Colley DG, Bustinduy AL, Secor WE, King CH. Human schistosomiasis. Lancet. 2014;383:2253–64.
Hotez PJ, Alvarado M, Basáñez MG, Bolliger I, Bourne R, Boussinesq M, et al. The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010: interpretation and implications for the neglected tropical diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8:e2865.
Yap P, Wu FW, Du ZW, Hattendorf J, Chen R, Jiang JY, et al. Effect of deworming on physical fitness of school-aged children in Yunnan, China: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8:e2983.
Utzinger J, Becker SL, Knopp S, Blum J, Neumayr AL, Keiser J, et al. Neglected tropical diseases: diagnosis, clinical management, treatment and control. Swiss Med Wkly. 2012;142:w13727.
Yap P, Du ZW, Chen R, Zhang LP, Wu FW, Wang J, et al. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and physical fitness in school-aged Bulang children in southwest China: results from a cross-sectional survey. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:50.
Grimes JET, Croll D, Harrison WE, Utzinger J, Freeman MC, Templeton MR. The relationship between water, sanitation and schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8:e3296.
Strunz EC, Addiss DG, Stocks ME, Ogden S, Utzinger J, Freeman MC. Water, sanitation, hygiene, and soil-transmitted helminth infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2014;11:e1001620.
Pillay P, Taylor M, Zulu SG, Gundersen SG, Verweij JJ, Hoekstra P, et al. Real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of Schistosoma DNA in small-volume urine samples reflects focal distribution of urogenital schistosomiasis in primary school girls in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;90:546–52.
Steinmann P, Utzinger J, Du ZW, Zhou XN. Multiparasitism: a neglected reality on global, regional and local scale. Adv Parasitol. 2010;73:21–50.
Shirley DA, Moonah SN, Kotloff KL. Burden of disease from cryptosporidiosis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2012;25:555–63.
Murray CJL, Vos T, Lozano R, Naghavi M, Flaxman AD, Michaud C, et al. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2197–223.
World Bank Data. GINI index (World Bank estimate). World Bank. Washington, USA. 2016. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI/countries. Accessed 21 June 2016.
Marshall SJ. Developing countries face double burden of disease. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:556.
Draper C, Basset S, de Villiers A, Lambert EV, et al. Results from South Africa’s 2014 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. J Phys Act Health. 2014;11 Suppl 1:S98–104.
Walter CM. In-school physical activity patterns of primary school learners from disadvantaged schools in South Africa. Afr J Phys Health Educ. 2011;17:780–9.
Boutayeb A. The double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in developing countries. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006;100:191–9.
Santosa A, Wall S, Fottrell E, Hogberg U, Byass P. The development and experience of epidemiological transition theory over four decades: a systematic review. Glob Health Action. 2014;7:23574.
Yap P, Müller I, Walter C, Seelig H, Gerber M, Steinmann P, et al. Disease, activity and schoolchildren’s health (DASH) in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: a study protocol. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:1285.
Agherdien Y, George AC, Hendricks S. South End as we knew it. Port Elizabeth: Western Research Group; 1997.
Southern Africa Development Research and Training Institute (RaTI). One community many communities: a Nelson Mandela Bay Heritage and History Project (NMBHHP): forced removals in South End, North End, Salisbury Park, Fairview, Willowdene and Korsten. 2013.
Katz N, Chaves A, Pellegrino J. A simple device for quantitative stool thick-smear technique in schistosomiasis mansoni. Rev Inst Med Trop São Paulo. 1972;14:397–400.
Knopp S, Mgeni AF, Khamis IS, Steinmann P, Stothard JR, Rollinson D, et al. Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths in the era of preventive chemotherapy: effect of multiple stool sampling and use of different diagnostic techniques. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e331.
Coulibaly JT, Knopp S, N’Guessan NA, Silué KD, Fürst T, Lohourignon LK, et al. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) test for Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis in different settings of Côte d’Ivoire. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1384.
Council of Europe. Testing physical fitness: Eurofit experimental battery. Strasbourg, 1983.
Léger LA, Mercier D, Gadoury C, Lambert J. The multistage 20 meter shuttle run test for aerobic fitness. J Sports Sci. 1988;6:93–101.
Léger L, Lambert J, Goulet A, Rowan C, Dinelle Y. Capacité aérobie des Québécois de 6 à 17 ans - test navette de 20 mètres avec paliers de 1 minute. Can J Appl Sport Sci. 1984;9:64–9.
Tomkinson GR, Léger LA, Olds TS, Cazorla G. Secular trends in the performance of children and adolescents (1980–2000): an analysis of 55 studies of the 20 m shuttle run test in 11 countries. Sports Med. 2003;33:285–300.
