- Open Access
Purification and characterization of a novel defensin from the salivary glands of the black fly, Simulium bannaense
- Lin Wei†2,
- Lixian Mu†1,
- Yipeng Wang3,
- Hui Bian1,
- Jun Li1,
- Yiling Lu4,
- Yi Han1,
- Tong Liu1,
- Jing Lv1,
- Cuiping Feng1,
- Jing Wu1Email author and
- Hailong Yang1Email author
© Wei et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015
Received: 10 October 2014
Accepted: 16 January 2015
Published: 4 February 2015
Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are haematophagous insects that can cause allergic reactions and act as vectors of pathogens. Although their saliva has been thought to contain a diverse array of physiologically active molecules, little information is available on antimicrobial factors in black fly salivary glands, especially no defensins have been reported so far.
A novel cationic defensin designated SibaDef was purified using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) from the salivary glands of the black fly Simulium bannaense. The amino acid sequence of SibaDef was determined by a combination method of automated Edman degradation and cDNA sequencing. The morphologic changes of Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus subtilis treated with SibaDef were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to analyze the expression of SibaDef mRNA in whole bodies of insects after oral infection with the bacteria S. aureus or B. subtilis.
Surprisingly, the phylogenetic analysis of defensin-related amino acid sequences demonstrated that SibaDef is most closely related to defensins from the human body louse Pediculus humanus corporis (Anoplura: Pediculidae), rather than to other dipteran defensins. SibaDef showed potent antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.83 μM to 2.29 μM. SEM analysis indicated that SibaDef killed microorganisms through the disruption of cell membrane integrity. The transcript levels of SibaDef in the bacteria-immunized flies increased with the time course, reaching maximum at 36 h and then slowly decreased from that time point.
Our results indicate that SibaDef is involved in the innate humoral response of the black fly S. bannaense, and it might play a significant role in the defence against microorganisms in both sugar and blood meals.
Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are closely related to some blood-sucking insects such as mosquitoes and biting midges [1,2]. They are not only a biting nuisance for humans and livestock but also transmit diseases including human onchocerciasis (river blindness) caused by the nematode Onchocerca volvulus and livestock disease caused by vesicular stomatitis virus [3-5]. To facilitate a blood meal, haematophagous Diptera have developed an extraordinary array of salivary proteins that can overcome the host’s hemostatic barriers, as well as suppressing inflammatory and immunologic reactions [6-9]. In addition, these Diptera also take sugar meals.
Several salivary anti-haemostatic factors have been identified from black fly, including inhibitors of coagulation factors (Factor Xa, V and thrombin), potent vasodilators (Simulium vittatum erythema proteins, SVEPs) and anti-platelet aggregation factors (apyrase) [10-16]. Hyaluronidase and immunomodulatory activities have also been described in S. vittatum salivary gland extract [5,17,18].
As an important hematophagous arthropod, there was not much information available about pharmacologically active compounds in black fly salivary glands, until salivary transcriptomes have been made and described from three black fly species (S. guianense, S. vittatum and S. nigrimanum) [19-21]. In these studies, many more substances with potential anti-haemostatic functions or immunity-related activities have been uncovered. Immunity-related gene products including six antimicrobial peptides of the cecropin family, nine lysozymes, and three members of the Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein, have been identified from these three species. However, no antimicrobial peptide (AMP) belonging to the defensin family has so far been biochemically characterized from black fly.
Insect defensins are a class of gene-encoded effector molecules of innate immunity. They have six strictly conserved cysteine residues linked in the 1–4, 2–5, 3–6 pattern, except for the antifungal peptide drosomycin from Drosophila melanogaster, which has eight cysteine residues forming four stabilizing disulfide bridges . So far, more than 60 defensins have been identified from different species of insect orders (Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Isoptera, Coleoptera and Odonata) [22,23], The majority of insect defensins were isolated from the haemolymph, fat body or midgut of bacteria-immunized larvae [24-27], while such defensins were seldom reported from the saliva or salivary glands. In the current work, we firstly report the purification and characterization of the defensin from the black fly salivary glands.
