TIMPs of parasitic helminths – a large-scale analysis of high-throughput sequence datasets
© Cantacessi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 5 April 2013
Accepted: 28 May 2013
Published: 30 May 2013
Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs) are a multifunctional family of proteins that orchestrate extracellular matrix turnover, tissue remodelling and other cellular processes. In parasitic helminths, such as hookworms, TIMPs have been proposed to play key roles in the host-parasite interplay, including invasion of and establishment in the vertebrate animal hosts. Currently, knowledge of helminth TIMPs is limited to a small number of studies on canine hookworms, whereas no information is available on the occurrence of TIMPs in other parasitic helminths causing neglected diseases.
In the present study, we conducted a large-scale investigation of TIMP proteins of a range of neglected human parasites including the hookworm Necator americanus, the roundworm Ascaris suum, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini, as well as the schistosome blood flukes. This entailed mining available transcriptomic and/or genomic sequence datasets for the presence of homologues of known TIMPs, predicting secondary structures of defined protein sequences, systematic phylogenetic analyses and assessment of differential expression of genes encoding putative TIMPs in the developmental stages of A. suum , N. americanus and Schistosoma haematobium which infect the mammalian hosts.
A total of 15 protein sequences with high homology to known eukaryotic TIMPs were predicted from the complement of sequence data available for parasitic helminths and subjected to in-depth bioinformatic analyses.
Supported by the availability of gene manipulation technologies such as RNA interference and/or transgenesis, this work provides a basis for future functional explorations of helminth TIMPs and, in particular, of their role/s in fundamental biological pathways linked to long-term establishment in the vertebrate hosts, with a view towards the development of novel approaches for the control of neglected helminthiases.
Parasitic helminths cause devastating diseases in humans and animals worldwide [1, 2]. Amongst these parasites, soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), including Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus (hookworms), Ascaris sp. (roundworms) and Trichuris spp. (whipworms), are estimated to infect over one-sixth of all humans [1, 2], while trematodes, including the blood flukes Schistosoma spp. and the carcinogenic liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini, affect >200 million people worldwide [3–5].
Traditionally, the control of helminth infections has relied on the repeated and frequent use of anthelmintics [6, 7], which is likely to lead to the development of drug resistance against the compounds administered (cf. [8–10]). Indeed, some studies [11–15] have reported a reduction in efficacy of mebendazole and pyrantel in N. americanus and A. duodenale in areas of Mali, North-Western Australia and Zanzibar, which has been attributed to emerging anthelmintic resistance. Given the limited knowledge of the molecular mechanisms linked to the development of drug resistance in parasitic helminths , as well as the unavailability of effective vaccines, much attention is now directed towards the identification of novel targets for intervention [7, 17]. A detailed understanding of the molecular biology of parasitic helminths, and in particular of the structure and function of key genes and gene products playing essential roles in host-parasite interactions, could provide a basis for the design of novel therapeutics.
Among several groups of helminth molecules involved in the host-parasite interplay, protease inhibitors have been the subject of intense investigations due to their roles in a range of fundamental molecular processes, including regulation of host proteases and modulation of the host’s immune response . Amongst these molecules, the inhibitors of cysteine- and serine-proteases (= cystatins and serpins, respectively; MEROPS family I25 and I04, respectively) are known to participate in the cascades of molecular events leading to parasite development through the larval stages (cystatins) , as well as in the inhibition of host molecules responsible for the initiation of blood coagulation (serpins) [20, 21]. In addition, both molecular groups have been proposed to play key roles in the evasion and modulation of the immune response of the vertebrate host [19, 21, 22]. In contrast to data on cystatins and serpins, knowledge of the biological roles of parasite-derived tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs) is limited. Eukaryote TIMPs are a multifunctional family of inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), including collagenases and gelatinases, which function as important regulators of extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover, tissue remodelling and cellular behaviour . The N-terminal domain of TIMPs contains a netrin module (=‘NTR’; Prosite: PDOC50189) which, in addition to harbouring the functional site responsible for the primary metalloprotease inhibitory activity, is associated with a range of biological roles, including axon guidance, regulation of cell-cell interactions during embryogenesis, cell proliferation, angiogenesis and pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways [23, 24]. The NTR domain of TIMPs is also found in other groups of proteins, such as the frizzled-related (PDOC50038) and the laminyn-type EGF-like (PDOC00961) proteins, in which it fulfills distinct biological roles (cf. ).
