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  1. Chagas disease remains a significant public health problem in Latin America. There are only two chemotherapy drugs, nifurtimox and benznidazole, and both may have severe side effects. After complete chemothera...

    Authors: Niamh Murphy, M. Victoria Cardinal, Tapan Bhattacharyya, Gustavo F. Enriquez, Natalia P. Macchiaverna, Alejandra Alvedro, Héctor Freilij, Pablo Martinez de Salazar, Israel Molina, Pascal Mertens, Quentin Gilleman, Ricardo E. Gürtler and Michael A. Miles

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:543

    Content type: Research

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  2. The tick Dermacentor silvarum Olenev (Acari: Ixodidae) is a vital vector tick species mainly distributed in the north of China and overwinters in the unfed adult stage. The knowledge of the mechanism that underli...

    Authors: Desmond O. Agwunobi, Tongxuan Wang, Meng Zhang, Tianhong Wang, Qingying Jia, Miao Zhang, Xinyue Shi, Zhijun Yu and Jingze Liu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:542

    Content type: Research

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  3. The ixodid tick genera Rhipicephalus and Haemaphysalis contain several species of medical and/or veterinary importance, but their diversity in some regions of the world remains under-explored. For instance, very ...

    Authors: Samia Q. Alghamdi, Van Lun Low, Hadil A. Alkathiry, Abdulaziz N. Alagaili, John W. McGarry and Benjamin L. Makepeace

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:541

    Content type: Research

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  4. Scrub typhus is an important neglected vector-borne zoonotic disease across the Asia–Pacific region, with an expanding known distribution. The disease ecology is poorly understood, despite the large global bur...

    Authors: Ivo Elliott, Neeranuch Thangnimitchok, Kittipong Chaisiri, Tri Wangrangsimakul, Piangnet Jaiboon, Nicholas P. J. Day, Daniel H. Paris, Paul N. Newton and Serge Morand

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:540

    Content type: Research

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  5. Malaria control relies mainlyon insecticide-based tools. However, the effectiveness of these tools is threatened by widespread insecticide resistance in malaria vectors, highlighting the need for alternative c...

    Authors: Claudine Grâce Tatsinkou Maffo, Maurice Marcel Sandeu, Amen Nakebang Fadel, Magellan Tchouakui, Daniel Nguiffo Nguete, Benjamin Menze, Michael O. Kusimo, Flobert Njiokou, Grant L. Hughes and Charles S. Wondji

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:539

    Content type: Research

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  6. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has been reported in recent years in South Khorasan Province, a desert region of eastern Iran, where the main species is Leishmania tropica. Little is known of the influence of geogra...

    Authors: Mehdi Karamian, Mohammad Amin Ghatee, Majid Shayesteh, Walter Robert Taylor, Saeed Mohebi-Nejad, Ghasem Taheri and Mohammad Reza Jamavar

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:538

    Content type: Research

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  7. Necator americanus is one of the major etiological agents of human ancylostomiasis. Historically, the epidemiology of ancylostomiasis in Henan Province of central China and the molecular characteristics of N. ame...

    Authors: Fang Fang Xu, Yu Fei Niu, Wen Qing Chen, Sha Sha Liu, Jing Ru Li, Peng Jiang, Zhong Quan Wang, Jing Cui and Xi Zhang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:537

    Content type: Short report

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  8. Two populations of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (Western and Eastern) in Poland are among the most dynamic tick populations in Central Europe. Expansion and settlement of ticks in new localizations depend on the...

    Authors: Dorota Dwużnik-Szarek, Ewa Julia Mierzejewska and Anna Bajer

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:536

    Content type: Research

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  9. Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a clinically serious zoonosis caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. We studied the diversity and the distribution of genotypes of E. multilocularis isolated from...

