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  1. Nosema bombycis is a unicellular eukaryotic pathogen of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and is an economic and occupational hazard in the silkworm industry. Because of its long incubation period and horizontal and ver...

    Authors: Shiyi Zheng, Yukang Huang, Hongyun Huang, Bin Yu, Ni Zhou, Junhong Wei, Guoqing Pan, Chunfeng Li and Zeyang Zhou

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:81

    Content type: Research

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  2. Trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma vivax is one of the diseases threatening the health and productivity of livestock in Africa and Latin America. Trypanosoma vivax is mainly transmitted by tsetse flies; however...

    Authors: Eyerusalem Fetene, Samson Leta, Fikru Regassa and Philippe Büscher

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:80

    Content type: Research

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  3. Mosquitoes are vectors for diseases such as dengue, malaria and La Crosse virus that significantly impact the human population. When multiple mosquito species are present, the competition between species may a...

    Authors: Emma Stump, Lauren M. Childs and Melody Walker

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:79

    Content type: Research

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  4. Hammondia hammondi and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related protozoan parasites, but only T. gondii is zoonotic. Both species use felids as definitive hosts and cannot be differentiated by oocyst morphology. In

    Authors: Gereon Schares, Majda Globokar Vrhovec, Mareen Tuschy, Maike Joeres, Andrea Bärwald, Bretislav Koudela, Jitender P. Dubey, Pavlo Maksimov and Franz J. Conraths

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:78

    Content type: Research

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  5. Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with a complex life cycle and a cosmopolitan host range. The asexual part of its life cycle can be perpetually sustained in a variety of intermediate hosts through a comb...

    Authors: Wen Han Tong, Chris Pavey, Ryan O’Handley and Ajai Vyas

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:77

    Content type: Primer

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  6. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak to be a pandemic. As the mosquito season progressed, the understandable concern that mosquitoes c...

    Authors: Claudia Fortuna, Fabrizio Montarsi, Francesco Severini, Giulia Marsili, Luciano Toma, Antonello Amendola, Michela Bertola, Alice Michelutti, Silvia Ravagnan, Gioia Capelli, Giovanni Rezza and Marco Di Luca

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:76

    Content type: Short report

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  7. Mosquito-borne diseases are a global health problem, causing hundreds of thousands of deaths per year. Pathogens are transmitted by mosquitoes feeding on the blood of an infected host and then feeding on a new...

    Authors: Fiona Teltscher, Sophie Bouvaine, Gabriella Gibson, Paul Dyer, Jennifer Guest, Stephen Young and Richard J. Hopkins

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:75

    Content type: Research

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  8. Two species of deer ked (Lipoptena cervi and L. mazamae) have been identified as vectors of Bartonella bacteria in cervids in Europe and the USA. In an earlier study we showed that Japanese sika deer (Cervus nipp...

    Authors: Shingo Sato, Hidenori Kabeya, Sayuri Ishiguro, Yasuhiro Shibasaki and Soichi Maruyama

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:73

    Content type: Research

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  9. Myanmar commenced a lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination programme in 2000. Whilst the country has made considerable progress since then, a number of districts have demonstrated persistent transmission after ...

    Authors: Benjamin F. R. Dickson, Patricia M. Graves, Ni Ni Aye, Thet Wai Nwe, Tint Wai, San San Win, Myint Shwe, Janet Douglass, Peter Wood, Kinley Wangdi and William J. McBride

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:72

    Content type: Research

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  10. Detection of Dirofilaria immitis, or heartworm, through antigen in sera is the primary means of diagnosing infections in dogs. In recent years, the practice of heat-treating serum prior to antigen testing has dem...

    Authors: Jeff M. Gruntmeir, Nina M. Thompson, Maureen T. Long, Byron L. Blagburn and Heather D. S. Walden

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:71

    Content type: Short report

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  11. Schistosomes are trematode worms that dwell in their definitive host’s blood vessels, where females lay eggs that need to be discharged into the environment with host excreta to maintain their life-cycle. Both...

    Authors: Jean Pierre Kambala Mukendi, Risa Nakamura, Satoshi Uematsu and Shinjiro Hamano

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:70

    Content type: Research

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  12. Cryptosporidiosis is a gastrointestinal disease with global distribution. It has been a reportable disease in Canada since 2000; however, routine molecular surveillance is not conducted. Therefore, sources of ...