In the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum, TIMPs are abundant components of the excretory/secretory (ES) products of the adult worm [25–27]. Ac-TMP-1 and Ac-TMP-2, two abundantly expressed TIMPs recognized by sera from dogs vaccinated with irradiated third-stage larvae (L3s) of A. caninum, were proposed to play key roles in the host-parasite interplay [25, 27]. To date, no data on the occurrence of TIMP homologues/orthologues in other parasitic helminths is available. Over the last decade, advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and bioinformatics [28–31] have provided the infrastructure for large-scale analyses of the genomes and transcriptomes of a range of parasitic helminths of public health significance, including the nematodes N. americanus, Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis and Trichinella spiralis (gastrointestinal nematodes) [32–36] and the trematodes Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum, S. haematobium (blood flukes), C. sinensis and O. viverrini (liver flukes) [37–41]. These advances have resulted in an expansion of sequence data available in public databases (e.g., http://www.gasserlab.org/, http://www.genedb.org/, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/, http://nematode.net/NN3_frontpage.cgi and http://www.sanger.ac.uk/research/projects/parasitegenomics/), which represent an invaluable resource for studies of TIMPs in parasitic helminths. In the present study, we (i) conducted the first large-scale investigation of TIMP proteins in a range of parasitic helminths of both human and veterinary health significance; (ii) inferred phylogenetic relationships between/among helminth TIMPs based on predictions of secondary structures of protein sequences; and (iii) investigated differences in the levels of transcription of genes encoding putative TIMPs in different developmental stages of A. suum (cf. ), N. americanus (cf. ) and S. haematobium (cf. ).
Sequence data, and identification and bioinformatic analyses of TIMPs
The sequence data obtained from public sequence databases (i.e. National Center for Biotechnology Information at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/; ENSEMBL Genome Browser at http://www.ensembl.org/index.html; WormBase, at http://www.wormbase.org; GeneDB at http://www.genedb.org/; http://www.gasserlab.org) [32–34, 39, 40, 42–45] and analysed herein included known TIMP amino acid sequences from Homo sapiens (GenBank accession numbers XP_010392.1, NP_003246.1, P35625.1 and Q99727.1), Mus musculus (accession numbers P12032.2, P25785.2, P39876.1 and Q9JHB3.1), Canis familiaris (AF112115.1), Gallus gallus (AAB69168.1), Oryctolagus cuniculus (AAB35920.1), Drosophila melanogaster (AAL39356.1), A. caninum (AF372651.1 and EU523698.1), A. duodenale (ABP88131.1) and Caenorhabditis elegans (NP_505113.1), as well as predicted peptides inferred from (i) the whole or draft genome sequences of S. mansoni, S. japonicum, S. haematobium (http://www.genedb.org), A. suum (http://www.wormbase.org), T. spiralis (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/316979833), Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti (human filarial nematodes) (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/; ), N. americanus (human hookworm; ), and (ii) the transcriptomes of T. suis (swine whipworm), Oesophagostomum dentatum (swine nodule worm) (http://www.gasserlab.org), Dictyocaulus filaria (sheep lungworm; ) and C. sinensis, O. viverrini (human liver flukes), Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica (bovine and deer liver fluke, respectively) (http://www.gasserlab.org). The algorithms BLASTp  and InterProScan  were used to identify TIMP proteins in each of the genomic and transcriptomic datasets based on sequence homology (e-value cut-off: 10-5) with known TIMP proteins from eukaryotes . In addition, the software pScan (http://www.psc.edu/general/software/packages/emboss/appgroups/pscan.html) was used to identify regular-expression based diagnostic patterns for TIMPs (Prosite: PS00288). Signal peptides were also predicted using the program SignalP 3.0, employing both the neural network and hidden Markov Models . Putative ES TIMP proteins were identified based on the presence of a signal peptide and sequence homology to one or more known ES proteins listed in the Secreted Protein (http://spd.cbi.pku.edu.cn/; ) and the Signal Peptide (http://proline.bic.nus.edu.sg/spdb/index.html; ) databases.
