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  1. Improving the knowledge and understanding of the environmental determinants of malaria vector abundance at fine spatiotemporal scales is essential to design locally tailored vector control intervention. This w...

    Authors: Paul Taconet, Angélique Porciani, Dieudonné Diloma Soma, Karine Mouline, Frédéric Simard, Alphonsine Amanan Koffi, Cedric Pennetier, Roch Kounbobr Dabiré, Morgan Mangeas and Nicolas Moiroux

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:345

    Content type: Research

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  2. The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic of 2015/2016 spread throughout numerous countries. It emerged in mainland Latin America and spread to neighboring islands, including the Caribbean island of Barbados. Recent stud...

    Authors: J. Thannesberger, N. Rascovan, A. Eisenmann, I. Klymiuk, C. Zittra, H. P. Fuehrer, T. Scantlebury-Manning, M. Gittens-St.Hilaire, S. Austin, R. C. Landis and C. Steininger

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:343

    Content type: Research

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  3. Meccus' taxonomy has been quite complex since the first species of this genus was described by Burmeister in 1835 as Conorhinus phyllosoma. In 1859 the species was transferred to the genus Meccus and in 1930 to T...

    Authors: Natália Regina Cesaretto, Jader de Oliveira, Amanda Ravazi, Fernanda Fernandez Madeira, Yago Visinho dos Reis, Ana Beatriz Bortolozo de Oliveira, Roberto Dezan Vicente, Daniel Cesaretto Cristal, Cleber Galvão, Maria Tercília Vilela de Azeredo-Oliveira, João Aristeu da Rosa and Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:340

    Content type: Short report

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  4. There is a paucity of recent data and knowledge on mosquito diversity and potential vectors of arboviruses in South Africa, with most of the available data dating back to the 1950s–1970s. Aedes and Culex species ...

    Authors: M. M. Guarido, M. A. Riddin, T. Johnson, L. E. O. Braack, M. Schrama, E. E. Gorsich, B. D. Brooke, A. P. G. Almeida and Marietjie Venter

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:339

    Content type: Research

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  5. Clusters of sex-specific loci are predicted to shape the boundaries of the M/m sex-determination locus of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti, but the identities of these genes are not known. Identification ...

    Authors: Keshava Mysore, Longhua Sun, Joseph B. Roethele, Ping Li, Jessica Igiede, Joi K. Misenti and Molly Duman-Scheel

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:338

    Content type: Research

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  6. Chagas disease is a neglected zoonosis caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It affects over six million people, mostly in Latin America. Drugs available to treat T. cruzi infection have associated toxicity a...

    Authors: Nieves Martínez-Peinado, Nuria Cortes-Serra, Luciana R. Tallini, Maria-Jesus Pinazo, Joaquim Gascon, Jaume Bastida and Julio Alonso-Padilla

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:337

    Content type: Research

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  7. Cryptosporidium baileyi is an economically important zoonotic pathogen that causes serious respiratory symptoms in chickens for which no effective control measures are currently available. An accumulating body of...

    Authors: Xue-Mei Wu, Xin Yang, Xian-Cheng Fan, Xi Chen, Yu-Xin Wang, Long-Xian Zhang, Jun-Ke Song and Guang-Hui Zhao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:336

    Content type: Research

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  8. Malaria control in Kenya is based on case management and vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). However, the development of insecticide resistance compr...

    Authors: Pauline Winnie Orondo, Steven G. Nyanjom, Harrysone Atieli, John Githure, Benyl M. Ondeto, Kevin O. Ochwedo, Collince J. Omondi, James W. Kazura, Ming-Chieh Lee, Guofa Zhou, Daibin Zhong, Andrew K. Githeko and Guiyun Yan

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:335

    Content type: Research

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  9. Birds are major hosts for many tick species (Acari: Ixodidae, Argasidae), and their role is especially important in transporting ticks over large distances along their seasonal migratory routes. Accordingly, m...

    Authors: Attila D. Sándor, Boyan Milchev, Nóra Takács, Jenő Kontschán, Sándor Szekeres and Sándor Hornok

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:334

    Content type: Research

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  10. Aedes albopictus is a very invasive mosquito, which has recently colonized tropical and temperate regions worldwide. Of concern is its role in the spread of emerging or re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. Ae. al...

    Authors: Patricio Artigas, Marta Reguera-Gomez, María Adela Valero, David Osca, Raquel da Silva Pacheco, María Goreti Rosa-Freitas, Teresa Fernandes Silva-do-Nascimento, Claudia Paredes-Esquivel, Javier Lucientes, Santiago Mas-Coma and María Dolores Bargues

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:333

    Content type: Research

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  11. Mosquitoes of the genus Aedes are the main vectors of many viruses, e.g. dengue and Zika, which affect millions of people each year and for which there are limited treatment options. Understanding how Aedes mosqu...

