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Dipteran vectors and associated diseases

Subject Editors 
Fredros Okumu, Ifakara Health Institute, Tanzania 
Marco Pombi, La Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

Associate Editors
Norbert Becker, University of Heidelberg, Germany
Gioia Bongiorno, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy
Luciano V. Cosme, Yale University, USA
Sara Epis, University of Milan, Italy
Josiane Etang, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany
Claudia Fortuna, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy
Bruno Gomes da Silva, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil
Camila González Rosas, Universidad de los Andes, Colombia
Basile Kamgang, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine/OCEAC, Cameroon
Camila Lorenz, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
Marta Maia, University of Oxford, UK
Ademir Martins, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil
Pie Müller, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Switzerland
Ellie Sherrard-Smith, Imperial College London, UK
Iliano Vieira Coutinho-Abreu, University of California San Diego, USA
Sibao Wang, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Charles Wondji, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK

The Dipteran vectors and associated disease section publishes studies relating to the systematics, phylogenetics, identification (including new species descriptions), population genetics, bionomics, ecology, distribution, predictive mapping, diagnostics, surveillance and control of dipteran vectors and their associated diseases, particularly Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Glossina, Simulium, Culicoides and phlebotomines.

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  1. Aedes mosquitoes are important invasive species contributing to the spread of chikungunya, dengue fever, yellow fever, zika virus, and other dangerous vector-borne diseases. Aedes albopictus is native to southeas...

    Authors: Jiyeong Shin and Jongwoo Jung
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:377
  2. Active surveillance aimed at the early detection of invasive mosquito species is usually focused on seaports and airports as points of entry, and along road networks as dispersion paths. In a number of cases, ...

    Authors: Roger Eritja, Sarah Delacour-Estrella, Ignacio Ruiz-Arrondo, Mikel A. González, Carlos Barceló, Ana L. García-Pérez, Javier Lucientes, Miguel Á. Miranda and Frederic Bartumeus
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:375
  3. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodiae) in the Republic of Moldova have been understudied for decades. Our study provides a first update on their occurrence, species composition and bloodmeal sources aft...

    Authors: Tatiana Șuleșco, Ozge Erisoz Kasap, Petr Halada, Gizem Oğuz, Dimian Rusnac, Marketa Gresova, Bulent Alten, Petr Volf and Vit Dvorak
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:371
  4. Dengue suppression often relies on control of the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, through applications of insecticides of which the pyrethroid group has played a dominant role. Insecticide resistance is prevalent...

    Authors: Nancy M. Endersby-Harshman, AboElgasim Ali, Basim Alhumrani, Mohammed Abdullah Alkuriji, Mohammed B. Al-Fageeh, Abdulaziz Al-Malik, Mohammed S. Alsuabeyl, Samia Elfekih and Ary A. Hoffmann
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:361
  5. A small number of human cases of the zoonotic malaria Plasmodium knowlesi have been reported in Palawan Island, the Philippines. Identification of potential vector species and their bionomics is crucial for under...

    Authors: Richard Paul B. Malijan, Frank Mechan, Jessie C. Braganza Jr, Kristelle Mae R. Valle, Ferdinand V. Salazar, Majhalia M. Torno, Wilfredo E. Aure, Brian A. Bacay, Fe Esperanza Espino, Stephen J. Torr, Kimberly M. Fornace, Chris Drakeley and Heather M. Ferguson
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:357
  6. Direct membrane feeding assays (DMFA) are an important tool to study parasite transmission to mosquitoes. Mosquito feeding rates in these artificial systems require optimization, as there are a number of facto...

    Authors: Lincoln Timinao, Rebecca Vinit, Michelle Katusele, Louis Schofield, Thomas R. Burkot and Stephan Karl
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:356
  7. Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of Leishmania spp. At least 27 species of sand flies have been recorded in Thailand. Although human leishmaniasis cases in Thailand are mainly imported, autochthonous leishmani...

