the state. This stu...

    Authors: Paula de Oliveira Leão, Antonio Marques Pereira Júnior, Paula Frassinetti Medeiros de Paulo, Luis Paulo Costa Carvalho, Ana Beatriz Nascimento Souza, Michelli Santos da Silva, Thaís Santos Castro, Moisés Thiago de Souza Freitas, Moreno Magalhães de Souza Rodrigues, Gabriel Eduardo Melim Ferreira and Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:422

    Content type: Research

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  21. Dengue virus (DENV) is a flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes that is prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries and has four serotypes (DENV1-4). Aedes aegypti, as the main transmission vector of DENV, exhi...

    Authors: Man-jin Li, Ce-jie Lan, He-ting Gao, Dan Xing, Zhen-yu Gu, Duo Su, Tong-yan Zhao, Hui-ying Yang and Chun-xiao Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:421

    Content type: Research

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  22. Ticks and fleas are considered amongst the most important arthropod vectors of medical and veterinary concern due to their ability to transmit pathogens to a range of animal species including dogs, cats and hu...

    Authors: Viet-Linh Nguyen, Vito Colella, Grazia Greco, Fang Fang, Wisnu Nurcahyo, Upik Kesumawati Hadi, Virginia Venturina, Kenneth Boon Yew Tong, Yi-Lun Tsai, Piyanan Taweethavonsawat, Saruda Tiwananthagorn, Sahatchai Tangtrongsup, Thong Quang Le, Khanh Linh Bui, Thom Do, Malaika Watanabe…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:420

    Content type: Research

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  23. Since 2012, the World Health Organisation and the countries affected by the Gambian form of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) have been committed to eliminating the disease, primarily through active case-fin...

    Authors: Jean-Baptiste Rayaisse, Fabrice Courtin, Mahamat Hisséne Mahamat, Mahamat Chérif, Wilfrid Yoni, Nadmba M. O. Gadjibet, Mallaye Peka, Philippe Solano, Steve J. Torr and Alexandra P. M. Shaw

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:419

    Content type: Research

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  24. The Lake Victoria basin is one of the most persistent hotspots of schistosomiasis in Africa, the intestinal form of the disease being studied more often than the urogenital form. Most schistosomiasis studies h...

    Authors: Fred D. Chibwana, Immaculate Tumwebaze, Anna Mahulu, Arthur F. Sands and Christian Albrecht

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:418

    Content type: Research

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  25. The mosquito Aedes aegypti is a devastating disease vector transmitting several important human arboviral diseases. In its native range in Africa, the mosquito can be found in both the ancestral forest habitat an...

    Authors: Siyang Xia, Luciano V. Cosme, Joel Lutomiah, Rosemary Sang, Marc F. Ngangue, Nil Rahola, Diego Ayala and Jeffrey R. Powell

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:417

    Content type: Research

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  26. Under-regulated national borders in Southeast Asia represent potential regions for enhanced parasitic helminth transmission and present barriers to helminthiasis disease control.

    Authors: Poom Adisakwattana, Tippayarat Yoonuan, Orawan Phuphisut, Akkarin Poodeepiyasawat, Nirundorn Homsuwan, Catherine A. Gordon, Donald P. McManus, Louise E. Atkinson, Angela Mousley and Geoffrey N. Gobert

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:416

    Content type: Research

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  27. Leishmaniasis is a serious health problem in some parts of the world. In spite of the many known leishmaniasis control measures, the disease has continued to increase in endemic areas, and no effective vaccine...

    Authors: Samira Salari, Iraj Sharifi, Ali Reza Keyhani and Pooya Ghasemi Nejad Almani

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:415

    Content type: Research

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  28. The endosymbiont bacterium Wolbachia is maternally inherited and naturally infects some filarial nematodes and a diverse range of arthropods, including mosquito vectors responsible for disease transmission in hum...

    Authors: Meng Li Wong, Jonathan Wee Kent Liew, Wai Kit Wong, Sandthya Pramasivan, Norzihan Mohamed Hassan, Wan Yusoff Wan Sulaiman, Nantha Kumar Jeyaprakasam, Cherng Shii Leong, Van Lun Low and Indra Vythilingam

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:414

    Content type: Research

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  29. There has been no evidence of transmission of mosquito-borne arboviruses of equine or human health concern to date in the UK. However, in recent years there have been a number of outbreaks of viral diseases sp...

    Authors: Gail E. Chapman, Ken Sherlock, Jenny C. Hesson, Marcus S. C. Blagrove, Gareth J. Lycett, Debra Archer, Tom Solomon and Matthew Baylis

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:413

    Content type: Research

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  30. How anopheline mosquitoes persist through the long dry season in Africa remains a gap in our understanding of these malaria vectors. To span this period in locations such as the Sahelian zone of Mali, mosquito...

    Authors: Benjamin J. Krajacich, Margery Sullivan, Roy Faiman, Laura Veru, Leland Graber and Tovi Lehmann

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:412

    Content type: Research

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  31. The genus Marshallagia (Family Haemonchidae, subfamily Ostertagiinae) contains multiple species of nematodes parasitising the abomasum (or duodenum) of ruminants, in particular of Caprinae. Male specimens have be...

    Authors: Abdurakhim Kuchboev, Khanifakhon Sobirova, Rokhatoy Karimova, Oybek Amirov, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna and Jürgen Krücken

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:411

    Content type: Research

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  32. Pediculus humanus, which includes two ecotypes (body and head lice), is an obligate bloodsucking parasite that co-evolved with their human hosts over thousands of years, thus providing a valuable source of inform...