Secondary structure predictions and homology modelling
Structure-based sequence alignments of TIMP proteins were computed and manually edited with SBAL  guided by secondary structure elements predicted using the PSIPRED software . Individual structure-based alignments of amino acid sequences were subjected to analysis by Bayesian inference (BI) using the program MrBayes v.3.1.2  and verified by Maximum Likelihood analysis using the program MEGA v.5  and the Jones-Taylor-Thornton substitution model with uniform rates among sites (JTT + G + I). Each BI analysis was conducted for 1,000,000 generations (ngen = 1,000,000), with every 100-th tree being saved, using the following parameters: rates = gamma, aamodelpr = mixed, and the other parameters left at the default settings. Tree and branch lengths were measured employing the parameter ‘sumt burnin = 1000’; an unrooted, consensus tree was constructed, with ‘contype = halfcompat’ nodal support being determined using consensus posterior probabilities and displayed employing the software FigTree (http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/figtree/). For selected TIMPs, homologues with known three-dimensional structures were identified using the protein-fold recognition software pGenTHREADER  and selected as templates for comparative modelling using MODELLER . Twenty independent models were generated, and the model with the lowest energy was selected, its geometry analysed using PROCHECK  and then inspected visually with PyMOL .
Assessment of levels of transcription of TIMP-encoding genes
The raw sequence reads derived from each of the non-normalized cDNA libraries from A. suum infective L3s (iL3s; from eggs), migrating L3s (from liver and lung), fourth-stage larvae (L4s, from the small intestine) and muscular and reproductive tissues from each adult male and female , N. americanus iL3s and adults (mixed males and females) , as well as S. haematobium eggs and adult male and female  were mapped to the longest contigs encoding individual putative TIMP proteins using the program SOAP2 . Briefly, raw sequence reads were aligned to the non-redundant transcriptomic data, such that each raw sequence read was uniquely mapped (i.e. to a unique transcript). Reads that mapped to more than one transcript (designated ‘multi-reads’) were randomly assigned to a unique transcript, such that they were recorded only once. To provide a relative assessment of transcript abundance, the number of raw reads that mapped to each sequence was normalized for length (i.e. reads per kilobase per million reads, RPKM) [34, 40, 63].
Results and discussion
TIMP proteins of parasitic helminths
Number of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases (TIMP) and netrin module (NTR)-containing protein sequences, respectively, identified in each sequence dataset and listed according to taxa
TIMPs (no. with SP)
NTR-module containing proteins (no. with SP)
Of the eight genes encoding putative TIMPs in N. americanus, transcription of NECAME_13168 and NECAME_07191 was significantly up-regulated in iL3s (cf. Table 1; ), thus supporting a role for these proteins in the infection process of the human host. Conversely, NECAME_08457 and NECAME_08458 displayed high transcription levels in adult N. americanus (cf. Table 1; ), which likely reflects a diversification of function of members of this protein family in different developmental stages of this parasite. In the future, studies of differential transcription of genes encoding TIMPs in both genders and different tissues of N. americanus may help elucidate the roles that these molecules play in the fundamental molecular biology of the adult nematode. In A. suum, transcription of GS_04796 was significantly up-regulated in the adult female reproductive tissue of this nematode, whereas GS_21732 was up-regulated in the male muscle (cf. Table 1; cf. ). The putative TIMP proteins encoded by GS_04796 and GS_21732 share ~40% similarity with C. elegans CRI-2 (WBGene00019478; http://www.wormbase.org), the expression of which has been localized to the body wall musculature and to the vulval, anal and pharyngeal muscles of the adult nematode (cf. http://www.wormbase.org). In C. elegans, cri-2 is known to function in the cascade of molecular events linked to the regulation of the innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) . In a previous study, inhibition by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of the M. musculus ortholog of C. elegans cri-2 in a mouse macrophage cell line stimulated with Escherichia coli LPS resulted in decreased production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) . This cytokine, in vivo, is associated with a wide range of biological activities, which include the generation of acute-phase reactions in response to infections by pathogens . The putative role/s that parasite homologs of C. elegans cri-2 play in the modulation of innate immunity in vertebrate hosts remain/s unknown. However, recent evidence that recombinant Ac-TMP-1 promotes the development of a regulatory immune response by modifying the functions of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and subsequent development of regulatory T cells , supports a key role for this TIMP in establishing an anti-inflammatory environment.
In flatworms, the S. haematobium gene A_01727 encoded the only trematode TIMP protein that could be identified using computational methods. Analysis of transcriptional regulation of S. haematobium A_01727 in different developmental stages revealed that this molecule is up-regulated in the adult male of this parasitic trematode (Table 1; cf. ). The transcript encoding mouse TIMP-1 is up-regulated in male gonads during testis morphogenesis, while expression of the corresponding protein was restricted to the cords of foetal testes . In addition, the human and mouse genes encoding TIMP-2 are known to include the differential display clone 8 (DDC8) gene, whose transcription is enhanced during spermatogenesis . These observations, together with earlier findings of increased expression of TIMP-1 in human foetal Sertoli cells [72, 73] and testicular expression of TIMP-2 in rats , led to the hypothesis that these molecules may play specific roles during testis organogenesis and development , as well as in the migration of germ cells through the seminiferous epithelium . Therefore, it is tempting to speculate a role for S. haematobium A_01727 in biological processes linked to the reproductive activity of the adult male fluke; however, this hypothesis requires rigorous testing. In the future, genetic manipulation of N. americanus, A. suum and S. haematobium by RNA interference (RNAi) and/or transgenesis [75–78], may help elucidate the function/s of putative helminth TIMPs in the reproductive biology of these organisms, as well as in other fundamental molecular processes, for instance those linked to host invasion and modulation of the host’s innate immune response.