Black fly salivary gland dissection
Adult S. bannaense (about 2,000 flies) were collected near streams in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China (21.556°N 101.162°E). The collections were made in five months (April-May, September-October 2013; May 2014). The black fly salivary glands (1,800 pairs) used for protein extraction (1,660 pairs) or total RNA extraction (140 pairs), were dissected in ice cold HEPES saline (10 mM HEPES pH 7.2, 150 mM NaCl) using fine entomological needles under a tereomicroscope, and stored in liquid nitrogen until use. The study was approved by the Animal Care and Use Ethics Committee of Kunming Medical University.
MALDI-TOF MS analysis
1 μl of the eluted peak with antimicrobial activity was spotted onto a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) plate with 1 μl of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid matrix (10 mg/ml in 60% acetonitrile) and analyzed by an UltraFlex I mass spectrometer (Bruker Daltonics, Germany) in a positive ion mode.
cDNA library construction and screening of cDNA encoding defensin
Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, USA) from salivary glands of S. bannaense. mRNA was purified from the total RNA by affinity chromatography in oligo(dT) cellulose columns (Promega, USA) and then used for cDNA library construction by the In-Fusion SMARTer™ Directional cDNA Library Construction Kit (Takara, Japan) according to the instructions of the manufacturer.
Primer sequences used for cloning and qPCR in this study
Sequence (5′ → 3′)
3′ PCR primer
3′ end screening
3′ end screening
5′ end screening
5′ PCR primer
5′ end screening
SibaDef - F2
SibaDef - R2
Deduced defensin sequence was performed with ExPASy Translate Tool (http://web.expasy.org/translate/). Database searches were performed with Blastx (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/), and the amino acid sequence identity between defensin sequences was aligned using ClustalW (http://embnet.vital-it.ch/software/ClustalW.html) . The theoretical isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight (Mw) were carried out using ExPASy Compute pI/Mw tool (http://web.expasy.org/compute_pi/) . The dendrogram was drawn using the neighbor-joining (NJ) method in the Mega 5 package. A total of 1,000 bootstrap replicates were used to test the reliability of each branch.
The microbicidal activity of SibaDef was evaluated as described in our previous papers [6,30]. Briefly, bacteria were cultured in Mueller-Hinton broth (MH broth) at 37°C to exponential phase and diluted with fresh MH broth to 5 × 105 colony-forming units (CFUs)/ml. Aliquots (50 μl) of serial dilutions of sample were dispensed into a 96-well microtiter plate and mixed with 50 μl of bacteria inoculums in MH broth. The microtiter plate was incubated at 37°C for 18 h, and the absorbance at 600 nm was measured using an automatic microplate spectrophotometer. The minimal concentrations at which no growth of microorganisms occurred were recorded as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC).
Hemolytic assay was conducted as previously reported . Serial dilutions of SibaDef were incubated with washed human erythrocytes at 37°C for 30 min and then the cells were centrifuged at 1,000 × g for 5 min. The absorbance of supernatant was measured at 540 nm. 1% (v/v) Triton X-100 was used to determine the maximal hemolysis and 0.9% saline was used as negative control.
The morphologic changes of the bacteria treated with SibaDef were assessed by SEM as previously reported . Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus ATCC 6538 and B. subtilis ATCC 6633 were cultured in MH broth to exponential phase respectively, and then incubated with SibaDef (1 × MIC) at 37°C for 45 min. After a centrifugation at 1,000 × g for 10 min, bacteria pellets were fixed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde solution for 2 h at 4°C. The bacteria were postfixed in 1% osmium tetroxide for 2 h at 4°C, and dehydrated in a graded series of alcohols. After being mounted onto aluminium stubs and vacuum sputter-coated with gold, the samples were observed with a Hitachi S-4800 SEM under standard operating conditions.