    Authors: Rebecca A. Guy, Christine A. Yanta, Pia K. Muchaal, Marisa A. Rankin, Karine Thivierge, Rachel Lau and Andrea K. Boggild

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:69

    Content type: Research

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  13. The DeWorm3 project is an ongoing cluster-randomised trial assessing the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) through mass drug administration (MDA) using study site...

    Authors: James E. Truscott, Robert J. Hardwick, Marleen Werkman, Puthupalayam Kaliappan Saravanakumar, Malathi Manuel, Sitara S. R. Ajjampur, Kristjana H. Ásbjörnsdóttir, Kalua Khumbo, Stefan Witek-McManus, James Simwanza, Gilles Cottrell, Parfait Houngbégnon, Moudachirou Ibikounlé, Judd L. Walson and Roy M. Anderson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:67

    Content type: Research

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  14. The waterborne pathogens Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Cyclospora cayetanensis can cause intestinal diseases in humans. An understanding of their occurrence and transport i...

    Authors: Yingying Fan, Xinrui Wang, Ruohong Yang, Wentao Zhao, Na Li, Yaqiong Guo, Lihua Xiao and Yaoyu Feng

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:66

    Content type: Research

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  15. Rickettsia spp. are human pathogens that cause a number of diseases and are transmitted by arthropods, such as ixodid ticks. Estonia is one of few regions where the distribution area of two medically important ti...

    Authors: Maria Vikentjeva, Julia Geller, Jaanus Remm and Irina Golovljova

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:65

    Content type: Research

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  16. Semi-field experiments with human landing catch (HLC) measure as the outcome are an important step in the development of novel vector control interventions against outdoor transmission of malaria since they pr...

    Authors: Adrian Denz, Margaret M. Njoroge, Mgeni M. Tambwe, Clara Champagne, Fredros Okumu, Joop J. A. van Loon, Alexandra Hiscox, Adam Saddler, Ulrike Fillinger, Sarah J. Moore and Nakul Chitnis

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:64

    Content type: Research

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  17. The rapid growth of Qatar in the last two decades has been associated with an enormous expansion of building programs in its cities and in the provision of new service industries. This in turn has attracted a ...

    Authors: Nadin Younes, Jerzy M. Behnke, Ahmed Ismail and Marawan A. Abu-Madi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:63

    Content type: Research

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  18. Soil-transmitted helminthiases are important neglected tropical diseases that result in a notably high number of disability-adjusted life years worldwide. Characterizing the interactions between the human inte...

    Authors: Hongliang Chen, Matteo Mozzicafreddo, Elisa Pierella, Vanessa Carletti, Angela Piersanti, Said M. Ali, Shaali M. Ame, Chunfeng Wang and Cristina Miceli

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:62

    Content type: Research

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  19. Babesia is a protozoan parasite that infects red blood cells in some vertebrates. Some species of Babesia can induce zoonoses and cause considerable harm. As the largest immune organ in mammals, the spleen plays ...

    Authors: Xiaomin Xue, Shuguang Ren, Xiaohong Yang, Abolfazl Masoudi, Yuhong Hu, Xiaoshuang Wang, Hongxia Li, Xiaojing Zhang, Minjing Wang, Hui Wang and Jingze Liu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:61

    Content type: Research

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  20. Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of vertebrate hosts and transmit the widest range of pathogenic organisms of any arthropod vector. Seven tick species are known to feed on bare-nosed wombats (Vomba...

    Authors: Danielle Beard, Hayley J. Stannard and Julie M. Old

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:60

    Content type: Research

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  21. The rapid spread of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors and the rebound in malaria cases observed recently in some endemic areas underscore the urgent need to evaluate and deploy new effective control in...

    Authors: Dieudonné Diloma Soma, Barnabas Zogo, Domonbabele François de Sales Hien, Aristide Sawdetuo Hien, Didier Alexandre Kaboré, Mahamadi Kientega, Anicet Georges Ouédraogo, Cédric Pennetier, Alphonsine Amanan Koffi, Nicolas Moiroux and Roch Kounbobr Dabiré

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:58

    Content type: Research

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  22. The avian haematophagous ectoparasite Dermanyssus gallinae, commonly known as the poultry red mite, causes significant economic losses to the egg-laying industry worldwide and also represents a significant welfar...

    Authors: Wan Chen, Kathryn Bartley, Francesca Nunn, Alan S. Bowman, Jeremy M. Sternberg, Stewart T. G. Burgess, Alasdair J. Nisbet and Daniel R. G. Price

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:57

    Content type: Research

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  23. Species of Sarcocystis are parasitic protozoa in poikilothermic and homeothermic animals. Out of the 26 valid species in birds as intermediate hosts, none has been reported in those of the order Musophagiformes, ...