Structural analyses of eukaryote TIMPs
Three-dimensional structures of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs) and their complexes available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB;) as of Nov 2012 http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/home/home.do
PDB accession code
The main interactions of TIMPs with their target proteases are formed by a continuous peptide at the N-terminal end (Cys1-Pro5 in human TIMP-1) and in a loop connecting two adjacent β-strands (Met66-Cys70 in human TIMP-1). The two regions are covalently linked by a disulphide bond (Cys1-Cys70 in human TIMP-1), and are located in the netrin module (N-TIMP) of the protein which adopts the fold of a five-stranded α-barrel with Greek key topology (OB-fold) flanked by two α-helices. The N-terminus of N-TIMP inserts into the active site of the target protease and the α-amino and the carbonyl group of Cys-1 (human TIMP-1) coordinate the active site zinc ion of the protease by displacing a water molecule otherwise bound to the metal . Residue 2 (Ser, Thr) projects into the specificity (S1′) pocket of the protease. Residues 3–5 interact with the protease residues in the primed subsites, which normally harbour substrate residues C-terminal of the scissile bond. Similarly, residues 66–70 of TIMP-1 occupy the non-primed subsites of the protease that otherwise interact with the residues N-terminal to the scissile bond.
As apparent from the structure-based amino acid sequence alignment (Figure 1), TIMPs from parasitic helminths are characterised by higher sequence variation than their mammalian homologues, in accordance with the results of previous analyses of invertebrate TIMPs . With respect to structure-function relationships, however, the most important feature grafted onto the netrin fold seems to be the conformation neighbouring Cys-1. In vertebrate TIMPs, 2 is either a serine or threonine that projects into the protease specificity pocket. It is important to note that neither Ac-TMP-1 nor Ac-TMP-2 have been convincingly shown (via 1:1 inhibitor:enzyme molar ratios) to possess MMP inhibitory activity. Moreover, AceES-2 produced with a flush N-terminus was screened for MMP activity at 15:1 and 115:1 molar ratios and did not display inhibitory activity (cf. ). The amino acid sequence alignment in Figure 1 highlights the general motif of TIMPs, C-X-C, in this region. It shows for the helminth TIMP with published inhibitory activity, Ac-TMP-2, that in addition to serine and threonine, lysine is a tolerated residue at position 2 for inhibition. Notably, AceES-2 and Ad-TIMP-1 from A. duodenale lack the second cysteine residue as well as a suitable residue at position 2 (Ser/Thr/Lys) able to protrude into the S1′ pocket of the protease for inhibition (cf. Figure 1). On this basis, one would predict Ad-TIMP-1 to not have any MMP-inhibitory activity. Thus, helminth TIMPs that show conservation at position 2 are likely to display inhibitory activities against human MMPs. The S. haematobium protein encoded by A_01727 possesses two residues (Arg-Ser) between the two N-terminal cysteine residues, which makes the prediction of functional effects difficult in the absence of experimental structures.
The current availability of ‘-omics’ technologies, applied to in-depth investigations of pathogens causing neglected diseases [31, 92–94], are becoming pivotal for a better understanding of the structure and function of TIMP proteins in different species and developmental stages of parasitic helminths. For instance, data from in-depth comparative structural analyses between helminth TIMPs and their vertebrate counterparts, will be crucial in future studies aimed at assessing the suitability of parasite TIMPs as novel targets for intervention. Supported by the availability of the whole-genome sequences of, for instance, schistosomes and A. suum[34, 37, 38, 40] and by current efforts to expand genomic sequencing to other neglected parasites (e.g. hookworms; ), the application of gene manipulation technologies such as RNAi and/or transgenesis [94, 96, 97], will allow the function of helminth TIMP proteins in fundamental biological pathways to be elucidated. Perhaps the most important question that is yet to be addressed in any depth is the function of helminth TIMPs. Are they inhibitors of metalloproteases? Is their primary purpose to suppress inflammation, and if so, how do they do it? We hope that the molecular information provided herein on parasitic helminth TIMPs will provide a framework on which to build intensive research activities around this intriguing family of proteins and their roles in host-parasite interactions.
