- Open Access
Multilocus microsatellite signature and identification of specific molecular markers for Leishmania aethiopica
- Nigatu Kebede†1, 2, 3,
- Steve Oghumu†2, 4,
- Alemayehu Worku3,
- Asrat Hailu5,
- Sanjay Varikuti2 and
- Abhay R Satoskar2Email author
© Kebede et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
- Received: 22 February 2013
- Accepted: 24 May 2013
- Published: 4 June 2013
Leishmaniasis is a clinically and epidemiologically diverse zoonotic disease caused by obligatory, intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most widely distributed form of the disease characterized by skin lesions. Leishmania aethiopica is considered the predominant etiological agent in Ethiopia. The current study was aimed at developing multilocus microsatellite markers for L. aethiopica isolated from human cutaneous leishmaniasis patients in Ethiopia.
L. aethiopica parasites for the study were obtained from Ethiopia and laboratory analysis was conducted at The Ohio State University. DNA was extracted from cultured parasites and an internal transcribed spacer located at the ribosomal region of L. aethiopica genomic DNA was PCR amplified for species identification. Microsatellite markers were identified using multilocus microsatellite typing. We generated an enriched genomic library, and using Primer3 software, designed PCR primers to amplify sequences flanking the detected microsatellites. Subsequent screening of the amplified markers for length variations was performed by gel electrophoresis.
Using a variety of molecular methods, 22 different microsatellite markers were identified and tested for typing L. aethiopica strains using a number of clinical isolates. Of the 22 markers tested, 5 were polymorphic and showed distinctive multilocus genotypes, classifying them into four clusters. One marker was found to be specific for L. aethiopica, discriminating it from other species of Leishmania.
Multilocus microsatellite typing using the markers developed in this study could be useful for epidemiological and population genetic studies of strains of L. aethiopica in order to investigate the structure and dynamics of the corresponding natural foci. It could also help to answer specific clinical questions, such as the occurrence of local and diffuse lesions, strain correlates of parasite persistence after subclinical infection and lesion comparisons from patients suffering from L. aethiopica infections.
- Leishmania aethiopica
- Microsatellite markers
Leishmaniasis is a clinically and epidemiologically diverse disease caused by obligatory, intracellular, zoonotic hemo-flagellate protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania (family Trypanosomatidae) [1–3]. It is transmitted to humans via bites of sandflies and is prevalent in 98 countries in the world . Infection by the Leishmania parasite can cause either cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) or systemic/visceral leishmaniasis (VL) . CL is characterized by cutaneous lesions which develop at the site of the insect bite. Lesions can vary in severity, clinical manifestation, as well as recovery time, and in a proportion of patients, lesions can become chronic, leading to disfiguring mucosal leishmaniasis. CL can have a significant social impact as it may lead to severe stigmatization of affected individuals when lesions or scars occur on the face and exposed extremities . CL is the most widely distributed form of leishmaniasis, with about one-third of the cases occurring in the Americas, the Mediterranean basin and Asia. Ten countries with the highest incidence rates are Afghanistan, Algeria, Colombia, Brazil, Iran, Syria, Ethiopia, North Sudan, Costa Rica and Peru, which together account for 70 to 75% of global estimates for CL . A recent report indicates that about 20,000 – 50,000 CL cases are diagnosed each year . In Ethiopia, leishmaniasis is present in both rural and urban areas and Leishmania aethiopica is considered the predominant etiological agent of CL. It causes local cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL), mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) [8, 9]. The recent increase in the number of reported CL cases in Ethiopia  as well as its diverse clinical manifestations highlight the epidemiological significance of the disease.
Standard diagnostic procedures for CL include detection of the parasite in a skin smear or biopsy using microscopy, or demonstration of the parasite in culture. However, even when these assays are combined, they are not sensitive enough to confirm all cases of CL. Serology is also an insufficient diagnostic tool for CL as systemic antibody responses are absent . Furthermore, these techniques are unable to distinguish between different Leishmania species/strains that cause CL. Molecular techniques that detect parasite specific DNA or RNA offer definite advantages in sensitivity and speed of detection . Such fast and accurate methods in the identification of disease causing parasites will further facilitate the delivery of appropriate treatment. These advantages make molecular methods a viable and attractive diagnostic strategy.