    Authors: Orawan Phuphisut, Chanyapat Nitatsukprasert, Nattaphol Pathawong, Boonsong Jaichapor, Arissara Pongsiri, Poom Adisakwattana and Alongkot Ponlawat
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:352
  8. The Culicoides obsoletus species complex (henceforth ‘Obsoletus complex’) is implicated in the transmission of several arboviruses that can cause severe disease in livestock, such as bluetongue, African horse sic...

    Authors: Cecilia Aguilar-Vega, Belén Rivera, Javier Lucientes, Isabel Gutiérrez-Boada and José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:351
  9. Malaria control primarily depends on two vector control strategies: indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Both IRS and LLIN target indoor-biting mosquitoes. However,...

    Authors: Takalani I. Makhanthisa, Leo Braack and Heike Lutermann
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:349
  10. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have played an important role in reducing the global malaria burden since 2000. They are a core prevention tool used widely by people at risk of malaria. The Vector Contr...

    Authors: Cyntia-Muriel Y. Clegban, Soromane Camara, A. Alphonsine Koffi, Ludovic P. Ahoua Alou, Jean-Paul Kabran Kouame, A. Fernand Koffi, Philippe K. Kouassi, Nicolas Moiroux and Cédric Pennetier
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:347
  11. Improving the knowledge and understanding of the environmental determinants of malaria vector abundance at fine spatiotemporal scales is essential to design locally tailored vector control intervention. This w...

    Authors: Paul Taconet, Angélique Porciani, Dieudonné Diloma Soma, Karine Mouline, Frédéric Simard, Alphonsine Amanan Koffi, Cedric Pennetier, Roch Kounbobr Dabiré, Morgan Mangeas and Nicolas Moiroux
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:345
  12. The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic of 2015/2016 spread throughout numerous countries. It emerged in mainland Latin America and spread to neighboring islands, including the Caribbean island of Barbados. Recent stud...

    Authors: J. Thannesberger, N. Rascovan, A. Eisenmann, I. Klymiuk, C. Zittra, H. P. Fuehrer, T. Scantlebury-Manning, M. Gittens-St.Hilaire, S. Austin, R. C. Landis and C. Steininger
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:343
  13. There is a paucity of recent data and knowledge on mosquito diversity and potential vectors of arboviruses in South Africa, with most of the available data dating back to the 1950s–1970s. Aedes and Culex species ...

    Authors: M. M. Guarido, M. A. Riddin, T. Johnson, L. E. O. Braack, M. Schrama, E. E. Gorsich, B. D. Brooke, A. P. G. Almeida and Marietjie Venter
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:339
  14. Clusters of sex-specific loci are predicted to shape the boundaries of the M/m sex-determination locus of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti, but the identities of these genes are not known. Identification ...

    Authors: Keshava Mysore, Longhua Sun, Joseph B. Roethele, Ping Li, Jessica Igiede, Joi K. Misenti and Molly Duman-Scheel
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:338
  15. Malaria control in Kenya is based on case management and vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). However, the development of insecticide resistance compr...

    Authors: Pauline Winnie Orondo, Steven G. Nyanjom, Harrysone Atieli, John Githure, Benyl M. Ondeto, Kevin O. Ochwedo, Collince J. Omondi, James W. Kazura, Ming-Chieh Lee, Guofa Zhou, Daibin Zhong, Andrew K. Githeko and Guiyun Yan
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:335
  16. Aedes albopictus is a very invasive mosquito, which has recently colonized tropical and temperate regions worldwide. Of concern is its role in the spread of emerging or re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. Ae. al...

    Authors: Patricio Artigas, Marta Reguera-Gomez, María Adela Valero, David Osca, Raquel da Silva Pacheco, María Goreti Rosa-Freitas, Teresa Fernandes Silva-do-Nascimento, Claudia Paredes-Esquivel, Javier Lucientes, Santiago Mas-Coma and María Dolores Bargues
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:333
  17. Mosquitoes of the genus Aedes are the main vectors of many viruses, e.g. dengue and Zika, which affect millions of people each year and for which there are limited treatment options. Understanding how Aedes mosqu...