Bacterial feed experiment was carried out as previously described . The collected S. bannaense (200 flies) were fed with 70% sucrose solution ad libitum. After starving for 12 hour, black flies were fed through cotton wool with 20% sucrose solution (OD600 = 0.2) containing Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus ATCC 6538 or B. subtilis ATCC 6633. All the black flies, including the naïve (sugar fed controls), were kept under controlled conditions of temperature (26 ± 2°C), humidity (85-90%), and photoperiod (12 h/12 h). Total RNA was extracted from whole bodies of immune stimulated or naive insects at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h after feeding and processed immediately as described below.
qPCR was performed to analyze the expression of SibaDef mRNA in whole bodies of immune stimulated or naive insects, with the housekeeping gene β-actin as an endogenous control. As listed in Table 1, primers for SibaDef amplification were designed on the SibaDef cDNA sequence, and β-actin was amplified using primers based on the sequence from black fly S. vittatum (GenBank accession number AY083375.1). PrimeScript® Reverse Transcriptase (Takara, Japan) and SYBR green master mix (Takara, Japan) were used following the manufacturer’s instruction.
q-PCR was performed on a Realplex Mastercycler real-time PCR system (Eppendorf, Germany) with the following parameters: 95°C for 2 min, and 40 cycles of 95°C for 30 s,60°C for 30 s. SibaDef mRNA expression level was calculated following normalization to β-actin by ΔΔCt method. The accuracy of qPCR was verified by melt curve analysis.
Defensin homology modeling was performed by Easymodeller version 2.0 . The solution NMR structure of Sapecin (PDB entry code 1L4V) from Sarcophaga peregrine (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was used as the template because this defensin antimicrobial peptide shared the highest identity of 44% with SibaDef. The comparative three-dimensional structure model of SibaDef was optimized using PYMOL software (http://www.pymol.org).
Data and statistical analysis
Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism 5.0 (GraphPad Software Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) and Stata 10.0 software (StataCorporation, College Station, TX, USA). Data were presented as mean ± standard errors of mean, and compared using two-tailed equal variance Student’s t-test. P < 0.05 was considered as statistical significance.
Characterization of SibaDef
BLAST search indicated that the amino acid sequence identity between SibaDef and their homologues from different insect species varied widely, ranging from 52% to 67%. Surprisingly, SibaDef shared the highest identity of 67% (31/46) with the defensin-2 from the human body louse P. humanus corporis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).
Antimicrobial activity of Siba Def
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538
Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633
Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579
Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698
Escherichia coli ATCC 8739
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027
Human fresh erythrocytes were used to evaluate the hemolytic activity of SibaDef. The result showed SibaDef displayed negligible hemolytic activity on human erythrocyte even with peptide concentrations up to 41.71 μM, which is almost 40-fold higher than their corresponding MIC values.
Transcription of SibaDef in black flies fed on bacteria
3D structure analysis of SibaDef
Insects lack an acquired immune response, but they have an unspecific cellular response (phagocytosis and encapsulation of invading microorganisms by blood cells) and humoral immune reactions (activation of proteolytic pathways and the rapid synthesis of immune-related peptides) . These peptides are synthesized either by the fat body and various epithelia in holometabolous insects, or by hemocytes in heterometabolous insects . Extensive research in the past decades has established that insect AMPs are ubiquitous and ancient contributors to immune defense against bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections [23,26,35]. As an important blood-sucking insect, there have been comparatively few studies on antimicrobial substances in black fly, especially no defensins have been reported so far.