Recently, analysis of length polymorphisms of microsatellite-containing regions have become an important tool for population and genetic studies of different species . Microsatellites are tandemly repeated stretches of short nucleotide motifs of 1 to 6 base pairs ubiquitously distributed in the genomes of eukaryotic organisms. They mutate at rates five to six orders of magnitude higher than that of the bulk of DNA. Microsatellite loci present high variability mainly due to allelic repeat length variations. The length variation of individual loci can easily be screened after amplification with primers that anneal specifically to their flanking regions . Leishmania are relatively rich in microsatellites . Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) has been shown to be one of the best methods for distinction of Leishmania strains . Previous population genetic studies performed by other researchers using MLMT revealed geographical and hierarchic population structures in Leishmania major, Leishmania tropica and the Leishmania donovani complex . Microsatellite markers designed for species of Leishmania include 13 for L. major[17, 18] 16 for L. tropica[19, 20] and 20 for L. donovani. Two independent microsatellite loci described by Rossi et al.  and three genomic fragments containing several different microsatellite tracts were found to be polymorphic in Leishmania infantum. However, studies identifying microsatellite markers are not available for L. aethiopica. In this current study, we describe the characterization of molecular markers for L. aethiopica isolated from human CL patients.
L. aethiopica isolates
L. aethiopica parasites used for this study were obtained from the Department of Immunology, Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University (AAU), Ethiopia. Samples of L. aethiopica parasites and or DNA were transferred to, and maintained at the Ohio State University following institutional guidelines. L. aethiopica isolates E, B, D, G and M were obtained from CL patients in Ethiopia and were also used in this study. L. aethiopica strain MHOM/ET/1972/L102 was used as a reference strain.
L. aethiopica parasites were maintained and cultured in Schneider's Drosophila medium supplemented with 20% fetal calf serum, 1% HEPES (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid), 10 U penicillin/ml, 100 μg streptomycin/ml and 0.05 mM 2-mercaptoethanol. Promastigotes were harvested by centrifugation and washed twice in PBS. DNA was extracted by the method described previously , resuspended in Tris-EDTA buffer (pH 7.4), and stored at 4°C.
L. aethiopica species identification: PCR of ITS region and sequencing
The internal transcribed spacer in the ribosomal region was amplified with primers ITSFW (5′-ACACTCAGGTCTGTAAAC) and ITSRV (5′-CTGGATCATTTTCCGATG) as described previously . In brief, a total of 10 ng template DNA in 2 μl was added to the reaction mixture containing 20 pmol of each primer in 5 μl, 12.5 μl Taq polymerase (Perkin-Elmer-Cetus, Norwalk, CT, USA) and 5.5 μl distilled water. PCR cycling conditions were as follows: initial denaturation of 95°C for 5 min, 35 cycles of 95°C for 20 s, 50°C for 30 s, 72°C for 1 min followed by a final extension of 72°C for 6 min. PCR products containing the amplified ITS region were separated in a 1% agarose gel with 1×TAE buffer and visualized under a UV transilluminator. Desired bands of expected sizes were excised and extracted using a Qiagen gel extraction kit (Valencia, CA, USA) according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Samples were submitted to the Plant-Microbe Genomics Facility at the OSU for sequencing. Sequence alignments were performed using the NIH based Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) for identification of Leishmania species.
