- Open Access
UMF-078: A modified flubendazole with potent macrofilaricidal activity against Onchocerca ochengi in African cattle
© Bronsvoort et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
- Received: 06 June 2008
- Accepted: 20 June 2008
- Published: 20 June 2008
Human onchocerciasis or river blindness, caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is currently controlled using the microfilaricidal drug, ivermectin. However, ivermectin does not kill adult O. volvulus, and in areas with less than 65% ivermectin coverage of the population, there is no effect on transmission. Therefore, there is still a need for a macrofilaricidal drug. Using the bovine filarial nematode O. ochengi (found naturally in African cattle), the macrofilaricidal efficacy of the modified flubendazole, UMF-078, was investigated.
Groups of 3 cows were treated with one of the following regimens: (a) a single dose of UMF-078 at 150 mg/kg intramuscularly (im), (b) 50 mg/kg im, (c) 150 mg/kg intraabomasally (ia), (d) 50 mg/kg ia, or (e) not treated (controls).
After treatment at 150 mg/kg im, nodule diameter, worm motility and worm viability (as measured by metabolic reduction of tetrazolium to formazan) declined significantly compared with pre-treatment values and concurrent controls. There was abrogation of embryogenesis and death of all adult worms by 24 weeks post-treatment (pt). Animals treated at 50 mg/kg im showed a decline in nodule diameter together with abrogated reproduction, reduced motility, and lower metabolic activity in isolated worms, culminating in approximately 50% worm mortality by 52 weeks pt. Worms removed from animals treated ia were not killed, but exhibited a temporary embryotoxic effect which had waned by 12 weeks pt in the 50 mg/kg ia group and by 24 weeks pt in the 150 mg/kg ia group. These differences could be explained by the different absorption rates and elimination half-lives for each dose and route of administration.
Although we did not observe any signs of mammalian toxicity in this trial with a single dose, other studies have raised concerns regarding neuro- and genotoxicity. Consequently, further evaluation of this compound has been suspended. Nonetheless, these results validate the molecular target of the benzimidazoles as a promising lead for rational design of macrofilaricidal drugs.
- Lymphatic Filariasis
- Female Worm
Human onchocerciasis or river blindness, caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is endemic in 34 countries in Africa, the Americas and the Yemen, infecting approximately 37 million people with a further 90 million people considered to be at risk of infection in Africa . Beginning in 1974, control of the vector (Simulium damnosum sensu lato) was the principle approach used by the highly successful Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) in 11 endemic countries of West Africa, although ivermectin distribution played a key role from 1987 . The OCP was phased-out in 2002 and has been superseded by the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC), which applies community-directed treatment with ivermectin as an almost exclusive control method in a further 19 endemic African countries. Ivermectin is currently supplied free-of-charge by Merck & Co. under their Mectizan® Donation Programme [3, 4].
Ivermectin is an extremely effective microfilaricide, rapidly removing microfilariae (mf) from the skin of infected patients and thus preventing the development of blindness and relieving skin irritation [5–7]. However, despite its cumulative sterilising effect on the female worm, ivermectin does not appear to exhibit significant macrofilaricidal activity [8–11]. Furthermore, in order to prevent sustained transmission, annual treatment coverage must exceed 65% of the population . Following analyses of the post-control situation in the OCP region, there is a consensus that onchocerciasis cannot be eradicated in Africa using currently available methods alone [13, 14].
The development of a safe, effective macrofilaricide suitable for mass treatment, preferably as a single oral dose, was the goal of the World Health Organisation's (WHO) MACROFIL programme, which also received support from OCP and APOC. Such a drug would be able to break the transmission cycle and thus reduce the number of years of treatment necessary to permanently eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem in Africa.