Olds T, Tomkinson G, Léger L, Cazorla G. Worldwide variation in the performance of children and adolescents: an analysis of 109 studies of the 20-m shuttle run test in 37 countries. J Sports Sci. 2006;24:1025–38.
de Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Siyam A, Nishida C, Siekmann J. Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bull World Health Organ. 2007;85:660–7.
Schistosomes, liver flukes and Helicobacter pylori. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon, 7–14 June 1994. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum. 1994;61:1–241.
Abdelrazak MA, Walid FE. Potential complications of Helicobacter pylori infection in children of a non-urban community. Arch Pediatr Infect Dis. 2015;3:e23510.
Richter T, Richter T, List S, Müller DM, Deutscher J, Uhlig HH, et al. Five- to 7-year-old children with Helicobacter pylori infection are smaller than Helicobacter-negative children: a cross-sectional population-based study of 3,315 children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2001;33:472–5.
Kriemler S, Zahner L, Schindler C, Meyer U, Hartmann T, Hebestreit H, et al. Effect of school based physical activity programme (KISS) on fitness and adiposity in primary schoolchildren: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2010;340:c785.
Meyer U, Schindler C, Zahner L, Ernst D, Hebestreit H, van Mechelen W, et al. Long-term effect of a school-based physical activity program (KISS) on fitness and adiposity in children: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2014;9:e87929.
Imhof K, Faude O, Donath L, Bean-Eisenhut S, Hanssen H, Zahner L. The association of socio-economic factors with physical fitness and activity behaviours, spinal posture and retinal vessel parameters in first graders in urban Switzerland. J Sports Sci. 2016;34:1271–80.
Gallagher JR, Brouha L. A simple method of testing the physical fitness of boys. Am Assn Health Phys Ed Rec Res Q. 1943;14:23–31.
Stephenson LS, Latham MC, Kinoti SN, Kurz KM, Brigham H. Improvements in physical fitness of Kenyan schoolboys infected with hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides following a single dose of albendazole. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1990;84:277–82.
Aandstad A, Berntsen S, Hageberg R, Klasson-Heggebo L, Anderssen SA. A comparison of estimated maximal oxygen uptake in 9 and 10 year old schoolchildren in Tanzania and Norway. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40:287–92.
Armstrong ME, Lambert EV, Lambert MI. Physical fitness of South African primary school children, 6 to 13 years of age: discovery vitality health of the nation study. Percept Mot Skills. 2011;113:999–1016.
Global Atlas of Helminth Infections (GAHI). Distribution of soil transmitted helminth survey data in South Africa. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. London, UK. 2015. http://www.thiswormyworld.org/maps/2013/distribution-of-soil-transmitted-helminth-survey-data-in-south-africa. Accessed 30 June 2016.
Karagiannis-Voules DA, Biedermann P, Ekpo UF, Garba A, Langer E, Mathieu E, et al. Spatial and temporal distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and geostatistical meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15:74–84.
Rowland TW. Aerobic response to endurance training in prepubescent children: a critical analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1985;17:493–7.
Steinmann P, Du ZW, Wang LB, Wang XZ, Jiang JY, Li LH, et al. Extensive multiparasitism in a village of Yunnan province, People’s Republic of China, revealed by a suite of diagnostic methods. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;78:760–9.
Booth M, Vounatsou P, N’Goran EK, Tanner M, Utzinger J. The influence of sampling effort and the performance of the Kato-Katz technique in diagnosing Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm co-infections in rural Côte d’Ivoire. Parasitology. 2003;127:525–31.
Ziegelbauer K, Steinmann P, Zhou H, Du ZW, Jiang JY, Fürst T, et al. Self-rated quality of life and school performance in relation to helminth infections: case study from Yunnan, People’s Republic of China. Parasit Vectors. 2010;3:61.
Bustinduy AL, Thomas CL, Fiutem JJ, Parraga IM, Mungai PL, Muchiri EM, et al. Measuring fitness of Kenyan children with polyparasitic infections using the 20-meter shuttle run test as a morbidity metric. PLoS Negl Top Dis. 2011;5:e1213.
Müller I, Coulibaly JT, Fürst T, Knopp S, Hattendorf J, Krauth SJ, et al. Effect of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections on physical fitness of school children in Côte d’Ivoire. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1239.
WHO. Global Burden of Disease 2004 update: disability weights for diseases and conditions. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004.
Global Burden of Disease (GBD). IHME. Seattle, USA. 2016. http://www.healthdata.org/gbd. Accessed 15 Jan 2016.
Pullan RL, Smith JL, Jasrasaria R, Brooker SJ. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil-transmitted helminth infections in 2010. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:37.