Microsatellite library enrichment
We constructed an enriched genomic library based on the protocols developed by Bloor et al., . Ten micrograms of genomic DNA extracted from L. aethiopica was digested with HaeIII. The fragments were ligated to specific adaptors consisting of “Oligo A” (5′-GGC CAG AGA CCC CAA GCT TCG-3′) and “Oligo B” (5′ PO4-GAT CCG AAG CTT GGG GTC TCT GGC C-3′) . Fragments between 400 and 800 bp were excised from the agarose gel, extracted, and concentrated using YM-50 spin columns. The fractionated DNA was denatured and hybridized at a temperature of 55°C to (GT)10 3′-biotinylated oligonucleotides bound to M-280 streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. After incubation at 72°C for 2 h, unbound DNA and excess oligonucleotides were removed following differential stringency washes. PCR amplification of the immobilized fragments was conducted by using a suspension of 1 mg magnetic beads containing enriched DNA fragments as template and 30 pmol of “Oligo A” primer. The terminal elongation step was extended to 30 min. The amplified fragments were ligated to TOPO vector and transformed into competent E. coli, according to the manufacturer's instructions (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY). Cells were plated out on LB agar plates and incubated for overnight at 37°C. For screening of the library, colony PCRs were conducted by using a TA of 55°C, 10 pmol of primers oligo A and (GT)10. Microsatellite-containing fragments produced double bands in subsequent gel electrophoresis. Plasmid DNAs from positive clones were sequenced at the Plant-Microbe Genomics Facility at the Ohio State University, to confirm the presence of microsatellites.
Design of microsatellite markers
Using Primer3 software , PCR primers between 18 bp and 22 bp in length were designed to amplify sequences flanking the detected microsatellites. Primers were chosen from sequences 1 to 25 nucleotides upstream and downstream of the microsatellite repeat. A BLAST search was conducted for all markers to find corresponding sequences within the Leishmania genome to determine the chromosomes on which the amplified regions were localized.
Analysis of microsatellite variation
Amplification reactions were performed using 40 ng Leishmania genomic DNA as template and 10 pmol of each primer. PCR products were screened for length variations by agarose gel electrophoresis in 4% MetaPhor agarose gels (Lonza Rockland, ME, USA), prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions.
This study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the School of Public Health, AAU. A Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) was signed between AAU and OSU.
Identification of L. aethiopica from clinical isolates
Frequency and distribution of GT rich microsatellites
Microsatellite markers of L. aethiopica developed and tested in this study
FORWARD PRIMER SEQUENCE (5′-3′)
REVERSE PRIMER SEQUENCE (5′-3′)
Lmj34, Li31,34, Ld8, 34
Lmj31, Ld31, Lin31, Lmx30
Identification of strains of L. aethiopica based on microsatellite typing
To determine whether polymorphisms in the GT containing microsatellites exist within strains of L. aethiopica, we designed primers flanking each of the 22 identified microsatellite sequences (Table 1). Primers were developed to align closely to the CA/GT repeats to reduce bias due to additional insertion/deletion events in the flanking regions. Furthermore, fragment length analysis in a MetaPhor agarose gel was used to elucidate the resulting short PCR products.
Identification of species specific primers for L. aethiopica
In this study, we were able to identify hypervariable microsatellite loci and compile a set of markers usable for future epidemiological and population genetic studies for strains of L. aethiopica. Since this method is rapid and reproducible, we believe that it can be used for the reliable identification and characterization of L. aethiopica parasites. Of the 22 markers developed in this study, 5 polymorphic markers and one species specific marker were identified. MLMT has an advantage over other molecular techniques as results are reproducible and exchangeable between laboratories . It has proved to be a powerful tool for population genetic investigations, as well as epidemiological investigations, of Leishmania species . These short sequence repeats are highly polymorphic, codominant, and dispersed throughout the parasite genome. It has been shown that microsatellite loci of the family Trypanosomatidae are stable under laboratory conditions and can be detected directly in biological samples containing low amounts of parasitic DNA [21, 28]. In addition, the results of microsatellite analysis are much easier to compare between laboratories and store in databases .