There is little published information on the anthelminthic properties of the modified flubendazole, UMF-078, but it is has been shown to have both micro- and macrofilaricidal activity against Acanthocheilonema viteae and Litomosoides sigmodontis in jirds . However, flubendazole itself has been studied quite extensively. It has been shown to be both micro- and macrofilaricidal depending on the formulation and the route of administration [16–18]. Using Onchocerca ochengi, a natural parasite of cattle that is endemic in the Adamawa province of Cameroon , the efficacy of UMF-078 was assessed in vivo by the intramuscular or intraabomasal routes at two dosage rates. This species is the closest existent relative of O. volvulus [20, 21] and forms palpable, intradermal nodules which can be removed under local anaesthetic. Consequently, it was adopted as a tertiary drug screen for macrofilaricides by WHO [22–24].
Fifteen 4–6 year old Gudali cows (Bos indicus), each with more than 20 palpable O. ochengi nodules in the ventral abdominal skin, were purchased from local markets in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon. They were kept on pasture at the Institut de Recherche Agricole pour le Développement (IRAD), formerly the Institut de Recherche Zootechniques et Vétérinaires (IRZV), Wakwa, 10 km SW of Ngaoundéré. This location is at an altitude of 1000 m where the annual transmission potential (ATP) for O. ochengi is low [approximately 600 infective larvae per animal per year (Renz and Bronsvoort, unpublished observations)].
Twenty O. ochengi nodules per animal were identified, their locations noted, and their periphery marked by tattoo ink. Subsequently, a microchip transponder (Identichip®, Animalcare Ltd., York, UK) was subcutaneously implanted adjacent to each nodule. Each transponder carried a unique 10-digit number that was visualised using a hand-held reader. In previous experiments, these microchips remained in position for at least 2 years and enabled individual nodules to be identified consistently.
UMF-078, methyl(+/-)5-[α-amino-4 fluorobenzyl]benzimidazole-2-carbamate, was provided as a white desiccated powder. This was suspended in peanut oil (Sigma UK) at a final concentration of 180 mg/ml.
The cattle had a mean weight of 316 kg (SD = 32 kg) and were ranked according to nodule load per animal (mean = 63 nodules; SD = 39 nodules). The four treatment and one control groups were randomly numbered 1–5 and the highest ranking animal randomly assigned to a group. The remaining cattle (in rank order) were then assigned in turn to each treatment group (in order of their number) to give a similar mean number and range of nodules in each group of three animals.
Intramuscular (im) injections (150 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg) were delivered in the gluteal and/or triceps muscles with a maximum of 50 ml of the suspension per site. Intraabomasal (ia) injections (150 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg) were administered into the lumen of the pyloric region of the abomasum following a right-sided laparotomy and exteriorisation of the pylorus . The wounds were closed using monofilament nylon mattress sutures and the animals were treated for a week with Duplocillin LA® (Intervet, UK). All animals recovered without incident.
Microfilarial densities were determined as previously described (Renz et al., 1995; Tchakouté et al., 1999). In brief, superficial skin biopsies were obtained from the ventral mid-line (on the same morning for all groups) and incubated for 24 h in 0.5 ml antibiotic-supplemented Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI 1640, Sigma UK). The biopsies were then digested in 0.5% collagenase for 24 hours. Viable mf that had emerged into the medium, together with residual mf present in digested skin, were counted by microscopy and total densities expressed per 100 mg of skin. The geometric mean number of mf per 100 mg of skin from the three biopsies for each animal was calculated using the log+1 transformation. The mean per group was calculated in a similar way.
Four nodules were removed per animal under local anaesthetic at each time-point. If a nodule had apparently resolved, its position was localised by microchip and the incision was guided by the peripheral tattoo.
All each time-point, nodules were examined by a technician blinded to the treatment group by the triple assay described by Renz et al.  with some modification. After trimming the nodule, the capsule was incised and the adult worm squeezed out into 200 μl PBS on a depression slide and males picked out. The first 5 mm of the anterior end of the females was incised. Male and female worms were incubated in 200 μl of RPMI in microtitre plate. After incubation (30 minutes, 37°C), the motility of the male worms and female anterior ends (mean length ± SD = 8.3 ± 2.6 mm) was scored on a 3 point scale (0 = no movement after 30 seconds of observation; 1 = weak, slow or intermittent movement; 2 = vigorous movement).