This work was supported by a program grant from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC). AL and CC are supported by a NHMRC principal research fellowship and early-career research fellowship, respectively. The authors would like to thank Dr Alex Strongin (Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA) for helpful discussions on TIMP/MMP interactions.
- Hotez PJ, Brindley PJ, Bethony JM, King CH, Pearce EJ: Helminth infections: the great neglected tropical diseases. J Clin Invest. 2008, 118: 1311-1321.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lustigman S, Prichard RK, Gazzinelli A, Grant WN, Boatin BA: A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: the problem of helminthiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012, 6: e1582-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rollinson D: A wake up call for urinary schistosomiasis: reconciling research effort with public health importance. Parasitology. 2009, 136: 1593-1610.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shin HR, Oh JK, Masuyer E, Curado MP, Bouvard V: Epidemiology of cholangiocarcinoma: an update focusing on risk factors. Cancer Sci. 2010, 101: 579-585.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fried B, Reddy A, Mayer D: Helminths in human carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett. 2011, 305: 239-249.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Keiser J, Utzinger J: The drugs we have and the drugs we need against major helminth infections. Adv Parasitol. 2010, 73: 197-230.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Caffrey CR, Secor WE: Schistosomiasis: from drug deployment to drug development. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2011, 24: 410-417.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wolstenholme AJ, Fairweather I, Prichard R, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G, Sangster NC: Drug resistance in veterinary helminths. Trends Parasitol. 2004, 20: 469-476.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beech RN, Skuce P, Bartley DJ, Martin RJ, Prichard RK: Anthelmintic resistance: markers for resistance, or susceptibility?. Parasitology. 2011, 138: 160-174.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hoste H, Torres-Acosta JF: Non chemical control of helminths in ruminants: adapting solutions for changing worms in a changing world. Vet Parasitol. 2011, 180: 144-154.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- De Clercq D, Sacko M, Behnke J, Gilbert F, Dorny P: Failure of mebendazole in treatment of human hookworm infections in the southern region of Mali. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1997, 57: 25-30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reynoldson JA, Behnke JM, Pallant LJ, Macnish MG, Gilbert F: Failure of pyrantel in treatment of human hookworm infections (Ancylostoma duodenale) in the Kimberley region of north west Australia. Acta Trop. 1997, 68: 301-312.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sacko M, De Clercq D, Behnke JM, Gilbert FS, Dorny P: Comparison of the efficacy of mebendazole, albendazole and pyrantel in treatment of human hookworm infections in the southern region of Mali, West Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1999, 93: 195-203.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Albonico M, Engels D, Savioli L: Monitoring drug efficacy and early detection of drug resistance in human soil-trasmitted nematodes: a pressing public health agenda for helminth control. Int J Parasitol. 2004, 34: 1205-1210.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kotze AC, Kopp SR: The potential impact of density dependent fecundity on the use of the faecal egg count reduction test for detecting drug resistance in human hookworms. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008, 2: e297-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gilleard JS, Beech RN: Population genetics of anthelmintic resistance in parasitic nematodes. Parasitology. 2007, 134: 1133-1147.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kotze AC: Target-based and whole-worm screening approaches to anthelmitic discovery. Vet Parasitol. 2012, 186: 118-123.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Knox DP: Proteinase inhibitors and helminth parasite infection. Parasite Immunol. 2007, 29: 57-71.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klotz C, Ziegler T, Danilowicz-Luebert E, Hartmann S: Cystatins of parasitic organisms. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2011, 712: 208-221.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cappello M, Vlasuk GP, Bergum PW, Huang S, Hotez PJ: Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide: a hookworm-derived inhibitor of human anticoagulant factor Xa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1995, 92: 6152-6156.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Molehin AJ, Gobert GN, McManus DP: Serine protease inhibitors of parasitic helminths. Parasitology. 2012, 139: 681-695.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hartmann S, Lucius R: Modulation of host immune responses by nematode cystatins. Int J Parasitol. 2003, 33: 1291-1302.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brew K, Nagase H: The tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs): an ancient family with structural and functional diversity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010, 1803: 55-71.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bányai L, Patthy L: The NTR module: domains of netrins, secreted frizzled related proteins, and type I procollagen C-proteinase enhancer protein are homologous with tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases. Protein Sci. 1999, 8: 1636-1642.