This present study using MLMT divided the available isolates of L. aethiopica into four clusters. Previous studies conducted using L. aethiopica isolated from the skin of patients indicated genetic variation within the species; Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE) separated strains into two different genetic groups . However, the techniques used suffer from poor reproducibility . In addition polymorphic repeats are not conserved between different species of Leishmania. Recently, analysis of length polymorphisms of microsatellite-containing regions has become an important tool for population and genetic studies for many different species [13, 30]. Microsatellites are tandemly repeated stretches of short nucleotide motifs which mutate at rates of five to six orders of magnitude higher than that of the bulk of DNA and present high variability mainly due to allelic repeat length variation. The length variation of individual loci can easily be screened after amplification with primers that anneal specifically to their flanking regions . These microsatellites are used for mapping genes in the genome because of their abundant distribution [31, 32].
A number of researchers have developed microsatellite markers for different species of Leishmania including L. major[17, 18], L. tropica[19, 20] and L. donovani, as well as other organisms such as Penicillium marneffei, which are now available and used for MLMT. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the use of MLMT for the molecular characterization of L. aethiopica, a parasite which is highly prevalent in Ethiopia and the major cause of LCL, MCL and DCL, accounting for an annual incidence of 50,000 cases .
Feasibility of high-throughput MLMT requires the optimization of PCR product analysis. In this study we show that MetaPhor gel electrophoresis and sequencing both produced analogous and reproducible results. Sequencing was used to determine the number of repeats. This is indispensable for the analysis of large fragments containing more than one microsatellite. However, this method is expensive and sequences containing small tandem repeats may be difficult to process. We demonstrate in this study that using MetaPhor agarose gel electrophoresis to screen for polymorphisms produces sufficient resolution to distinguish between L. aethiopica strains and could identify short tandem repeats .
All of the L. aethiopica isolates tested showed exclusive multilocus microsatellite patterns using the five identified markers. Thus MLMT could potentially enable researchers to potentially track strains of this parasite, making this an effective epidemiological tool. Even with these promising results, however, more isolates will need to be processed to confirm the spatial clusters or subdivisions of L. aethiopica in Ethiopia. Studies conducted on L. aethiopica are few compared to other species of Leishmania possibly due to its prevalence restricted to the eastern part of Africa. This study provides tools that will enable further molecular epidemiological and population genetic research on CL caused by L. aethiopica.
Primers previously developed for L. aethiopica were unable to identify the different Leishmania species and isolates in our study. We therefore utilized the previously characterized ITS1 regions to identify and confirm the identity of the Leishmania species used in this study. Sequencing of PCR products generated using ITS1 specific primers and performing sequence alignments against the Leishmania genome database enabled us to identify these isolates. The species specific primers developed in our current study could provide a quicker, cost effective and highly useful tool for the typing/diagnosis of L. aethiopica on clinical samples. This would be useful for case detection, determination of appropriate therapeutic regimens as well as implementation of control measures. Further, since this method does not require a restriction enzyme digestion step as in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), it provides an added advantage in accelerating species identification.
In conclusion, we demonstrate in this study, the successful development of markers for multilocus microsatellite typing of strains of L. aethiopica. We further successfully designed a species specific marker for L. aethiopica. The MLMT markers developed in this study have great potential for use in epidemiological and population genetic studies of strains of L. aethiopica. It will potentially facilitate investigation of the structure and dynamics of the corresponding natural foci. It will also help to answer specific clinical questions, such as the occurrence of local and diffuse lesions, strain correlates of parasite persistence after subclinical infection, lesion comparisons from patients suffering from L. aethiopica infections and the determination of endogenous and/or exogenous reinfection associated with immunosuppression.
The authors are grateful to One Health, PHPID program (awarded to NK), the Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, the Nathan Cummings Foundation, as well as the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research Training grant (awarded to SO) for providing the scholarship and covering the expenses of the study. ALIPB and SPH of AAU are also acknowledged.
This study was supported by the Public Health Preparedness for Infectious Diseases (PHPID) program at The Ohio State University, and the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research Training grant T32DE014320 (awarded to SO).