    Authors: Anton Spadar, Jody E. Phelan, Ernest Diez Benavente, Monica Campos, Lara Ferrero Gomez, Fady Mohareb, Taane G. Clark and Susana Campino
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:332
  18. Although American crows are a key indicator species for West Nile virus (WNV) and mount among the highest viremias reported for any host, the importance of crows in the WNV transmission cycle has been called i...

    Authors: Sarah S. Wheeler, Conor C. Taff, William K. Reisen and Andrea K. Townsend
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:331
  19. Longitudinal monitoring of outdoor-biting malaria vector populations is becoming increasingly important in understanding the dynamics of residual malaria transmission. However, the human landing catch (HLC), t...

    Authors: Bernard Abong’o, John E. Gimnig, Bradley Longman, Tobias Odongo, Celestine Wekesa, Amos Webwile, Benjamin Oloo, Mercy Nduta, Margaret Muchoki, Diana Omoke, Daniel Wacira, Kevin Opondo, Eric Ochomo, Stephen Munga, Martin J. Donnelly and Richard M. Oxborough
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:320
  20. Dengue fever is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in Southeast Asia. Insecticides remain the most effective vector control approach for Aedes mosquitoes. Four main classes of insecticides are widely...

    Authors: Soon Jian Gan, Yong Qi Leong, Muhammad Fakrul Hakim bin Barhanuddin, Siew Tung Wong, Shew Fung Wong, Joon Wah Mak and Rohani Binti Ahmad
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:315
  21. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for the transmission of several medically important arthropod-borne viruses, including multiple serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4). Competition within the...

    Authors: M. Novelo, M. D. Audsley and E. A. McGraw
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:314
  22. Diseases transmitted by invasive Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are public health issues in the tropics and subtropics. Understanding the ecology of mosquito vectors is essential for the developmen...

    Authors: Carolina Camargo, Catalina Alfonso-Parra, Sebastián Díaz, Diego F. Rincon, Luis Felipe Ramírez-Sánchez, Juliana Agudelo, Luisa M. Barrientos, Sara Villa-Arias and Frank W. Avila
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:312
  23. Mosquito control has the potential to significantly reduce malaria burden on a region, but to influence public health policy must also show cost-effectiveness. Gaps in our knowledge of mosquito population dyna...

    Authors: Aaron L. Morris, Azra Ghani and Neil Ferguson
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:311
  24. Culicoides obsoletus (s.l.) is the most abundant Culicoides species in northern Europe and an important vector of bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus. Nevertheless, information on its subadult life stages re...

    Authors: Claudia Van den Eynde, Charlotte Sohier, Severine Matthijs and Nick De Regge
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:300
  25. The feeding behavior of bloodsucking insects determines the transmission, distribution, host spectrum and evolution of blood parasites in the wild. Conventional wisdom suggests that some vector groups (e.g. bl...

    Authors: Nayden Chakarov, Jesús Veiga, Ignacio Ruiz-Arrondo and Francisco Valera
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:298
  26. Glossina (tsetse flies) biologically transmit trypanosomes that infect both humans and animals. Knowledge of their distribution patterns is a key element to better understand the transmission dynamics of trypanos...

    Authors: Richard S. Gashururu, Samuel M. Githigia, Methode N. Gasana, Richard Habimana, Ndichu Maingi, Giuliano Cecchi, Massimo Paone, Weining Zhao, Daniel K. Masiga and James Gashumba
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:294
  27. African trypanosomiases are vector-borne diseases that affect humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. Although data have been collected on tsetse fauna as well as trypanosome infections in tsetse flies and...

    Authors: Djoukzoumka Signaboubo, Vincent Khan Payne, Ibrahim Mahamat Alhadj Moussa, Hassane Mahamat Hassane, Petra Berger, Soerge Kelm and Gustave Simo
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:293
  28. Sand flies are principal vectors of the protozoan parasites Leishmania spp. and are widely distributed in all warmer regions of the world, including the Mediterranean parts of Europe. In Central European countrie...