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhan B, Badamchian M, Meihua B, Ashcom J, Feng J: Molecular cloning and purification of Ac-TMP, a developmentally regulated putative tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease released in relative abundance by adult Ancylostoma hookworm. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002, 66: 238-244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhan B, Gupta R, Wong SPY, Bier S, Jiang D: Molecular cloning and characterization of Ac-TMP-2, a tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase secreted by adult Ancylostoma caninum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2008, 162: 142-148.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mulvenna J, Hamilton B, Nagaraj SH, Smyth D, Loukas A: Proteomics analysis of the excretory/secretory component of the blood-feeding stage of the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009, 8: 109-121.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Margulies M, Egholm M, Altman WE, Attiya S, Bader JS: Genome sequencing in microfabricated high-density picolitre reactors. Nature. 2005, 437: 376-380.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bentley DR, Balasubramanian S, Swerdlow HP, Smith GP, Milton J: Accurate whole human genome sequencing using reversible terminator chemistry. Nature. 2008, 456: 53-59.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harris TD, Buzby PR, Babcock H, Beer E, Bowers J: Single-molecule DNA sequencing of a viral genome. Science. 2008, 320: 106-109.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cantacessi C, Campbell BE, Gasser RB: Key strongylid nematodes of animals – impact of next-generation transcriptomics on systems biology and biotechnology. Biotechnol Adv. 2012, 30: 469-488.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cantacessi C, Mitreva M, Jex AR, Young ND, Campbell BE: Massively parallel sequencing and analysis of the Necator americanus transcriptome. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010, 4: e684-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cantacessi C, Young ND, Nesjum P, Jex AR, Campbell BE: The transcriptome of Trichuris suis – first molecular insights into a parasite with curative properties for key immune diseases of humans. PLoS One. 2011, 6: e23590-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jex AR, Liu S, Li B, Young ND, Hall RS: Ascaris suum draft genome. Nature. 2011, 479: 529-533.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mitreva M, Jasmer JP, Zarlenga DS, Wang Z, Abubucker S: The draft genome of the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis. Nat Genet. 2011, 43: 228-235.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tang Y, Gao X, Rosa B, Abubucker S, Hallsworth-Pepin K: Genome of the human hookworm Necator americanus. 2013, submitted for publication,Google Scholar
- Berriman M, Haas BJ, LoVerde PT, Wilson RA, Dillon GP: The genome of the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. Nature. 2009, 460: 352-358.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The Schistosoma japonicum Genome Sequencing and Functional Analysis Consortium: The Schistosoma japonicum genome reveals features of host-parasite interplay. Nature. 2009, 460: 345-351.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Young ND, Campbell BE, Hall RS, Jex AR, Cantacessi C: Unlocking the transcriptomes of two carcinogenic parasites, Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010, 4: e719-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Young ND, Jex AR, Li B, Liu S, Yang L: Whole genome sequence of Schistosoma haematobium. Nat Genet. 2012, 44: 221-225.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang X, Chen W, Huang Y, Sun J, Men J: The draft genome of the carcinogenic human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis. Genome Biol. 2011, 12: R107-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cantacessi C, Jex AR, Hall RS, Young ND, Campbell BE: A practical, bioinformatic workflow system for large data sets generated by next-generation sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010, 38: e171-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Young ND, Hall RS, Jex AR, Cantacessi C, Gasser RB: Elucidating the transcriptome of Fasciola hepatica – a key to fundamental and biotechnological discoveries for a neglected parasite. Biotechnol Adv. 2010, 28: 222-231.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Young ND, Jex AR, Cantacessi C, Hall RS, Campbell BE: A portrait of the transcriptome of the neglected trematode, Fasciola gigantica – biological and biotechnological implications. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011, 5: e1004-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Flicek P, Ridwan Amode M, Barrell D, Beal K, Brent S: Ensembl 2012. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012, 40: D84-D90.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ghedin E, Wang S, Spiro D, Caler E, Zhao Q: Draft genome of the filarial nematode parasite Brugia malayi. Science. 2007, 317: 1756-1760.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mangiola S, Young ND, Korhonen P, Mondal A, Scheerlinck JP: Getting the most out of parasitic helminth transcriptomes using HelmDB: implications for biology and biotechnology. Biotechnol Adv. 2013, in pressGoogle Scholar
- Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ: Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. J Mol Biol. 1990, 215: 403-410.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hunter S, Jones P, Mitchell A, Apweiler R, Attwood TK: InterPro in 2011: new developments in the family and domain prediction database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012, 40: D306-D312.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Docherty AJ, Lyons A, Smith BJ, Wright EM, Stephens PE: Sequence of human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases and its identity to erythroid-potentiating activity. Nature. 1985, 318: 66-69.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bendtsen JD, Nielsen H, von Heijne G, Brunak S: Improved prediction of signal peptides: SignalP 3.0. J Mol Biol. 2004, 340: 783-795.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen Y, Zhang Y, Yin Y, Gao G, Li S: SPD—a web based secreted protein database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005, 33: D169-D173.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Choo KH, Tan TW, Ranganathan S: SPdb – a signal peptide database. BMC Bioinformatics. 2005, 6: 249-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang CK, Broder U, Weeratunga SK, Gasser RB, Loukas A: SBAL: a practical tool to generate and edit structure-based amino acid sequence alignments. Bioinformatics. 2012, 28: 1026-1027.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McGuffin LJ, Bryson K, Jones DT: The PSIPRED protein structure prediction server. Bioinformatics. 2000, 16: 404-405.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck J: MRBAYES 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics. 2003, 19: 1572-1574.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M: MEGA5: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distances, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol. 2011, 28: 2731-2739.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lobley A, Sadowski MI, Jones DT: pGenTHREADER and pDomTHREADER: new methods for improved protein fold recognition and superfamily discrimination. Bioinformatics. 2009, 25: 1761-1767.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sali A, Blundell T: Comparative protein modelling by satisfaction of spatial restraints. J Mol Biol. 1993, 234: 779-815.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Laskowski R, MacArthur M, Moss D, Thornton J: PROCHECK: A program to check the stereochemical quality of protein structures. J Appl Cryst. 1993, 26: 283-291.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- DeLano W: The PyMOL Molecular Graphics System. 2002,http://www.pymol.org/,Google Scholar
- Li R, Yu C, Li Y, Lam TW, Yiu SM: SOAP2: an improved ultrafast tool for short read alignment. Bioinformatics. 2009, 25: 1966-1967.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mortazavi A, Williams BA, McCue K, Schaeffer L, Wold B: Mapping and quantifying mammalian transcriptomes by RNA-Seq. Nat Methods. 2008, 6: S22-S32.Google Scholar
- Kucera K, Harrison LM, Cappello M, Modis Y: Ancylostoma ceylanicum excretory-secretory protein 2 adopts a netrin-like fold and defines a novel family of nematode proteins. J Mol Biol. 2011, 408: 9-17.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bungiro RD, Cappello M: Detection of excretory/secretory coproantigens in experimental hookworm infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005, 73: 915-920.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bungiro RD, Solis CV, Harrison LM, Cappello M: Purification and molecular cloning of and immunization with Ancylostoma ceylanicum excretory-secretory protein 2, an immunoreactive protein produced by adult hookworms. Infect Immun. 2004, 72: 2203-2213.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alper S, Laws R, Lackford B, Boyd WA, Dunlap P: Identification of innate immunity genes and pathways using a comparative genomics approach. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008, 105: 7016-7021.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ding C, Cicuttini F, Li J, Jones G: Targeting IL-6 in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2009, 18: 1457-1466.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cuellar C, Wu W, Mendez S: The hookworm tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases (Ac-TMP-1) modifies dendritic cell function and induces generation of CD4 and CD8 suppressor T cells. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009, 3: e439-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guyot R, Magre S, Leduque P, Le Magueresse-Battistoni B: Differential expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases type 1 (TIMP-1) during mouse gonad development. Dev Dyn. 2003, 227: 357-366.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jaworski DM, Beem-Miller M, Lluri G, Barrantes-Reynolds R: Potential regulatory relationship between the nested gene DDC8 and its host gene tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2. Physiol Genomics. 2007, 28: 168-178.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sharpe RM: Regulation of spermatogenesis. The physiology of reproduction. Edited by: Knobil E, Neill JD. 1994, New York: Raven Press, 1363-1434.Google Scholar