Individual worm viability was assessed by the metabolic reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-di-phenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) to formazan [24, 26]. Worms were incubated for 1 hour in MTT and then the colour was leached out of the worms by 1/2 hour incubation in DMSO. The optical density of the formazan reduction product was determined on a photospectrometer (Cambridge Life Instruments) at 492 nm and standardised per 10 mm of worm.
The remaining portion of the female worm was transferred into a mortar with PBS (final volume, 2 ml), gently crushed with a pestle, and a sample transferred to a Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber (3.2 μl). A count (embryogram) was then performed by microscopy, differentiating between each intrauterine developmental stage and between normal and pathological embryos .
Drugs and pharmacokinetics
UMF-078, UMF-060 and flubendazole were obtained from the MACROFIL Programme, WHO. Ammonium acetate, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-grade methanol, diethyl ether, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and acetic acid were obtained from Fisher Scientific (Fair Lawn, NJ, USA). A C18 reversed-phase stainless steel column (150 × 4.6 minimum internal diameter; 5 μm particle size; Inertsil ODS-2) was supplied by Alltech (Deerfield, IL, USA).
Plasma UMF-078 and its two metabolites, UMF-060 and flubendazole, were determined by HPLC as described by Ramanathan et al. . The detection limits of UMF-078, UMF-060 and flubendazole in plasma were 7, 5 and 7 ng/ml, respectively. The absolute recoveries of the extraction procedure were determined by comparing the peak areas obtained from extracted plasma samples with those obtained from equivalent amounts of the 3 compounds (UMF-078, UMF-060 and flubendazole) in DMSO by direct injection. For UMF-078, the mean recoveries of various concentrations ranged from 80.5 to 84.0%; for UMF-060, 88.1 to 89.6%; and for flubendazole, 97.1 to 98.6%. Intraday precision was performed by repeating the analysis of four concentration sets for UMF-078, UMF-060 and flubendazole. The coefficients of variation were <6% for all compounds and all measured concentrations were within the range ± 20% of the actual value.
Data were analysed using the Stata® version 9 statistical package (Stata Corp., Texas, USA). The generalised linear latent and mixed models (gllamm) package was used for multi-level models . Continuous response variables (mff, nodule size and MTT) were modelled with a normal error structure. The fixed effects of treatment group and time and their interaction were modelled for each response with a random intercept to allow for the repeat samples from the same animal. A reduced model for each response was analysed for a single time point at 24 weeks and the effect of each treatment group estimated in comparison to the control group. Assumptions of normality were checked using the qnorm plot and tested using the Wilks-Shapiro test of normality. Where the linear assumptions were not met the non parametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA was used which is based on ranks, however, this analysis can not include the multi-level structure of the data.
A non-compartmental analysis in WinNonlin software (Scientific Consulting, Inc., Apex, NC, USA) was used to characterize UMF-078 plasma concentration-time profiles. The terminal half-life (t1/2) was estimated using the last 3 or 4 data points from each curve using nonlinear regression. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was calculated by the linear trapezoidal rule from T = 0 to the last measured concentration (tlast).
Geometric mean (3 skin snips) O. ochengi mf density+1 per 100 mg skin in cattle following a single treatment of UMF-078 at 150 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg and by the intramuscular or intraabomasal routes of administration.
150 mg/kg UMF-078 im
50 mg/kg UMF-078 im
150 mg/kg UMF-078 ia
50 mg/kg UMF-078 ia
Results of multilevel model for each of the variables measured.
Fixed effect (time)
Individual treatments compared to controls at 24 weeks
150 mg/kg UMF 078 im
50 mg/kg UMF 078 im
150 mg/kg UMF 078 ia
50 mg/kg UMF 078 ia
Nodule diameter, males per nodule, female motility scores and female viability (OD492/10 mm)
Mean nodule diameters (mm), mean number of males per nodule (♂/nodule), median female motility score (♀ MOT) and mean female viability (as OD492 values per 10 mm length; see text) (♀ OD492) for O. ochengi recovered from cattle before and up to 52 weeks after a single dose of UMF-078 at 2 doses (50 and 150 mg/kg) and by 2 routes of administration (im = intramuscularly; ia = intra abomasally).