    Authors: Mandy Herzig, Pavlo Maksimov, Christoph Staubach, Thomas Romig, Jenny Knapp, Bruno Gottstein and Franz J. Conraths

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:535

    Content type: Research

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  10. Aedes koreicus is a mosquito species characterized by marked anthropophilic behavior, and a potential vector of nematodes and viruses. It is native to East Asia, but its presence has recently been reported in man...

    Authors: Agata Negri, Irene Arnoldi, Matteo Brilli, Claudio Bandi, Paolo Gabrieli and Sara Epis

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:534

    Content type: Short report

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  11. The roundworm Ascaris suum is one of the parasites with the greatest economic impact on pig farming. In this context, lower weight gain is hypothesized to be due to decreased nutrient absorption. This study aims ...

    Authors: Sarina Koehler, Andrea Springer, Nicole Issel, Stefanie Klinger, Christina Strube and Gerhard Breves

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:533

    Content type: Research

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  12. The diseases for which Aedes aegypti is a vector are worrisome. The high vector competence of this mosquito, as well as its anthropophilia and ability to adapt to the urban environment, allows it to exploit many ...

    Authors: Ana Paula Miranda Mundim-Pombo, Hianka Jasmyne Costa de Carvalho, Rafaela Rodrigues Ribeiro, Marisol León, Durvanei Augusto Maria and Maria Angélica Miglino

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:531

    Content type: Research

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  13. Bartonella spp. are emerging pathogens transmitted by arthropod vectors, possibly including ticks. We have investigated signs of bartonellosis in Swedish patients with presumed tick-bite exposure and symptom dura...

    Authors: Marie Edvinsson, Camilla Norlander, Kenneth Nilsson, Andreas Mårtensson, Elisabet Skoog and Björn Olsen

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:530

    Content type: Research

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  14. Abnormal dauer formation gene (daf-5), located downstream of the DAF-7 signalling pathway, mainly functions in dauer formation and reproductive processes in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Althou...

    Authors: Wenda Di, Fangfang Li, Li He, Chunqun Wang, Caixian Zhou, Lu Liu, Lisa Ye, Jian Chen and Min Hu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:529

    Content type: Research

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  15. The overuse of insecticides to control insect vectors has promoted extensive insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. In this study, the functions of microRNA (miR)-279-3p and its target CYP325BB1 in the regulation ...

    Authors: Xixi Li, Shengli Hu, Hongbo Zhang, Haitao Yin, Huan Wang, Dan Zhou, Yan Sun, Lei Ma, Bo Shen and Changliang Zhu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:528

    Content type: Research

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  16. The expansion of mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya in the past 15 years has ignited the need for active surveillance of common and neglected mosquito-borne infectious diseas...

    Authors: Roland Bamou, Marie Paul Audrey Mayi, Borel Djiappi-Tchamen, Stella Mariette Nana-Ndjangwo, Elysée Nchoutpouen, Antony John Cornel, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Phillipe Parola, Timoléon Tchuinkam and Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:527

    Content type: Review

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  17. Authors: Mario Santoro, Maurizio Viscardi, Giovanni Sgroi, Nicola DʼAlessio, Vincenzo Veneziano, Roberta Pellicano, Roberta Brunetti and Giovanna Fusco

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:526

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Parasites & Vectors 2019 12:335

  18. Immunotherapeutic drugs, such as domperidone, have been shown to be promising treatments against canine leishmaniosis (CanL), but limited data are available. The aim of this pilot study (therapeutic, prospecti...

    Authors: Maria Alfonsa Cavalera, Floriana Gernone, Annamaria Uva, Paola D’Ippolito, Xavier Roura, Saverio Paltrinieri and Andrea Zatelli

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:525

    Content type: Short report

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  19. Single low-dose primaquine (SLD-PQ) is recommended in combination with artemisinin-based combination therapy to reduce Plasmodium falciparum transmission in areas threatened by artemisinin resistance or aiming fo...