    Authors: Edwin Kniha, Markus Milchram, Vít Dvořák, Petr Halada, Adelheid G. Obwaller, Wolfgang Poeppl, Gerhard Mooseder, Petr Volf and Julia Walochnik
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:291
  29. Reunion Island regularly faces outbreaks of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic diseases, two insect-borne orbiviral diseases of ruminants. Hematophagous midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)...

    Authors: Yannick Grimaud, Annelise Tran, Samuel Benkimoun, Floriane Boucher, Olivier Esnault, Catherine Cêtre-Sossah, Eric Cardinale, Claire Garros and Hélène Guis
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:288
  30. Traditional malaria vector sampling techniques bias collections towards female mosquitoes. Comprehensive understanding of vector dynamics requires balanced vector sampling of both males and females. Male mosqu...

    Authors: Krystal Birungi, Danspaid P. Mabuka, Victor Balyesima, Annet Namukwaya, Elinor W. Chemoges, Sylvia Kiwuwa-Muyingo, C. Matilda Collins, Frederic Tripet and Jonathan K. Kayondo
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:281
  31. Botanical substances such as essential oils (EOs) have demonstrated insecticidal properties and are a valid option for vector control. However, free EOs are unreliable as mosquito larvicides due their easy deg...

    Authors: Bruno Gomes, Huarlen Ogélio, Fabiane Brant, Camila Jesus Pereira-Pinto, Michael J. Workman, Monique Costa, José Bento Pereira Lima, Ademir Jesus Martins, Marcelo Ramalho-Ortigao, Ravi Durvasula, Ivy Hurwitz, Mariana Rocha David and Fernando Ariel Genta
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:272
  32. Zoological gardens contain unique configurations of exotic and endemic animals and plants that create a diverse range of developing sites and potential sources of blood meals for local mosquitoes. This may imp...

    Authors: Arturo Hernandez-Colina, Merit Gonzalez-Olvera, Emily Lomax, Freya Townsend, Amber Maddox, Jenny C. Hesson, Kenneth Sherlock, Dawn Ward, Lindsay Eckley, Mark Vercoe, Javier Lopez and Matthew Baylis
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:249
  33. Malaria vector control approaches that rely on mosquito releases such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) and suppression or replacement strategies relying on genetically modified mosquitoes (GMM) depend on ...

    Authors: Nwamaka Oluchukwu Akpodiete and Frédéric Tripet
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:268
  34. The human landing catch (HLC) measures human exposure to mosquito bites and evaluates the efficacy of vector control tools. However, it may expose volunteers to potentially infected mosquitoes. The mosquito el...

    Authors: Mgeni M. Tambwe, Adam Saddler, Ummi Abdul Kibondo, Rajabu Mashauri, Katharina S. Kreppel, Nicodem J. Govella and Sarah J. Moore
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:265
  35. Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) with an urban transmission cycle that primarily involves humans and Aedes aegypti. Evidence suggests that the evolution of some arboviruses is constrained...

    Authors: Lourdes G. Talavera-Aguilar, Reyes A. Murrieta, Sungmin Kiem, Rosa C. Cetina-Trejo, Carlos M. Baak-Baak, Gregory D. Ebel, Bradley J. Blitvich and Carlos Machain-Williams
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:261
  36. The direct toxicological impact of insecticides on vector mosquitoes has been well emphasized; however, behavioural responses such as excito-repellency and physical avoidance as a result of insecticide exposur...

    Authors: Sunil Dhiman, Kavita Yadav, B. N. Acharya, Raj Kumar Ahirwar and D. Sukumaran
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:259
  37. Malaria vector control has been implemented chiefly through indoor interventions targeting primary vectors resulting in population declines—pointing to a possible greater proportional contribution to transmiss...

    Authors: Amine M. Mustapha, Susan Musembi, Anthony K. Nyamache, Maxwell G. Machani, Jackline Kosgei, Lucy Wamuyu, Eric Ochomo and Neil F. Lobo
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:252
  38. West Nile (WNV) and Usutu (USUV) are emerging vector-borne zoonotic flaviviruses. They are antigenically very similar, sharing the same life cycle with birds as amplification host, Culicidae as vector, and man...