150 mg/kg UMF 078 im
50 mg/kg UMF 078 im
150 mg/kg UMF 078 ia
50 mg/kg UMF 078 ia
The numbers of males found in each nodule fluctuated considerably between time ponts even within the control group. By 24 weeks pt there were no male worms recovered from nodules treated at 150 mg/kg im and similarly at 52 weeks pt for the 50 mg/kg im group. In the other groups, males were recovered in normal numbers throughout the experiment. The counts of males count not be fit to a linear modelin gllamm and a non parametric Kruskal Wallis ANOVA was used on the ranks and did not include an adjustment for the repeated multi-level data structure. However, based on an ANOVA there was a strongly significant difference between the number of males in the control and high dose im treatment group.
The motility of female anterior ends in the 150 mg/kg im group started to decline immediately and by 12 weeks pt their motility was zero. The group treated at 50 mg/kg im showed a decline to 0.8 by 12 weeks, but recovered to a score of 2 by 24 weeks only to decline to zero at 52 weeks pt. However, these median data do not reflect the observed disappearance of worms from one animal in this group. A non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA was used as the residuals from the gllamm procedure were not normal violating the assumptions of the model. This non-parametric approach did not allow the multi-level structure of the data to be included in the estimation process. There was a significant difference in female motility scores for the high dose im treatment group but no statistically significant difference between the other three groups and the controls (Table 2).
The viability (OD492) of females appeared to have declined in all the groups including the controls by 24 weeks pt. In the 150 mg/kg im treatment group, viability scores declined markedly after treatment and worms were no longer viable (OD492 < 0.1) by 12 weeks pt. In the 50 mg/kg im group there was a marked decline in viability by 12 weeks pt, but by 52 weeks mean viability had returned to pre-treatment levels (OD492 = 0.17) in worms obtained from intact nodules. However, in addition to the resolution of all nodules from one animal from this group, 2 of 4 nodules from a second animal treated 50 mg/kg im did not contain viable worms. At 24 weeks pt, the two im treatment groups had statistically lower viability scores compared to the controls. There was no statistically significant effect on viability of worms recovered from animals treated ia compared to controls at 24 weeks pt.
UMF-078 absorption following ia dosing was variable (Figure 2B), with mean Cmax of 1638 and 3895 ng/ml for the 50 and 150 mg/kg dosages, respectively, and mean Tmax reached at about 4.7 and 24 hours, respectively. The elimination half-life was estimated at 16.9 and 38 hours for the 50 and 150 mg/kg dosages, respectively. The extent of absorption (AUC) after ia administration was highly variable, with a 6-fold increase in the AUC0-168 h when the 50 and 150 mg/kg dosages were compared (40,986 vs. 271,250 ng/ml × h).
The benzimidazoles are a large group of compounds used extensively in both human and veterinary medicine for the treatment of nematode infestations. UMF-078 is a modified form of flubendazole designed for parenteral injection; following which it is quickly metabolised to UMF-060 and the active parent molecule. In contrast, the standard preparation of flubendazole is insoluble and poorly absorbed across the intestinal mucosa . As an aqueous suspension, it was not macrofilaricidal against Brugia pahangi per os , but when micronised the oral preparation was both macro- and microfilaricidal . It has also been used successfully against Breinlia booliati in rats by repeated subcutaneous injection , although this route of administration caused abcessation and local inflammation. No such reactions were observed in the current study with UMF-078.
In this experiment, we have shown that UMF-078 (when delivered systemically) is a potent macrofilaricide against the naturally-occurring, skin-dwelling parasite, O. ochengi when given at 150 mg/kg im. The specific target for the drug was not investigated in this experiment, but it could act by at least two distinct (but not mutually exclusive) mechanisms. Firstly, it may cause lethal damage to the intestine by binding to the cytoplasmic microtubules of absorptive cells , leading to starvation and ultimately death by interference with glucose uptake. Secondly, it could induce neurotoxic effects via a predilection for neurotubules (and possibly neurofilaments), as postulated for febantel and mebendazole against the nematode Heterakis spumosa , and benomyl against the annelid Eisenia foetida . Indeed, neurological side-effects in the mammalian host were observed after repeated dosing with UMF-078 (see below), suggesting that it may exhibit greater activity against the nervous system than other benzimidazoles. Drug effects were both dose and route dependent (with individual variation in peak levels in plasma reflected in the variation in efficacy against nodules within each group), demonstrating a requirement for sustained plasma drug concentrations, as previously reported by Court  and Devaney et al. .