    Authors: Stijn W. van Beek, Elin M. Svensson, Alfred B. Tiono, Joseph Okebe, Umberto D’Alessandro, Bronner P. Gonçalves, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley and Rob ter Heine

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:524

    Content type: Research

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  20. The subfamily Phascolostrongylinae (Superfamily Strongyloidea) comprises nematodes that are parasitic in the gastrointestinal tracts of macropodid (Family Macropodidae) and vombatid (Family Vombatidae) marsupi...

    Authors: Tanapan Sukee, Ian Beveridge, Anson V. Koehler, Ross Hall, Robin B. Gasser and Abdul Jabbar

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:523

    Content type: Research

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  21. Culicoides insignis is a confirmed vector of bluetongue virus (BTV) throughout the American tropics and a possible vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) in Florida. Despite its importance, fundamen...

    Authors: Dinesh Erram and Nathan Burkett-Cadena

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:522

    Content type: Research

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  22. Sugar feeding is a fundamental behaviour of many mosquito species. For Aedes albopictus, an important vector of dengue virus and chikungunya virus, little is known about its sugar-feeding behaviour, and no studie...

    Authors: T. Swan, E. Ritmejerytė, B. Sebayang, R. Jones, G. Devine, M. Graham, F. A. Zich, K. M. Staunton, T. L. Russell and T. R. Burkot

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:520

    Content type: Research

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  23. Colombia’s National Army is one of the largest military institutions in the country based on the number of serving members and its presence throughout the country. There have been reports of cases of acute or ...

    Authors: Omar Cantillo-Barraza, Jeffer Torres, Carolina Hernández, Yanira Romero, Sara Zuluaga, Camilo A. Correa-Cárdenas, Giovanny Herrera, Omaira Rodríguez, María Teresa Alvarado, Juan David Ramírez and Claudia Méndez

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:519

    Content type: Research

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  24. The excessive use of synthetic insecticides is responsible for many cases of resistance in insects. Therefore, the use of natural molecules of ecological interest with insecticidal properties is an alternative...

    Authors: Roméo Barnabé Bohounton, Luc Salako Djogbénou, Oswald Yédjinnavênan Djihinto, Oronce Sedjro-Ludolphe Dedome, Pierre Marie Sovegnon, Bruno Barea, Aristide Adomou, Pierre Villeneuve and Fidèle Paul Tchobo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:518

    Content type: Research

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  25. Although visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was largely brought under control in most regions of China during the previous century, VL cases have rebounded in western and central China in recent decades. The aim of t...

    Authors: Zhou Guan, Can Chen, Chenyang Huang, Hongwei Zhang, Yiyi Zhou, Yuqing Zhou, Jie Wu, Zhengbin Zhou, Shigui Yang and Lanjuan Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:517

    Content type: Research

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  26. Irrigation schemes may result in subsequent changes in malaria disease dynamics. Understanding the mechanisms and effects of irrigation on malaria vector bionomics and transmission intensity is essential to de...

    Authors: Werissaw Haileselassie, Endalew Zemene, Ming-Chieh Lee, Daibin Zhong, Guofa Zhou, Behailu Taye, Alemayehu Dagne, Wakgari Deressa, James W. Kazura, Guiyun Yan and Delenasaw Yewhalaw

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:516

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. The surveillance and control of mosquito-borne diseases is dependent upon understanding the bionomics and distribution of the vectors. Most studies of mosquito assemblages describe species abundance, richness ...

    Authors: Boni F. Sebayang, Tanya L. Russell, Kyran M. Staunton, Michael Townsend, Christopher Paton, Tovi Lehmann and Thomas R. Burkot

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:515

    Content type: Research

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  28. Wild populations of Anopheles mosquitoes are generally thought to mate outdoors in swarms, although once colonized, they also mate readily inside laboratory cages. This study investigated whether the malaria vect...