    Authors: Celia Scherelle Boumbanda-Koyo, Oleg Mediannikov, Nadia Amanzougaghene, Sandrine Lydie Oyegue-Liabagui, Roméo Karl Imboumi-Limoukou, Didier Raoult, Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki and Florence Fenollar

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:410

    Content type: Research

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  33. The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected millions of people worldwide. Recent evidence raised the question about the po...

    Authors: Margarita Villar, Isabel G. Fernández de Mera, Sara Artigas-Jerónimo, Marinela Contreras, Christian Gortázar and José de la Fuente

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:409

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  34. To predict the risk of tick-borne disease, it is critical to understand the ecological factors that determine the abundance of ticks. In Europe, the sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus) transmits a number of important dis...

    Authors: Cindy Bregnard, Olivier Rais and Maarten Jeroen Voordouw

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:408

    Content type: Research

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  35. Drastic increases of dengue fever (DF) over the past few years have prompted studies on the development of resistance to insecticides in the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus). In Sri Lanka control of the ...

    Authors: H. Sachini D. Fernando, Karla Saavedra-Rodriguez, Rushika Perera, William C. Black IV and B. G. D. Nissanka Kolitha De Silva

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:407

    Content type: Research

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  36. Parasitic infections may cause significant effects on behavior, learning, and memory of the host. In the brain of mice heavily infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, severe damage has been observed in the hip...

    Authors: Kai-Yuan Jhan, Guan-Jhih Lai, Pi-Kai Chang, Ren-Yu Tang, Chien-Ju Cheng, Kuang-Yao Chen and Lian-Chen Wang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:405

    Content type: Research

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  37. Masked palm civets are known to play an important role in the transmission of some zoonotic pathogens. However, the distribution and zoonotic potential of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia duodenalis and Cryptospo...

    Authors: Zhengjie Yu, Xi Wen, Xitong Huang, Ruohong Yang, Yaqiong Guo, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao and Na Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:403

    Content type: Research

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  38. Host specificity is one of the outputs of the coevolution between parasites and their associated hosts. Several scenarios have been proposed to explain the pattern of parasite distribution in parental and hybr...

    Authors: Vadym Krasnovyd, Lukáš Vetešník and Andrea Šimková

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:402

    Content type: Research

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  39. To understand the dynamics of malaria transmission, membrane feeding assays with glass feeders are used to assess the transmission potential of malaria infected individuals to mosquitoes. However, in some circ...

    Authors: Wouter Graumans, Roel Heutink, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Teun Bousema and Katharine A. Collins

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:401

    Content type: Research

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  40. Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan infecting almost one-third of the world’s population. Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein 18 (TgROP18) is a key virulence factor determining the parasite’s acute viru...

    Authors: Ling Kong, Dan Jiang, Cheng He, Jing Xia, Haixia Wei, Lijuan Zhou and Hongjuan Peng

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:400

    Content type: Research

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  41. Different methods have been used to preserve phlebotomine sand flies for research purposes, including for taxonomic studies and detection of Leishmania spp. Here, we evaluated the effect of various preservation m...

    Authors: Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva Sales, Débora Elienai de Oliveira Miranda, Fernando José da Silva, Domenico Otranto, Luciana Aguiar Figueredo and Filipe Dantas-Torres

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:399

    Content type: Research

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  42. Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that recently emerged in the South Pacific islands and Americas where unprecedented outbreaks were reported. Although Aedes aegypti is considered to be the main ve...

    Authors: Yann Gomard, Cyrille Lebon, Patrick Mavingui and Célestine M. Atyame

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:398

    Content type: Research

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  43. Schistosomiasis remains prevalent in Africa, Asia and South America with an estimated burden of 1.9 million disability-adjusted life years in 2016. Targeting snails as a key to success for schistosomiasis cont...

    Authors: Juan Qiu, Rendong Li, Hong Zhu, Jing Xia, Ying Xiao, Duan Huang and Yong Wang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:397

    Content type: Research

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  44. Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of abortion in small ruminants and presents a zoonotic risk when undercooked meat containing cysts is consumed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic diver...

    Authors: Mercedes Fernández-Escobar, Rafael Calero-Bernal, Julio Benavides, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, María Cristina Guerrero-Molina, Daniel Gutiérrez-Expósito, Esther Collantes-Fernández and Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:396

    Content type: Research

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  45. Arthropod borne virus infections are the cause of severe emerging diseases. Among the diseases due to arboviruses, dengue (DEN) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) are in the top ten in the list of diseases responsibl...

    Authors: Séverine Licciardi, Etienne Loire, Eric Cardinale, Marie Gislard, Emeric Dubois and Catherine Cêtre-Sossah

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:395

    Content type: Research

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  46. Historically, Anopheles atroparvus has been considered one of the most important malaria vectors in Europe. Since malaria was eradicated from the European continent, the interest in studying its vectors reduced s...

    Authors: Lotty Birnberg, Carles Aranda, Sandra Talavera, Ana I. Núñez, Raúl Escosa and Núria Busquets

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:394

    Content type: Methodology

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  47. Culicoides biting midges are vectors involved in the biological transmission cycle of important animal diseases such as bluetongue and African horse sickness. In Romania, the first outbreaks of bluetongue were re...

    Authors: Doru Hristescu, Florica Bărbuceanu, Lenuța Dascălu, Cristina Nițescu, Maria Goffredo, Adriana Santilli, Michela Quaglia, Thomas Balenghien and Gabriel Predoi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:393

    Content type: Research

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  48. Giardia duodenalis is one of the most prevalent and highly diverse human parasites, encompassing a complex of eight genetically distinct assemblages, each further divided into sub-assemblages. While in recent yea...

    Authors: Carmen Costache, Zsuzsa Kalmár, Horațiu Alexandru Colosi, Alina Mihaela Baciu, Răzvan Vlad Opriş, Adriana Györke and Ioana Alina Colosi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:387

    Content type: Research

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