    Authors: Ondřej Máca and David González-Solís

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:56

    Content type: Research

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  24. Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses and inflict biting nuisance on humans, companion animals and livestock. In temperate regions, tr...

    Authors: Laura A. Tugwell, Marion E. England, Simon Gubbins, Christopher J. Sanders, Jessica E. Stokes, Joanne Stoner, Simon P. Graham, Alison Blackwell, Karin E. Darpel and Simon Carpenter

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:55

    Content type: Research

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  25. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) are of public health concern in Merti sub-County, Kenya, but epidemiological data on transmission, vector abundance, distribution, and res...

    Authors: Barrack O. Owino, Jackline Milkah Mwangi, Steve Kiplagat, Hannah Njiriku Mwangi, Johnstone M. Ingonga, Alphine Chebet, Philip M. Ngumbi, Jandouwe Villinger, Daniel K. Masiga and Damaris Matoke-Muhia

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:53

    Content type: Research

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  26. With visceral leishmaniasis (VL) incidence at its lowest level since the 1960s, increasing attention has turned to early detection and investigation of outbreaks.

    Authors: Khushbu Priyamvada, Joy Bindroo, Madan Prashad Sharma, Lloyd A. C. Chapman, Pushkar Dubey, Tanmay Mahapatra, Allen W. Hightower, Caryn Bern and Sridhar Srikantiah

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:52

    Content type: Research

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  27. Borrelia miyamotoi, a bacterium that causes relapsing fever, is found in ixodid ticks throughout the northern hemisphere. The first cases of human infection with B. miyamotoi were identified in 2011. In the easte...

    Authors: F. Keesing, D. J. McHenry, M. H. Hersh and R. S. Ostfeld

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:51

    Content type: Research

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  28. In the 1980s and 1990s, great strides were taken towards the elimination of tsetse and animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) in Zimbabwe. However, advances in recent years have been limited. Previously freed ar...

    Authors: William Shereni, Luis Neves, Rafael Argilés, Learnmore Nyakupinda and Giuliano Cecchi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:50

    Content type: Research

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  29. The lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum), an important vector of a wide range of human and animal pathogens, is very common throughout the East and Midwest of the USA. Ticks are known to carry non-pathogenic bac...

    Authors: L. Paulina Maldonado-Ruiz, Saraswoti Neupane, Yoonseong Park and Ludek Zurek

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:49

    Content type: Research

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  30. The Eucotylidae Cohn, 1904 (Superfamily: Microphalloidea), is a family of digeneans parasitic in kidneys of birds as adults. The group is characterized by the high level of morphological similarities among gen...

    Authors: Suleman, Nehaz Muhammad, Mian Sayed Khan, Vasyl V. Tkach, Hanif Ullah, Muhammad Ehsan, Jun Ma and Xing-Quan Zhu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:48

    Content type: Research

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  31. Neospora caninum, a coccidian protozoan, represents an important cause of bovine abortion. Available N. caninum strains show considerable variation in vitro and in vivo, including different virulence in cattle. T...

    Authors: Luca Villa, Pavlo Maksimov, Christine Luttermann, Mareen Tuschy, Alessia L. Gazzonis, Sergio A. Zanzani, Michele Mortarino, Franz J. Conraths, Maria Teresa Manfredi and Gereon Schares

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:47

    Content type: Research

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  32. The main challenge to the successful mass-rearing of the tsetse fly in insectaries, especially in Africa, is a sustainable supply of high-quality blood meals. As such, the collection of high-quality blood in l...

    Authors: Karifa Camara, Kadidiata Ilboudo, Ernest Wendemanegde Salou and Geoffrey Gimonneau

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:46

    Content type: Research

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  33. Steinernema feltiae is an entomopathogenic nematode used in biological control programs with a global distribution. Populations of this species show phenotypic plasticity derived from local adaptation and vary in...

    Authors: Patricia Flores, Andrea Alvarado, Gabriela Lankin, Paola Lax, Simona Prodan and Erwin Aballay

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:45

    Content type: Research

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  34. Leeches (Hirudinida) play a significant role as intermediate hosts in the circulation of trematodes in the aquatic environment. However, species richness and the molecular diversity and phylogeny of larval sta...