Here, a novel cationic defensin designated SibaDef was purified from the salivary glands of the black fly S. bannaense, The structural organization of SibaDef precursor (Figure 2) is similar to other insect defensin precursors, comprising a signal peptide sequence, an N-terminal propeptide region containing several aspartic and glutamic acid residues, and the mature peptide at the C-terminus of the precursor. These sequences also share the conserved enzymatic processing sites (−KR- or -RR-) to release the mature peptides. The dibasic cleavage site (Figure 3) has been found in many insect defensins identified from the different orders (Diptera, Anoplura, Coleoptera, Homoptera and Hemiptera) [22,23,26]. The first two amino acid residues (AT) at the N-terminus of SibaDef is conserved in phylogenetically higher insects such as mosquitos and triatomines . The consensus motifs of SibaDef are C-X16-C-X3-C-X11-C-X5-C-X1-C (where C is a cysteine, and X is any amino acid except cysteine), which is consistent with the spacing pattern of insect defensins (C-X5–16-C-X3-C-X9–11-C-X4–7-C-X1-C) .
Phylogenetic analysis (Figure 4) showed that SibaDef is most closely related to anopluran defensins from the human body louse P. humanus corporis, rather than to other dipteran defensins. The evolutionary trends of insect/mosquito defensins have revealed the similar outcomes, in which two dipteran defensins (Agd3 and Agd4) from Anopheles gambiae are grouped with lepidopterans more than with mosquitoes. In addition, a lepidopteran defensin (Mbd1) from cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae is clustered with the members of the mosquito specific cluster . However, no meaningful explanation for these associations can be found. Previous research on evolution of invertebrate defensins has shown that the available data in hand is inadequate to provide an integrated view of the evolutionary history of AMPs . We suggest that defensins in P. humanus corporis and SibaDef, possibly perform similar functions in vivo due to tremendous evolutionary pressure such as the immune pressure imposed by the vertebrate hosts.
Insect defensins are classified into antimicrobial defensins and antifungal defensins according to their in vitro activity against bacteria or filamentous fungi . The antimicrobial defensins are known to be active mainly against Gram-positive bacteria at different concentrations (MICs ranging from 0.4 μM to 100 μM) [26,40]. They interact with negatively charged bacterial membranes and insert into membrane bilayers to form pores, leading to membrane permeabilization and disruption . Homology modeling of SibaDef (Figure 7) shows that it has a cationic structure with one α-helix and two antiparallel β-strands. The structure contributes to the ability of antimicrobial defensins to kill bacteria . As expected, SibaDef shows strong activities (Table 2) against Gram-positive bacteria (MICs ranging from 0.83 to 2.29 μM). SEM analysis indicated that such activities are carried out with a lytic effect on the bacterial membranes (Figure 5). These results confirm that the microbial membrane is a key target for cationic defensins. The potent antimicrobial effect of SibaDef facilitates the prevention of bacterial contamination in sugar or blood meal acquisition. However, the actual functions of defensin in the salivary gland of haematophagous insects remain to be elucidated.
The transcript levels of SibaDef in whole bodies of insects increase after oral infection with Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus or B. subtilis, and peak at 36 h post-feeding (Figure 6). In these experiments, black flies challenged with B. subtilis express relatively higher levels of defensin mRNA when compared to those insects challenged with S. aureus at different time course. Meanwhile, we also observe increased levels of transcription for cecropin in S. bannaense after infection (data not shown). These results suggest that SibaDef involves in S. bannaense innate humoral response and cooperates with other immune-related peptides such as cecropin to control bacterial infection.
In conclusion, the black fly defensin was first identified in the present work by peptide purification and molecular cloning procedures. This defensin exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria through the disruption of microbial membrane. Further work needs to be done to investigate what is the actual functions of this immune-related peptide during the meal and bacterial infection.
This work was supported by Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (81373380, 81360253, 81260258, 81402830) and Jiangsu Province Foundation (BK20140362, 14KJD350003).