Albendazole is currently used in combination with diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin for mass drug administration by the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis . The additive or synergistic effect of this benzimidazole, if any, when used in combination with other anthelminthics for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis remains controversial, particularly with regard to macrofilaricidal efficacy [37–40]. Certainly, albendazole had no significant micro- or macrofilaricidal activity in clinical trials for human onchocerciasis conducted in the early 1990s, although it induced embryotoxic effects in female worms [41, 42]. Whether the more demonstrable macrofilaricidal efficacy of UMF-078 is an intrinsic characteristic of the drug (e.g. due to a predilection for the nematode nervous system as discussed above) or related to enhanced systemic availability will require evaluation of albendazole against O. ochengi, which has not been performed to date.
The effects of UMF-078 on embryogenesis were apparent at both doses and by both routes. However, by the ia route (which was used to mimic oral administration in monograstric species such as man) the effects were transient and although embryonic and intrauterine mf were fatally damaged, there was no lasting effect on oogenesis and no accumulation of dead and dying stages in the uterus. Thus, UMF-078 disrupts embryonic development but in contrast with the avermectins , uterine activity is not disturbed and dead and dying mf are eliminated from the uterus and from within the nodule allowing insemination and a new reproductive cycle . In our experiment, normal numbers and morphological integrity had returned by 12 and 24 weeks for the embryonic and intrauterine mf, respectively, following a single ia treatment.
In this experiment, single ia or im administration of UMF-078 did not produce any apparent acute or chronic toxic signs. However, repeated oral dosing of an aqueous suspension in dogs (WHO internal report) led to lethal neurotoxic side effects. We also observed severe neurotoxicity in cattle after two doses of UMF-078 at 150 mg/kg per os (Trees et al., 1998; and A.J. Trees, unpublished observations), and this trial had to be abandoned for welfare reasons. Data indicating that certain benzimidazoles can also induce genotoxicity ( and WHO internal report) and cytotoxicity  are of related concern, and as a result further development of UMF-078 as a macrofilaricide has been halted.
The current distribution of ivermectin has been very successful in reducing the morbidity due to O. volvulus ; however, interruption of transmission in Africa by ivermectin alone is not achievable [13, 14]. This emphasises the need to upgrade the search for a practicable macrofilaricidal regimen for chemotherapy of O. volvulus. The best tolerated candidate drugs presently available are anti-rickettsial compounds that target endosymbiotic bacteria (Wolbachia) within filarial tissues , but these therapies have to be prolonged to achieve macrofilaricidal effects  and so are unsuitable for mass administration . The results presented here strongly validate the potential of β-tubulin, the binding site of benzimidazoles , as a key molecular target for rational drug design of macrofilaricides. However, they also draw attention to potential effects on the nervous system that could extend beyond the parasite to the host., Nevertheless, benzimidazoles with an excellent safety profile (such as albendazole) should be evaluated in combination with antibiotics to determine if synergistic effects against adult worms can be achieved.
This investigation was supported by the MACROFIL Programme of the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (ID no. 910583). Also we acknowledge Jean Ebene for technical support and the livestock skills, dedication and great enthusiasm of Aboubakar, Abbo Soudi and Yakoubou, without whom none of this would have been possible.