    Authors: Ewa Pyrka, Gerard Kanarek, Grzegorz Zaleśny and Joanna Hildebrand

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:44

    Content type: Research

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  35. Digenean trematodes are parasitic platyhelminths that use several hosts in their life cycles and are thereby embedded in various ecosystems affected by local environmental conditions. Their presence in a habit...

    Authors: Yajiao Duan, Azmi Al-Jubury, Per Walter Kania and Kurt Buchmann

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:43

    Content type: Research

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  36. Novel malaria vector control approaches aim to combine tools for maximum protection. This study aimed to evaluate novel and re-evaluate existing putative repellent ‘push’ and attractive ‘pull’ components for m...

    Authors: Margaret Mendi Njoroge, Ulrike Fillinger, Adam Saddler, Sarah Moore, Willem Takken, Joop J. A. van Loon and Alexandra Hiscox

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:42

    Content type: Research

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  37. Despite the licensure of the world’s first dengue vaccine and the current development of additional vaccine candidates, successful Aedes control remains critical to the reduction of dengue virus transmission. To ...

    Authors: Haoyang Sun, Borame L Dickens, Daniel Richards, Janet Ong, Jayanthi Rajarethinam, Muhammad E. E. Hassim, Jue Tao Lim, L. Roman Carrasco, Joel Aik, Grace Yap, Alex R. Cook and Lee Ching Ng

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:41

    Content type: Research

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  38. Leishmaniasis is a major parasitic disease worldwide, except in Australia and Antarctica, and it poses a significant public health problem. Due to the absence of safe and effective vaccines and drugs, research...

    Authors: Sara Rahimi, Ali khamesipour, Amir Ahmad Akhavan, Javad Rafinejad, Reza Ahmadkhaniaha, Mahmood Bakhtiyari, Arshad Veysi and Kamran Akbarzadeh

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:40

    Content type: Research

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  39. The Benishangul-Gumuz region is an important development corridor in Ethiopia. Large-scale projects such as the Great Renaissance Dam, mining and agriculture have entailed huge environmental modifications and ...

    Authors: Shibabaw Bejano, Girma Shumie, Ashwani Kumar, Eyuel Asemahagn, Demekech Damte, Sinkinesh Woldie, Abate Mulugeta, Nigus Manaye, Abebe Genetu, Endalamaw Gadisa and Gezahegn Mamo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:39

    Content type: Research

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  40. Phlebotomines are a group of insects which include vectors of the Leishmania parasites that cause visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), diseases primarily affecting populations of low soci...

    Authors: Marcos Paulo Gomes Pinheiro, Cássio Lázaro Silva-Inacio, Marcel Miranda de Medeiros Silva, Paulo Sérgio Fagundes de Araújo and Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo Ximenes

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:38

    Content type: Research

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  41. Strongyloidiasis, one of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), can be fatal in immunocompromised patients. Available data on Strongyloides stercoralis infection in high-risk patients in Iran are limited. The ai...

    Authors: Alireza Ashiri, Abdollah Rafiei, Molouk Beiromvand, Abdollah Khanzadeh and Arash Alghasi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:37

    Content type: Research

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  42. Peri-urban and urban settings have recently gained more prominence in studies on vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi due to sustained rural-to-urban migrations and reports of urban infestations with tr...

    Authors: Alejandra Alvedro, María Sol Gaspe, Hannah Milbourn, Natalia Paula Macchiaverna, Mariano Alberto Laiño, Gustavo Fabián Enriquez, Ricardo Esteban Gürtler and Marta Victoria Cardinal

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:35

    Content type: Research

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  43. Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 is an OIE (Office International des Epizooties)-listed parasitic pathogen and had until the current study been reported from 19 countries across Europe, although many of these ...

    Authors: Giuseppe Paladini, Andrew P. Shinn, Nicholas G. H. Taylor, James E. Bron and Haakon Hansen

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:34

    Content type: Research

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  44. Baylisascaris devosi is an intestinal nematode found in several carnivores including fisher, wolverine, Beech marten, American marten and sable in different parts of the world, but this nematode has not been repo...

    Authors: Meysam Sharifdini, Richard A. Heckmann and Fattaneh Mikaeili

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:33

    Content type: Research

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  45. The Mongolian jird (Meriones unguiculatus) has long been recognized as a permissive host for the filarial parasite Brugia malayi; however, it is nonpermissive to another filarial parasite, canine heartworm (Dirof...

    Authors: Christopher C. Evans, Katherine M. Day, Yi Chu, Bridget Garner, Kaori Sakamoto and Andrew R. Moorhead

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:25

    Content type: Research

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