- Nayduch D, Lee MB, Saski CA. Gene discovery and differential expression analysis of humoral immune response elements in female Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:388.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nasar F, Haddow AD, Tesh RB, Weaver SC. Eilat virus displays a narrow mosquito vector range. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:595.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mead DG, Howerth EW, Murphy MD, Gray EW, Noblet R, Stallknecht DE. Black fly involvement in the epidemic transmission of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (Rhabdoviridae: Vesiculovirus). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2004;4:351–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mead DG, Ramberg FB, Besselsen DG, Mare CJ. Transmission of vesicular stomatitis virus from infected to noninfected black flies co-feeding on nonviremic deer mice. Science. 2000;287:485–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tsujimoto H, Gray EW, Champagne DE. Black fly salivary gland extract inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in murine splenocytes. Parasite Immunol. 2012;32:275–84.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xu XQ, Yang HL, Ma DY, Wu J, Wang YP, Song YZ, et al. Toward an understanding of the molecular mechanism for successful blood feeding by coupling proteomics analysis with pharmacological testing of horsefly salivary glands. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2008;7:582–90.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ma DY, Wang YP, Yang HL, Wu J, An S, Gao L, et al. Anti-thrombosis repertoire of blood-feeding horsefly salivary glands. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009;8:2071–9.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Billingsley PF, Baird J, Mitchell JA, Drakeley C. Immune interactions between mosquitoes and their hosts. Parasite Immunol. 2006;28:143–53.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schneider BS, McGee CE, Jordan JM, Stevenson HL, Soong L, Higgs S. Prior exposure to uninfected mosquitoes enhances mortality in naturally- transmitted west nile virus infection. PLoS One. 2007;2:e1171.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abebe M, Cupp MS, Champagne D, Cupp EW. Simulidin: a black fly (Simulium vittatum) salivary gland protein with antithrombin activity. J Insect Physiol. 1995;41:1001–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Abebe M, Ribeiro JM, Cupp MS, Cupp EW. Novel anticoagulant from salivary glands of Simulium vittatum (Diptera: Simuliidae) inhibits activity of coagulation factor V. J Med Entomol. 1996;33:173–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jacobs JW, Cupp EW, Sardana M, Friedman PA. Isolation and characterization of a coagulation factor Xa inhibitor from black fly salivary glands. Thromb Haemost. 1990;64:235–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tsujimoto H, Kotsyfakis M, Francischetti IM, Eum JH, Strand MR, Champagne DE. Simukunin from the salivary glands of the black fly Simulium vittatum inhibits enzymes that regulate clotting and inflammatory responses. PLoS One. 2012;7:e29964.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cupp MS, Ribeiro JM, Champagne DE, Cupp EW. Analyses of cDNA and recombinant protein for a potent vasoactive protein in saliva of a blood-feeding black fly Simulium vittatum. J Exp Biol. 1998;201:1553–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cupp MS, Ribeiro JM, Cupp EW. Vasodilative activity in black fly salivary glands. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1994;50:241–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cupp MS, Cupp EW, Ochoa AJ, Moulton JK. Salivary apyrase in New World blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and its relationship to onchocerciasis vector status. Med Vet Entomol. 1995;9:325–30.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ribeiro JM, Charlab R, Rowton ED, Cupp EW. Simulium vittatum (Diptera: Simuliidae) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) salivary gland hyaluronidase activity. J Med Entomol. 2000;37:743–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cross ML, Cupp MS, Cupp EW, Galloway AL, Enriquez FJ. Modulation of murine immunological responses by salivary gland extract of Simulium vittatum (Diptera: Simuliidae). J Med Entomol. 1993;30:928–35.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chagas AC, Calvo E, Pimenta PF, Ribeiro JM. An insight into the sialome of Simulium guianense (Diptera: Simuliidae), the main vector of river blindness disease in Brazil. BMC Genomics. 2011;12: 612.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Andersen JF, Pham VM, Meng Z, Champagne DE, Ribeiro JM. Insight into the Sialome of the Black Fly, Simulium vittatum. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:1474–88.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ribeiro JM, Valenzuela JG, Pham VM, Kleeman L, Barbian KD, Favreau AJ. An insight into the Sialotranscriptome of Simulium nigrimanum, a black fly associated with Fogo Selvagem in South America. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82:1060–75.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yi HY, Chowdhury M, Huang YD, Yu XQ. Insect antimicrobial peptides and their applications. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014;98:5807–22.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bulet P, Stöcklin R. Insect antimicrobial peptides: structures, properties and gene regulation. Protein Pept Lett. 2005;12:3–11.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cecilia V, Peter JW, Débora PM, Daniele PC, Cícero BM, Norman AR, et al. Humoral responses in Rhodnius prolixus: bacterial feeding induces differential patterns of antibacterial activity and enhances mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides in the midgut. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:232.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lambert J, Keppi E, Dimarcq JL, Wicker C, Reichhart JM, Dunbar B, et al. Insect immunity: isolation from immune blood of the dipteran Phormia terranovae of two insect antibacterial peptides with sequence homology to rabbit lung macrophage bactericidal peptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:262–6.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boulanger N, Lowenberger C, Volf P, Ursic R, Sigutova L, Sabatier L, et al. Characterization of a defensin from the sand fly Phlebotomus duboscqi induced by challenge with bacteria or the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. Infect Immun. 2004;72:7140–6.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Seufi AM, Hafez EE, Galal FH. Identification, phylogenetic analysis and expression profile of an anionic insect defensin gene, with antibacterial activity, from bacterial-challenged cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. BMC Mol Biol. 2011;12:47.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chenna R, Sugawara H, Koike T, Lopez R, Gibson TJ, Higgins DG, et al. Multiple sequence alignment with the Clustal series of programs. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:3497–500.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bjellqvist B, Hughes GJ, Pasquali C, Paquet N, Ravier F, Sancez JC, et al. The focusing positions of polypeptides in immobilized pH gradients can be predicted from their amino acid sequences. Electrophoresis. 1993;14:1023–31.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang HL, Wang X, Liu XH, Wu J, Liu CB, Gong W, et al. Antioxidant peptidomics reveals novel skin antioxidant system. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009;8:571–83.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang YP, Zhang ZY, Chen L, Guang H, Li Z, Yang HL, et al. Cathelicidin-BF, a snake cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptide, could be an excellent therapeutic agent for acne vulgaris. PLoS One. 2012;6:e22120.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Telleria EL, Sant'Anna MR, Alkurbi MO, Pitaluga AN, Dillon RJ, Traub-Csekö YM. Bacterial feeding, Leishmania infection and distinct infection routes induce differential defensin expression in Lutzomyia longipalpis. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:12.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bhusan KK, Polamarasetty A, Pallu R. EasyModeller: a graphical interface to MODELLER. BMC Res Notes. 2010;3:226.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hoffmann JA. Immune responsiveness in vector insects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:11152–3.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ferrandon D, Imler JL, Hetru C, Hoffmann JA. The Drosophila systemic immune response: sensing and signalling during bacterial and fungal infections. Nat Rev Immunol. 2007;7:862–74.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Waniek PJ, Castro HC, Sathler PC, Miceli L, Jansen AM, Araújo CA. Two novel defensin-encoding genes of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma brasiliensis (Reduviidae, Triatominae): gene expression and peptide-structure modeling. J Insect Physiol. 2009;55:840–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ceřovský V, Bém R. Lucifensins, the insect defensins of biomedical importance: the story behind maggot therapy. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2014;7:251–64.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dassanayake RS, Silva Gunawardene YI, Tobe SS. Evolutionary selective trends of insect/mosquito antimicrobial defensin peptides containing cysteine-stabilized alpha/beta motifs. Peptides. 2007;28:62–75.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rodriguez de la Vega RC, Possani LD. On the evolution of invertebrate defensins. Trends Genet. 2005;21:330–2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bulet P, Hetru C, Dimarcq JL, Hoffmann D. Antimicrobial peptides in insects; structure and function. Dev Comp Immunol. 1999;23:329–44.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hancock REW. Cationic peptides: effectors in innate immunity and novel antimicrobials. Lancet Infect Dis. 2001;1:156–64.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.