- Anon: Final communiqué of the 11th session of the Joint Action Forum (JAF) of APOC. African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control [APOC]: 6–9 December 2005; Paris, France. 2005Google Scholar
- Molyneux DH: Onchocerciasis Control in West-Africa – Current Status and Future of the Onchocerciasis Control Program. Parasitology Today. 1995, 11 (11): 399-402. 10.1016/0169-4758(95)80016-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Molyneux DH, Davies JB: Onchocerciasis control: Moving towards the millennium. Parasitology Today. 1997, 13 (11): 418-425. 10.1016/S0169-4758(97)00142-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Remme JHF: The African Program for Onchocerciasis Control – Preparing to Launch. Parasitology Today. 1995, 11 (11): 403-406. 10.1016/0169-4758(95)80017-4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Greene BM: Modern Medicine Versus an Ancient Scourge – Progress toward Control of Onchocerciasis. J Infect Dis. 1992, 166 (1): 15-21.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Awadzi K, Dadzie KY, Schulzkey H, Gilles HM, Fulford AJ, Aziz MA: The Chemotherapy of Onchocerciasis 11. A Double-Blind Comparative-Study of Ivermectin, Diethylcarbamazine and Placebo in Human Onchocerciasis in Northern Ghana. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 1986, 80 (4): 433-442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Awadzi K, Opoku NO, Addy ET, Quartey BT: The Chemotherapy of Onchocerciasis.19. The Clinical and Laboratory Tolerance of High-Dose Ivermectin. Trop Med Parasitol. 1995, 46 (2): 131-137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Awadzi K, Attah SK, Addy ET, Opoku NO, Quartey BT: The effects of high-dose ivermectin regimens on Onchocerca volvulus in onchocerciasis patients. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1999, 93 (2): 189-194. 10.1016/S0035-9203(99)90305-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Duke BOL, Zeaflores G, Castro J, Cupp EW, Munoz B: Comparison of the Effects of a Single Dose and of 4 6-Monthly Doses of Ivermectin on Adult Onchocerca-Volvulus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1991, 45 (1): 132-137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chavasse DC, Post RJ, Lemoh PA, Whitworth JAG: The Effect of Repeated Doses of Ivermectin on Adult Female Onchocerca-Volvulus in Sierra-Leone. Trop Med Parasitol. 1992, 43 (4): 256-262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Plaisier AP, Alley ES, Boatin BA, Vanoortmarssen GJ, Remme H, Devlas SJ, Bonneux L, Habbema JDF: Irreversible Effects of Ivermectin on Adult Parasites in Onchocerciasis Patients in the Onchocerciasis Control Program in West-Africa. J Infect Dis. 1995, 172 (1): 204-210.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Winnen M, Plaisier AP, Alley ES, Nagelkerke NJD, van Oortmarssen G, Boatin BA, Habbema JDF: Can ivermectin mass treatments eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa?. Bull World Health Organ. 2002, 80 (5): 384-390.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dadzie Y, Neira M, Hopkins D: Final report of the Conference on the eradicability of Onchocerciasis. Filaria Journal. 2003, 2 (2):Google Scholar
- Borsboom G, Boatin B, Nagelkerke N, Agoua H, Akpoboua K, Alley EW, Bissan Y, Renz A, Yameogo L, Remme J: Impact of ivermectin on onchocerciasis transmission: assessing the empirical evidence that repeated ivermectin mass treatments may lead to elimination/eradication in West-Africa. Filaria Journal. 2003, 2 (1): 8-10.1186/1475-2883-2-8.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dallah CN, Hoffmann W, Rapp J, Okonkwo PO, Schulzkey H: The Efficacy of Umf-078 on Acanthocheilonema-Viteae and Litomosoides-Sigmodontis in Meriones-Unguiculatus. Parasite-J Soc Fr Parasitol. 1994, 1: 37-39.Google Scholar