    Authors: Anton Spadar, Jody E. Phelan, Ernest Diez Benavente, Monica Campos, Lara Ferrero Gomez, Fady Mohareb, Taane G. Clark and Susana Campino

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:332

    Content type: Research

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  12. Although American crows are a key indicator species for West Nile virus (WNV) and mount among the highest viremias reported for any host, the importance of crows in the WNV transmission cycle has been called i...

    Authors: Sarah S. Wheeler, Conor C. Taff, William K. Reisen and Andrea K. Townsend

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:331

    Content type: Research

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  13. The tick Haemaphysalis longicornis (Neumann) is a well-known vector of numerous pathogens of veterinary and medical importance. Various control strategies, including the use of synthetic pesticides, have been dev...

    Authors: Chuks F. Nwanade, Min Wang, Tianhong Wang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Can Wang, Zhijun Yu and Jingze Liu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:330

    Content type: Research

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  14. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Jean Claude Dejon-Agobé, Jean Ronald Edoa, Yabo Josiane Honkpehedji, Jeannot Fréjus Zinsou, Bayodé Roméo Adégbitè, Mirabeau Mbong Ngwese, Ance Mangaboula, Bertrand Lell, Tamirat Gebru Woldearegai, Martin Peter Grobusch, Benjamin Mordmüller and Ayôla Akim Adegnika

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:329

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Parasites & Vectors 2019 12:577

  15. Improved knowledge on vector-borne pathogens in wildlife will help determine their effect on host species at the population and individual level and whether these are affected by anthropogenic factors such as ...

    Authors: Jürgen Krücken, Gábor Á. Czirják, Sabrina Ramünke, Maria Serocki, Sonja K. Heinrich, Jörg Melzheimer, M. Carolina Costa, Heribert Hofer, Ortwin H. K. Aschenborn, Nancy A. Barker, Stefano Capodanno, Luís Madeira de Carvalho, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Marion L. East and Bettina Wachter

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:328

    Content type: Research

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  16. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is a key method to reduce vector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, causing Chagas disease in a large part of South America. However, the successes of IRS in the Gra...

    Authors: Raquel Gonçalves, Rhiannon A. E. Logan, Hanafy M. Ismail, Mark J. I. Paine, Caryn Bern and Orin Courtenay

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:327

    Content type: Research

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  17. Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum. Although usually transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, infection by vertical transmission and by blood transfusion have also been...

    Authors: Harold Salant, Yaarit Nachum‑Biala, Barbara Feinmesser, Maya Perelmutter and Gad Baneth

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:326

    Content type: Research

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  18. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Carmen Costache, Zsuzsa Kalmár, Horațiu Alexandru Colosi, Alina Mihaela Baciu, Răzvan Vlad Opriş, Adriana Györke and Ioana Alina Colosi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:325

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:387

  19. Echinococcosis is a severe zoonotic parasitic disease which severely affects the health of the hosts. The diagnosis of echinococcosis depends mainly on imaging examination. However, the patient is often in the...

    Authors: Mingxing Zhu, Xiancai Du, Hongxia Xu, Songhao Yang, Chan Wang, Yazhou Zhu, Tingrui Zhang and Wei Zhao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:324

    Content type: Research

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  20. Histomonosis is a severe re-emerging disease of poultry caused by Histomonas meleagridis, a protozoan parasite which survives in the environment via the cecal worm Heterakis gallinarum. Following infection, the p...

    Authors: Gürbüz Daş, Lukas Wachter, Manuel Stehr, Ivana Bilic, Beatrice Grafl, Patricia Wernsdorf, Cornelia C. Metges, Michael Hess and Dieter Liebhart

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:323

    Content type: Research

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  21. The speed with which acaricides paralyze and kill ticks is relevant to impeding pathogen transmission. The objective of this study was to assess early-onset lotilaner effects on the motility and weights of Amblyo...

    Authors: Martha J. Wenger, Todd M. Kollasch, Madeline C. Burke, Livvy Jones, Casey Locklear, Makaela Hedberg, Lauren Miller, Sydnie Reeves, Debra Ritchie, Anthony J. Rumschlag, William G. Ryan, Vicki Smith, Cameron Sutherland, Kathryn E. Reif and Brian H. Herrin

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:322

    Content type: Research

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  22. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum and is highly lethal in humans and dogs if left untreated. The frequency of this parasite and associated histological changes in the ...