    Authors: Ismail H. Nambunga, Betwel J. Msugupakulya, Emmanuel E. Hape, Issa H. Mshani, Najat F. Kahamba, Gustav Mkandawile, Daniel M. Mabula, Rukiyah M. Njalambaha, Emmanuel W. Kaindoa, Letus L. Muyaga, Marie R. G. Hermy, Frederic Tripet, Heather M. Ferguson, Halfan S. Ngowo and Fredros O. Okumu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:514

    Content type: Research

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  29. Bovine trypanosomosis transmitted by tsetse flies is a major constraint to cattle health and productivity in all sub-Saharan countries, including Uganda. The objectives of this study were to determine the prev...

    Authors: Daniel Kizza, Michael Ocaido, Anthony Mugisha, Rose Azuba, Sarah Nalule, Howard Onyuth, Simon Peter Musinguzi, Rodney Okwasiimire and Charles Waiswa

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:513

    Content type: Research

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  30. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Lionel Brice Feufack-Donfack, Elangwe Milo Sarah-Matio, Luc Marcel Abate, Aline Gaelle Bouopda Tuedom, Albert Ngano Bayibéki, Christelle Mafo Ngou, Jean-Claude Toto, Maurice Marcel Sandeu, Carole Else Eboumbou Moukoko, Lawrence Ayong, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Isabelle Morlais and Sandrine Eveline Nsango

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:512

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:247

  31. The emergence of the Asian invasive malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi, has been identified in Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan. This is the first report that confirms the geographical expansion of this urban...

    Authors: Ayman Ahmed, Rua Khogali, Mohammed-Ahmed B. Elnour, Ryo Nakao and Bashir Salim

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:511

    Content type: Short report

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  32. Intestinal parasites (IPs) are widely distributed worldwide and are one of the major contributors to gastrointestinal disease. Their prevalence is associated with poor access to water, sanitation and hygiene (...

    Authors: Ernesto Candela, Carolina Goizueta, M. Victoria Periago and Carla Muñoz-Antoli

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:510

    Content type: Research

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  33. Identifying the mechanisms driving disease risk is challenging for multi-host pathogens, such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), the tick-borne bacteria causing Lyme disease. Deer are tick reproduction ho...

    Authors: Sara Gandy, Elizabeth Kilbride, Roman Biek, Caroline Millins and Lucy Gilbert

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:509

    Content type: Research

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  34. Latent toxoplasmosis, i.e. a lifelong infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, affects about a third of the human population worldwide. In the past 10 years, numerous studies have shown that infec...

    Authors: Jaroslav Flegr

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:508

    Content type: Research

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  35. African trypanosomiasis, which is mainly transmitted by tsetse flies (Glossina spp.), is a threat to public health and a significant hindrance to animal production. Tools that can reduce tsetse densities and inte...

    Authors: Stella Gachoki, Thomas Groen, Anton Vrieling, Michael Okal, Andrew Skidmore and Daniel Masiga

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:506

    Content type: Research

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  36. Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are ubiquitous in small ruminant farming, representing a major health and production concern. Given their differences in pathogenicity and the current problems regarding anthel...

    Authors: Stephane Knoll, Giorgia Dessì, Claudia Tamponi, Luisa Meloni, Lia Cavallo, Naunain Mehmood, Philippe Jacquiet, Antonio Scala, Maria Grazia Cappai and Antonio Varcasia

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:505

    Content type: Research

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  37. Zika virus (ZIKV) is transmitted to humans primarily by Aedes aegypti. Previous studies on Ae. aegypti from Jiegao (JG) and Mengding (MD) in Yunnan province, China have shown that these mosquitoes are able to tra...

    Authors: Chunling Zhu, Yuting Jiang, Qianghui Zhang, Jian Gao, Chaojie Li, Chunxiao Li, Yande Dong, Dan Xing, Hengduan Zhang, Teng Zhao, Xiaoxia Guo and Tongyan Zhao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:504

    Content type: Research

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  38. Bats are hosts for many ectoparasites and act as reservoirs for several infectious agents, some of which exhibit zoonotic potential. Here, species of bats and bat flies were identified and screened for microor...