- Mak JW: Antifilarial Activity of Mebendazole and Flubendazole on Breinlia-Booliati. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1981, 75 (2): 306-307. 10.1016/0035-9203(81)90343-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reddy AB, Rao UR, Chandrashekar R, Shrivastava R, Subrahmanyam D: Comparative Efficacy of Some Benzimidazoles and Amoscanate (Go-9333) against Experimental Filarial Infections. Tropenmedizin Und Parasitologie. 1983, 34 (4): 259-262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- van Kreckhoven I, Kumar V: Macrofilaricidal activity of oral flubendazole on Brugia pahangi. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1988, 82: 890-891. 10.1016/0035-9203(88)90029-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wahl G, Achukwi MD, Mbah D, Dawa O, Renz A: Bovine Onchocercosis in North Cameroon. Veterinary Parasitology. 1994, 52 (3–4): 297-311. 10.1016/0304-4017(94)90121-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Morales-Hojas R, Cheke RA, Post RJ: Molecular systematics of five Onchocerca species (Nematoda: Filarioidea) including the human parasite, O. volvulus, suggest sympatric speciation. J Helminthol. 2006, 80: 281-290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xie H, Bain O, Williams SA: Molecular phylogenetic studies on filarial parasites based on 5S ribosomal spacer sequences. Parasite. 1994, 1: 141-151.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Trees AJ: Mimic, Model or Modulator of Onchocerca-Volvulus. Parasitology Today. 1992, 8 (10): 337-339. 10.1016/0169-4758(92)90068-D.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Trees AJ, Wood VL, Bronsvoort M, Renz A, Tanya VN: Animal models – Onchocerca ochengi and the development of chemotherapeutic and chemoprophylactic agents for onchocerciasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1998, 92: S175-S179. 10.1080/00034989859177.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Renz A, Trees AJ, Achukwi D, Edwards G, Wahl G: Evaluation of Suramin, Ivermectin and Cgp-20376 in a New Macrofilaricidal Drug Screen, Onchocerca-Ochengi in African Cattle. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 1995, 46 (1): 31-37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weaver AD: Bovine Surgery and Lameness. 1986, Blackwell Scientific PressGoogle Scholar
- Comley JCW, Rees MJ, Turner CH, Jenkins DC: Colorimetric quantification of filarial viability. International Journal of Parasitology. 1989, 19: 77-83. 10.1016/0020-7519(89)90024-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schulz-Key H: The collagenase technique: how to isolate and examine adult Onchocerca volvulus for the evaluation of drug effects. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 1988, 39: 423-440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramanathan S, Nair NK, Mansor SM, Navaratnam V: Determination of the Antifilarial Drug Umf-078 and Its Metabolites Umf-060 and Flubendazole in Whole-Blood Using High-Performance Liquid-Chromatography. J Chromatogr B-Biomed Appl. 1994, 655 (2): 269-273. 10.1016/S0378-4347(94)80028-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rabe-Hesketh S, Skrondal A: Multilevel and Longitudinal Modeling Using Stata. 2008, Texas: Stata Press, 2Google Scholar
- Vandenbossche H, Rochette F, Horig C: Mebendazole and Related Anthelmintics. Advances in Pharmacology and Chemotherapy. 1982, 19: 67-128.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Borgers M, Denollin S, Debrabander M, Thienpont D: Influence of Anthelmintic Mebendazole on Microtubules and Intracellular Organelle Movement in Nematode Intestinal-Cells. Am J Vet Res. 1975, 36 (8): 1153-1166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zintz K, Frank W: Ultrastructural modifications in Heterakis spumosa after treatment with febantel or mebendazole. Veterinary Parasitology. 1982, 10: 47-56. 10.1016/0304-4017(82)90006-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Drewes CD, Zoran MJ, Callahan CA: Sublethal neurotoxic effects of the fungicide benomyl on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Pesticide Science. 1987, 19 (197–208):Google Scholar
- Court JP: A Diffusion Chamber Technique for Detecting Compounds with Clinical Prophylactic Activity against Brugia-Pahangi. Tropenmedizin Und Parasitologie. 1982, 33 (2): 83-86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Devaney E, Howells RE, Smith G: Brugia-Pahangi in the Balb/C Mouse – a Model for Testing Filaricidal Compounds. J Helminthol. 1985, 59 (2): 95-99.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Molyneaux DH, Neira M, Liese B, Heymann D: Lymphatic filariasis: setting the scene for elimination. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000, 94 (6): 589-591. 10.1016/S0035-9203(00)90198-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dreyer G, Addiss D, Williamson J, Noroes J: Efficacy of co-administered diethylcarbamazine and albendazole against adult Wuchereria bancrofti. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006, 100 (12): 1118-1125. 10.1016/j.trstmh.2006.04.006.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rajendran R, Sunish IP, Mani TR, Munirathinam A, Arunachalam N, Satyanarayana K, Dash AP: Community-based study to assess the efficacy of DEC plus ALB against DEC alone on bancroftian filarial infection in endemic areas in Tamil Nadu, south India. Trop Med Int Health. 2006, 11 (6): 851-861. 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2006.01625.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Critchley J, Addiss D, Ejere H, Gamble C, Garner P, Gelband H: Albendazole for the control and elimination of lymphatic filariasis: systematic review. Trop Med Int Health. 2005, 10 (9): 818-825. 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01458.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ismail MM, Jayakody RL, Weil GJ, Nirmalan N, Jayasinghe KSA, Abeyewickrema W, Sheriff MHR, Rajaratnam HN, Amarasekera N, de Silva DCL: Efficacy of single dose combinations of albendazole, ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine for the treatment of bancroftian filariasis. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1998, 92 (1): 94-97. 10.1016/S0035-9203(98)90972-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cline BL, Hernandez JL, Mather FJ, Bartholomew R, Demaza SN, Rodulfo S, Welborn CA, Eberhard ML, Convit J: Albendazole in the Treatment of Onchocerciasis – Double-Blind Clinical-Trial in Venezuela. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992, 47 (4): 512-520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Awadzi K, Hero M, Opoku O, Buttner DW, Gilles HM: The Chemotherapy of Onchocerciasis 15. Studies with Albendazole. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 1991, 42 (4): 356-360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Duke BOL, Zeaflores G, Munoz B: The Embryogenesis of Onchocerca-Volvulus over the 1st Year after a Single Dose of Ivermectin. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 1991, 42 (3): 175-180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schulz-Key H, Karam M: Periodic reproduction of Onchocerca volvulus. Parasitology Today. 1986, 2: 284-286. 10.1016/0169-4758(86)90138-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- El-Makawy A, Radwan HA, Ghaly IS, El-Raouf AA: Genotoxical, teratological and biochemical effects of anthelmintic drug oxfendazole Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in male and female mice. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development. 2006, 46: 139-156. 10.1051/rnd:2006007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huang NJ, Cerepnalkoski L, Nwankwo JO, Dews M, Landolph JR: Induction of Chromosomal-Aberrations, Cytotoxicity, and Morphological Transformation in Mammalian-Cells by the Antiparasitic Drug Flubendazole and the Antineoplastic Drug Harringtonine. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1994, 22 (2): 304-313. 10.1006/faat.1994.1034.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Remme J, De Sole G, Dadzie KY, Alley ES, Baker RH, Habbema JD, Plaisier AP, van Oortmarssen GJ, Samba EM: Large scale ivermectin distribution and its epidemiological consequences. Acta Leidensia. 1990, 59 (1–2): 177-191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Taylor MJ, Bandi C, Hoerauf A: Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts of filarial nematodes. Advances in Parasitology. 2005, 60: 245-284. 10.1016/S0065-308X(05)60004-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gilbert J, Nfon CK, Makepeace BL, Njongmeta LM, Hastings IM, Pfarr KM, Renz A, Tanya VN, Trees AJ: Antibiotic chemotherapy of onchocerciasis: In a bovine model, killing of adult parasites requires a sustained depletion of endosymbiotic bacteria (Wolbachia species). J Infect Dis. 2005, 192 (8): 1483-1493. 10.1086/462426.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hoeurauf A: New Strategies to Combat Filariasis. Expert review of anti-infective therapy. 2006, 4 (2): 211-221. 10.1586/14787188.8.131.52.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lacey E: The role of the cytoskeletal protein, tubulin, in the mode of action and mechanism of drug resistance to benzimidazoles. Int J Parasit. 1988, 18 (7): 885-936. 10.1016/0020-7519(88)90175-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.