    Authors: William de Oliveira Kost, Sandro Antonio Pereira, Fabiano Borges Figueiredo, Artur Augusto Velho Mendes Junior, Maria de Fátima Madeira, Luciana de Freitas Campos Miranda, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Luiz Cláudio Ferreira, Fernanda Nazaré Morgado and Rodrigo Caldas Menezes

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:321

    Content type: Research

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  23. Longitudinal monitoring of outdoor-biting malaria vector populations is becoming increasingly important in understanding the dynamics of residual malaria transmission. However, the human landing catch (HLC), t...

    Authors: Bernard Abong’o, John E. Gimnig, Bradley Longman, Tobias Odongo, Celestine Wekesa, Amos Webwile, Benjamin Oloo, Mercy Nduta, Margaret Muchoki, Diana Omoke, Daniel Wacira, Kevin Opondo, Eric Ochomo, Stephen Munga, Martin J. Donnelly and Richard M. Oxborough

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:320

    Content type: Research

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  24. Theileria annulata is a protozoan parasite that can infect and transform bovine B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The mechanism of the transformation is still not well understood, and some parasite molec...

    Authors: Zhi Li, Junlong Liu, Quanying Ma, Aihong Liu, Youquan Li, Guiquan Guan, Jianxun Luo and Hong Yin

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:319

    Content type: Research

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  25. Pseudocohnilembus persalinus and Uronema marinum (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), as parasitic scuticociliatid ciliates, were isolated from Scophthalmus maximus and Takifugu rubripes, respectively, in our previous ...

    Authors: Yu-Xi Huang, Sen Wang, Yan-Qi Gao, Jie-Hu Chen, Xiu-Li Wang and Rui-Jun Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:318

    Content type: Research

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  26. The human flea, Pulex irritans, is widespread globally and has a long association with humans, one of its principal hosts. Its role in plague transmission is still under discussion, although its high prevalence i...

    Authors: Adélaïde Miarinjara, David M. Bland, James R. Belthoff and B. Joseph Hinnebusch

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:317

    Content type: Research

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  27. Dengue fever is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in Southeast Asia. Insecticides remain the most effective vector control approach for Aedes mosquitoes. Four main classes of insecticides are widely...

    Authors: Soon Jian Gan, Yong Qi Leong, Muhammad Fakrul Hakim bin Barhanuddin, Siew Tung Wong, Shew Fung Wong, Joon Wah Mak and Rohani Binti Ahmad

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:315

    Content type: Review

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  28. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for the transmission of several medically important arthropod-borne viruses, including multiple serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4). Competition within the...

    Authors: M. Novelo, M. D. Audsley and E. A. McGraw

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:314

    Content type: Research

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  29. Trypanosomatid genomes are colonized by active and inactive mobile DNA elements, such as LINE, SINE-like, SIDER and DIRE retrotransposons. These elements all share a 77-nucleotide-long sequence at their 5′ end...

    Authors: Francisco Macías, Raquel Afonso-Lehmann, Patricia E. Carreira and M. Carmen Thomas

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:313

    Content type: Research

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  30. Diseases transmitted by invasive Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are public health issues in the tropics and subtropics. Understanding the ecology of mosquito vectors is essential for the developmen...

    Authors: Carolina Camargo, Catalina Alfonso-Parra, Sebastián Díaz, Diego F. Rincon, Luis Felipe Ramírez-Sánchez, Juliana Agudelo, Luisa M. Barrientos, Sara Villa-Arias and Frank W. Avila

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:312

    Content type: Research

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  31. Mosquito control has the potential to significantly reduce malaria burden on a region, but to influence public health policy must also show cost-effectiveness. Gaps in our knowledge of mosquito population dyna...

    Authors: Aaron L. Morris, Azra Ghani and Neil Ferguson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:311

    Content type: Research

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  32. The impact of semiannual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole (ALB; 400 mg) alone on lymphatic filariasis (LF) and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections was assessed during two trials conducted...

    Authors: Jérémy T. Campillo, Naomi P. Awaca-Uvon, Jean-Paul Tambwe, Godefroy Kuyangisa-Simuna, Johnny Vlaminck, Gary J. Weil, Michel Boussinesq, Cédric B. Chesnais and Sébastien D. S. Pion

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:310

    Content type: Research

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  33. Haemaphysalis longicornis is an obligate hematophagous ectoparasite that transmits a variety of pathogens causing life-threatening diseases in humans and animals. Paramyosin (Pmy) is not only an invertebrate-spec...

    Authors: Pin-Xing Wu, Xue-Jiao Cui, Mi-Xue Cao, Li-Hong Lv, Hong-Meng Dong, Shu-Wen Xiao, Jing-Ze Liu and Yong-Hong Hu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:309

    Content type: Short report

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  34. Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria stiedae is a widespread and economically significant disease of rabbits. The lack of studies on the life-cycle development and host interactions of E. stiedae at the molecular level ...