- Ashford RW: The leishmaniases as model zoonoses. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1997, 91 (7): 693-701. 10.1080/00034989760428.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bañuls AL, Hide M, Prugnolle F: Leishmania and the leishmaniases: a parasite genetic update and advances in taxonomy, epidemiology and pathogenicity in humans. Adv Parasitol. 2007, 64: 1-109.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singh S: New developments in diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Indian J Med Res. 2006, 123 (3): 311-330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alvar J, Vélez ID, Bern C, Herrero M, Desjeux P, Cano J, Jannin J, Den Boer M, Team WLC: Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence. PLoS One. 2012, 7 (5): e35671-10.1371/journal.pone.0035671.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Murray HW, Berman JD, Davies CR, Saravia NG: Advances in leishmaniasis. Lancet. 2005, 366 (9496): 1561-1577. 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67629-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Who: Control of the leishmaniases. Report of a meeting of the WHO Expert Committee on the Control of Leishmaniases, Geneva, 22–26 March 2010. 2010, Geneva: WHOGoogle Scholar
- Lemma W, Erenso G, Gadisa E, Balkew M, Gebre-Michael T, Hailu A: A zoonotic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Parasites & Vectors. 2009, 2 (1): 60-10.1186/1756-3305-2-60.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ashford RW, Bray MA, Hutchinson MP, Bray RS: The epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1973, 67 (4): 568-601. 10.1016/0035-9203(73)90088-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gebre-Michael T, Balkew M, Ali A, Ludovisi A, Gramiccia M: The isolation of Leishmania tropica and L. aethiopica from Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Awash Valley, northeastern Ethiopia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004, 98 (1): 64-70. 10.1016/S0035-9203(03)00008-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Negera E, Gadisa E, Yamuah L, Engers H, Hussein J, Kuru T, Hailu A, Gedamu L, Aseffa A: Outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Silti woreda, Ethiopia: risk factor assessment and causative agent identification. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008, 102 (9): 883-890. 10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.03.021.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Herwaldt BL: Leishmaniasis. Lancet. 1999, 354 (9185): 1191-1199. 10.1016/S0140-6736(98)10178-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wilson SM: DNA-based methods in the detection of Leishmania parasites: field applications and practicalities. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1995, 89 (Suppl 1): 95-100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tóth G, Gáspári Z, Jurka J: Microsatellites in different eukaryotic genomes: survey and analysis. Genome Res. 2000, 10 (7): 967-981. 10.1101/gr.10.7.967.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sampaio P, Gusmão L, Alves C, Pina-Vaz C, Amorim A, Pais C: Highly polymorphic microsatellite for identification of Candida albicans strains. J Clin Microbiol. 2003, 41 (2): 552-557. 10.1128/JCM.41.2.552-557.2003.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rossi V, Wincker P, Ravel C, Blaineau C, Pagés M, Bastien P: Structural organisation of microsatellite families in the Leishmania genome and polymorphisms at two (CA)n loci. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1994, 65 (2): 271-282. 10.1016/0166-6851(94)90078-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schönian G, Kuhls K, Mauricio IL: Molecular approaches for a better understanding of the epidemiology and population genetics of Leishmania. Parasitology. 2011, 138 (4): 405-425. 10.1017/S0031182010001538.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jamjoom MB, Ashford RW, Bates PA, Kemp SJ, Noyes HA: Towards a standard battery of microsatellite markers for the analysis of the Leishmania donovani complex. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2002, 96 (3): 265-270. 10.1179/000349802125000790.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hamarsheh O: Distribution of Leishmania major zymodemes in relation to populations of Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies. Parasites & Vectors. 