- Robinson LL, Sznajder NA, Riley SC, Anderson RA: Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in human fetal testis and ovary. Mol Hum Reprod. 2001, 7: 641-648.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grima J, Calcagno K, Cheng CY: Purification, cDNA cloning, and developmental changes in the steady-state mRNA level of rat testicular tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-2 (TIMP-2). J Androl. 1996, 17: 263-275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fire A, Xu S, Montgomery MK, Kostas SA, Driver SE: Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature. 1998, 391: 806-811.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Islam MK, Miyoshi T, Yamada M, Tsuij N: Pyrophosphatase of the roundworm Ascaris suum plays an essential role in the worm’s molting and development. Infect Immun. 2005, 73: 1995-2004.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rinaldi G, Okatcha TI, Popratiloff A, Ayuk MA, Suttiprapa S: Genetic manipulation of Schistosoma haematobium, the neglected schistosome. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011, 5: e1348-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rinaldi G, Eckert SE, Tsai IJ, Suttiprapa S, Kines KJ: Germline transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis in Schistosoma mansoni mediated by murine leukemia virus. PLoS Pathog. 2012, 8: e1002810-View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brew K, Dinakarpandian D, Nagase H: Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases: evolution, structure and function. Biochim Biophys Acta, Prot Struct Mol Enzymol. 2000, 1477: 267-283.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Murphy G, Houbrechts A, Cockett MI, Williamson RA, O’Shea M: The N-terminal domain of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases retains metalloproteinase inhibitory activity. Biochemistry. 1991, 30: 8097-8102.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Langton KP, Barker MD, McKie N: Localization of the functional domains of human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 and the effects of a Sorsby’s fundus dystrophy mutation. J Biol Chem. 1998, 273: 16778-16781.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- De Clerck YA, Yean TD, Lee Y, Tomich JM, Langley KE: Characterization of the functional domain of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2). Biochem J. 1993, 289: 65-69.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Willenbrock F, Crabbe T, Slocombe PM, Sutton CW, Docherty AJP: The activity of the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases is regulated by C-terminal domain interactions: a kinetic analysis of the inhibition of gelatinase A. Biochemistry. 1993, 32: 4330-4337.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ko YC, Langley KE, Mendiaz EA, Parker VP, Taylor SM: The C-terminal domain of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 is required for cell binding but not for antimetalloproteinase activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997, 236: 100-105.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meng Q, Malinovskii V, Huang W, Hu YJ, Chung L: Residue 2 of TIMP-1 is a major determinant of affinity and specificity for matrix metalloproteinases but effects of substitutions do not correlate with those of the corresponding P1′ residue of substrate. J Biol Chem. 1999, 274: 10184-10189.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huang W, Suzuki K, Nagase H, Arumugam S, Van Doren SR: Folding and characterisation of the amino-terminal domain of human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) expressed at high yield in E. coli. FEBS Lett. 1996, 384: 155-161.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Amour A, Slocombe PM, Webster A, Butler M, Knight CG: TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) is inhibited by TIMP-3. FEBS Lett. 1998, 435: 39-44.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kashiwagi M, Tortorella M, Nagase H, Brew K: TIMP-3 is a potent inhibitor of aggrecanase 1 (ADAM-TS4) and aggrecanase 2 (ADAM-TS5). J Biol Chem. 2001, 276: 12501-12504.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Olson MW, Gervasi DC, Mobahsery S, Fridman R: Kinetic analysis of the binding of human matrix metalloproteinse-2 and −9 to tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2). J Biol Chem. 1997, 272: 29975-29983.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hutton M, Willenbrock F, Brocklehurst K, Murphy G: Kinetic analysis of the mechanism of interaction of full-length TIMP-2 and gelatinase A – evidence for the existence of a low affinity intermediate. Biochemistry. 1998, 37: 10094-10098.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee MH, Atkinson S, Murphy G: Identification of the Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Binding Motifs of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases (TIMP)-3 and Effective Transfer to TIMP-1. J Biol Chem. 2007, 282: 6887-6898.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Webster JP, Oliviera G, Rollinson D, Gower CM: Schistosome genomes: a wealth of information. Trends Parasitol. 2010, 26: 103-106.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Loukas A, Gaze S, Mulvenna JP, Gasser RB, Brindley PJ: Vaccinomics for the major blood feeding helminths of humans. OMICS. 2011, 15: 567-577.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hagen J, Lee EF, Fairlie WD, Kalinna BH: Functional genomics approaches in parasitic helminths. Parasite Immunol. 2012, 34: 163-182.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kumar S, Koutsovoulos G, Kaur G, Blaxter M: Toward 959 nematode genomes. Worm. 2012, 1: 1-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kalinna BH, Brindley PJ: Manipulating the manipulators: advances in parasitic helminth transgenesis and RNAi. Trends Parasitol. 2007, 23: 197-204.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Selkirk ME, Huang SC, Knox DP, Britton C: The development of RNA interference (RNAi) in gastrointestinal nematodes. Parasitology. 2012, 139: 605-612.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.