    Authors: Haeseung Lee, Min-Goo Seo, Seung-Hun Lee, Jae-Ku Oem, Seon-Hee Kim, Hyesung Jeong, Yongkwan Kim, Weon-Hwa Jheong, Oh-Deog Kwon and Dongmi Kwak

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:503

    Content type: Research

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  39. Eimeria necatrix is one of the most pathogenic parasites, causing high mortality in chickens. Although its genome sequence has been published, the sequences and complete structures of its mRNA transcripts remain ...

    Authors: Yang Gao, Zeyang Suding, Lele Wang, Dandan Liu, Shijie Su, Jinjun Xu, Junjie Hu and Jianping Tao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:502

    Content type: Research

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  40. Aedes albopictus is a vector of major arboviral diseases and a primary pest in tropical and temperate regions of China. In most cities of China, the current monitoring system for the spread of Ae. albopictus is b...

    Authors: Yibin Zhou, Hongxia Liu, Peien Leng, Jiang Zhu, Shenjun Yao, Yiyi Zhu and Huanyu Wu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:501

    Content type: Research

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  41. Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika pose a significant challenge to health systems in countries they affect, especially countries with less developed healthcare systems. Therefor...

    Authors: Vaitiare Mulderij-Jansen, Izzy Gerstenbluth, Ashley Duits, Adriana Tami and Ajay Bailey

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:500

    Content type: Research

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  42. Anopheles sinensis is a dominant vector for malaria transmission in Asian countries. Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) mutation-mediated knock-down resistance (kdr) has developed in many A. sinensis populations...

    Authors: Ruoyao Ni, Nian Liu, Mei Li, Weiping Qian and Xinghui Qiu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:499

    Content type: Research

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  43. Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) is a parasite occurring worldwide that has been proven to have antitumour ability. However, studies on the antitumour effects of cross antigens between the tumour and T. spirali...

    Authors: Tao-Tao Yue, Nan Zhang, Jian-Hua Li, Xiang-Yun Lu, Xiao-Cen Wang, Xin Li, Hong-Bo Zhang, Shu-Qin Cheng, Bo-Bo Wang, Peng-Tao Gong and Xi-Chen Zhang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:498

    Content type: Research

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  44. CD4+ T helper (Th) cells play critical roles in both host humoral and cellular immunity against parasitic infection and in the immunopathology of schistosomiasis. T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a specialized...

    Authors: Yumei Zhang, Yulong Wu, Hua Liu, Wenci Gong, Yuan Hu, Yujuan Shen and Jianping Cao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:497

    Content type: Research

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  45. The malaria vector Anopheles minimus has been influenced by external stresses affecting the survival rate and vectorial capacity of the population. Since An. minimus habitats have continuously undergone ecologica...

    Authors: Kamonchanok Bunmee, Urusa Thaenkham, Naowarat Saralamba, Alongkot Ponlawat, Daibin Zhong, Liwang Cui, Jetsumon Sattabongkot and Patchara Sriwichai

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:496

    Content type: Research

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  46. Insecticide resistance—and especially pyrethroid resistance—is a major challenge for vector control in public health. The use of insecticide mixtures utilizing alternative modes of action, as well as new formu...

    Authors: Hang Ngoc Bao Luong, Arunas Damijonaitis, Ralf Nauen, John Vontas and Sebastian Horstmann

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:495

    Content type: Research

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  47. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are important vectors of human diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and zika. In Sri Lanka, they have been responsible for transmitting dengue virus. One of the most important pa...

    Authors: Thilini Chathurika Weeraratne, S. H. P. Parakrama Karunaratne, Lisa Reimer, W. A. Priyanka P. de Silva and Charles S. Wondji

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:493

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times. Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.