    Authors: Yue Xie, Jie Xiao, Xuan Zhou, Xiaobin Gu, Ran He, Jing Xu, Bo Jing, Xuerong Peng and Guangyou Yang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:308

    Content type: Research

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  35. Metastrongyloid parasites Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis infect wild and domestic canids and are important pathogens in dogs. Recent studies indicate that gastropod intermediate hosts infected with ...

    Authors: William Robbins, Gary Conboy, Spencer Greenwood and Roland Schaper

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:307

    Content type: Research

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  36. Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) can be appropriately managed following international recommendations. However, few studies have assessed the preferred protocols in real-life veterinary practice and whether these a...

    Authors: Marta Monteiro, Sara Prata, Luís Cardoso, Isabel Pereira da Fonseca and Rodolfo Oliveira Leal

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:306

    Content type: Research

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  37. Drugs currently used for controlling onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) are mainly microfilaricidal, with minimal or no effect on the adult worms. For efficient management of these diseases, it is ne...

    Authors: Melanie Abongwa, Moses Samje, Godfred A. Ayimele, Smith B. Babiaka, Christina Bulman, Judy Sakanari, Nick J. Koszewski, Saurabh Verma, Jesse Goff, Fidelis Cho-Ngwa, Richard J. Martin and Alan P. Robertson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:305

    Content type: Research

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  38. An epitope, Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R, termed α-gal, is present in glycoconjugates of New World monkeys (platyrrhines) and other mammals but not in hominoids and Old World monkeys (catarrhines). The difference is...

    Authors: Ranjan Ramasamy

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:303

    Content type: Short report

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  39. Plant-derived cysteine proteinases of the papain family (CPs) attack nematodes by digesting the cuticle, leading to rupture and death of the worm. The nematode cuticle is composed of collagens and cuticlins, b...

    Authors: Victor S. Njom, Tim Winks, Oumu Diallo, Ann Lowe, Jerzy Behnke, Mark J. Dickman, Ian Duce, Iain Johnstone and David J. Buttle

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:302

    Content type: Research

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  40. Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and animals worldwide. Among all intermediate hosts of T. gondii, captive marsupials from Australia and New Zealand are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmos...

    Authors: Jitender P. Dubey, Fernando H. A. Murata, Camila K. Cerqueira-Cézar, Oliver C. H. Kwok, Chunlei Su and Michael E. Grigg

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:301

    Content type: Review

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  41. Culicoides obsoletus (s.l.) is the most abundant Culicoides species in northern Europe and an important vector of bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus. Nevertheless, information on its subadult life stages re...

    Authors: Claudia Van den Eynde, Charlotte Sohier, Severine Matthijs and Nick De Regge

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:300

    Content type: Research

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  42. A pivotal randomised, blinded, positive-controlled, multicentre, European field study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a novel combination tablet of lotilaner and milbemycin oxime (Cre...

    Authors: Sophie Forster, Scott Wiseman and Daniel E. Snyder

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:299

    Content type: Research

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  43. The feeding behavior of bloodsucking insects determines the transmission, distribution, host spectrum and evolution of blood parasites in the wild. Conventional wisdom suggests that some vector groups (e.g. bl...

    Authors: Nayden Chakarov, Jesús Veiga, Ignacio Ruiz-Arrondo and Francisco Valera

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:298

    Content type: Research

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  44. Recent studies indicate that the prevalence of non-falciparum malaria, including Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale spp., is increasing, with some complications in infected individuals. The aim of this revi...

    Authors: Joseph Hawadak, Rodrigue Roman Dongang Nana and Vineeta Singh

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:297

    Content type: Review

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  45. Parasites, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists, helminths, and arthropods, are ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. Consequently, hosts are frequently infected with more than one parasite species simulta...

    Authors: Dávid Herczeg, János Ujszegi, Andrea Kásler, Dóra Holly and Attila Hettyey

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:296

    Content type: Review

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  46. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a parasitic disease that is caused by Echinococcus granulosus (Eg). The recombinant Echinococcus granulosus antigen P29 (rEg.P29) was shown to confer effective immunity to sheep and ...

    Authors: Chan Wang, Song-Hao Yang, Nan Niu, Jia Tao, Xian-Cai Du, Ji-Hui Yang, Ming-Xing Zhu, Ya-Na Wang and Wei Zhao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:295

    Content type: Research

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  47. Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) associated to ticks are among the most important health issues affecting dogs. In Italy, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia conorii and Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) ha...

    Authors: Jairo Alfonso Mendoza-Roldan, Giovanni Benelli, Marcos Antonio Bezerra-Santos, Viet-Linh Nguyen, Giuseppe Conte, Roberta Iatta, Tommaso Furlanello and Domenico Otranto

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:292

    Content type: Research

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times. Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.