2011, 4 (1): 9-10.1186/1756-3305-4-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schwenkenbecher JM, Fröhlich C, Gehre F, Schnur LF, Schönian G: Evolution and conservation of microsatellite markers for Leishmania tropica. Infect Genet Evol. 2004, 4 (2): 99-105. 10.1016/j.meegid.2004.01.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Azmi K, Schnur L, Schonian G, Nasereddin A, Pratlong F, El Baidouri F, Ravel C, Dedet J-P, Ereqat S, Abdeen Z: Genetic, serological and biochemical characterization of Leishmania tropica from foci in northern Palestine and discovery of zymodeme MON-307. Parasites & Vectors. 2012, 5 (1): 121-10.1186/1756-3305-5-121.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bulle B, Millon L, Bart JM, Gállego M, Gambarelli F, Portús M, Schnur L, Jaffe CL, Fernandez-Barredo S, Alunda JM: Practical approach for typing strains of Leishmania infantum by microsatellite analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 2002, 40 (9): 3391-3397. 10.1128/JCM.40.9.3391-3397.2002.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meredith SE, Zijlstra EE, Schoone GJ, Kroon CC, Van Eys GJ, Schaeffer KU, El-Hassan AM, Lawyer PG: Development and application of the polymerase chain reaction for the detection and identification of Leishmania parasites in clinical materia. Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis. 1993, 70 ((3–4): 419-431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schönian G, Akuffo H, Lewin S, Maasho K, Nylén S, Pratlong F, Eisenberger CL, Schnur LF, Presber W: Genetic variability within the species Leishmania aethiopica does not correlate with clinical variations of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2000, 106 (2): 239-248. 10.1016/S0166-6851(99)00216-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bloor FSB PA, Watts PC, Noyes HA, Kemp SJ: Manual. Microsatellite Libraries by Enrichment. 2001, : University of Liverpool, School of Biological Sciences,http://www.genomics.liv.ac.uk/animal/MICROSAT.PDF,Google Scholar
- Refseth UH, Fangan BM, Jakobsen KS: Hybridization capture of microsatellites directly from genomic DNA. Electrophoresis. 1997, 18 (9): 1519-1523. 10.1002/elps.1150180905.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rozen S, Skaletsky H: Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers. Methods Mol Biol. 2000, 132: 365-386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kuru T, Janusz N, Gadisa E, Gedamu L, Aseffa A: Leishmania aethiopica: development of specific and sensitive PCR diagnostic test. Exp Parasitol. 2011, 128 (4): 391-395. 10.1016/j.exppara.2011.05.006.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Macedo AM, Pimenta JR, Aguiar RS, Melo AI, Chiari E, Zingales B, Pena SD, Oliveira RP: Usefulness of microsatellite typing in population genetic studies of Trypanosoma cruzi. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2001, 96 (3): 407-413. 10.1590/S0074-02762001000300023.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ochsenreither S, Kuhls K, Schaar M, Presber W, Schönian G: Multilocus microsatellite typing as a new tool for discrimination of Leishmania infantum MON-1 strains. J Clin Microbiol. 2006, 44 (2): 495-503. 10.1128/JCM.44.2.495-503.2006.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Requena J, Chicharro C, Garcia L, Parrado R, Puerta C, Canavate C: Sequence analysis of the 3'-untranslated region of HSP70 (type I) genes in the genus Leishmania: its usefulness as a molecular marker for species identification. Parasites & Vectors. 2012, 5 (1): 87-10.1186/1756-3305-5-87.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gyapay G, Morissette J, Vignal A, Dib C, Fizames C, Millasseau P, Marc S, Bernardi G, Lathrop M, Weissenbach J: The 1993–94 Généthon human genetic linkage map. Nat Genet. 1994, 7 (2 Spec No): 246-339.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hanis CL, Boerwinkle E, Chakraborty R, Ellsworth DL, Concannon P, Stirling B, Morrison VA, Wapelhorst B, Spielman RS, Gogolin-Ewens KJ: A genome-wide search for human non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes genes reveals a major susceptibility locus on chromosome 2. Nat Genet. 1996, 13 (2): 161-166. 10.1038/ng0696-161.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fisher MC, Aanensen D, De Hoog S, Vanittanakom N: Multilocus microsatellite typing system for Penicillium marneffei reveals spatially structured populations. J Clin Microbiol. 2004, 42 (11): 5065-5069. 10.1128/JCM.42.11.5065-5069.2004.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.