    Authors: Paola Scaramozzino, Andrea Carvelli, Gianpaolo Bruni, Giuseppina Cappiello, Francesco Censi, Adele Magliano, Giuseppe Manna, Ida Ricci, Pasquale Rombolà, Federico Romiti, Francesca Rosone, Marcello Giovanni Sala, Maria Teresa Scicluna, Stefania Vaglio and Claudio De Liberato
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:243
  39. Environmental disturbance, deforestation and socioeconomic factors all affect malaria incidence in tropical and subtropical endemic areas. Deforestation is the major driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, w...

    Authors: Tatiane M. P. Oliveira, Gabriel Z. Laporta, Eduardo S. Bergo, Leonardo Suveges Moreira Chaves, José Leopoldo F. Antunes, Sara A. Bickersmith, Jan E. Conn, Eduardo Massad and Maria Anice Mureb Sallum
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:236
  40. The pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes to humans and animals cause several emerging and resurgent infectious diseases. Increasing insecticide resistance requires rational action to control the target vector p...

    Authors: Xiaoshan Yang, Yang Xu, Qi Yin, Hongbo Zhang, Haitao Yin, Yan Sun, Lei Ma, Dan Zhou and Bo Shen
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:234
  41. Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, but is not endemic in all areas where this vector is found. For example, the relatively sparse distribution of cases in West Afri...

    Authors: Michael Amoa-Bosompem, Daisuke Kobayashi, Kentaro Itokawa, Katsunori Murota, Astri Nur Faizah, Faustus Akankperiwen Azerigyik, Takaya Hayashi, Mitsuko Ohashi, Joseph H. Kofi Bonney, Samuel Dadzie, Cuong Chi Tran, Phong Vu Tran, Ryosuke Fujita, Yoshihide Maekawa, Shinji Kasai, Shoji Yamaoka…
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:228
  42. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a recently emerged coronavirus that is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 in humans is characteriz...

    Authors: Velmurugan Balaraman, Barbara S. Drolet, Dana N. Mitzel, William C. Wilson, Jeana Owens, Natasha N. Gaudreault, David A. Meekins, Dashzeveg Bold, Jessie D. Trujillo, Leela E. Noronha, Juergen A. Richt and Dana Nayduch
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:214
  43. The impact of single-dose mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin for onchocerciasis on mosquito populations was investigated in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Authors: Olaitan Olamide Omitola, Cynthia Uchechukwu Umunnakwe, Adedotun Ayodeji Bayegun, Samuel Akinjide Anifowose, Hammed Oladeji Mogaji, Akinola Stephen Oluwole, Simon Nnayere Odoemene, Taiwo Sam Awolola, Adebola Adedoyin Osipitan, Sammy Olufemi Sam-Wobo and Uwem Friday Ekpo
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:212
  44. Anopheles arabiensis is an opportunistic malaria vector that rests and feeds outdoors, circumventing current indoor vector control methods. Furthermore, this vector will readily feed on both animals and humans. T...

    Authors: Blaženka D. Letinić, Marinela Contreras, Yael Dahan-Moss, Ingrid Linnekugel, José de la Fuente and Lizette L. Koekemoer
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:209
  45. The rapid and widespread evolution of insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing malaria control programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the insecticide resistance status of...

    Authors: Daniel N. Munywoki, Elizabeth D. Kokwaro, Joseph M. Mwangangi, Ephantus J. Muturi and Charles M. Mbogo
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:207
  46. Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector, recently implicated as contributing to ongoing residual malaria transmission in South Africa, which feeds and rests both indoors and outdoors. This species is, ther...

    Authors: Maria L. Kaiser, Oliver R. Wood, David Damiens, Basil D. Brooke, Lizette L. Koekemoer and Givemore Munhenga
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:205
  47. Insecticide resistance is threatening the effectiveness of efforts to control malaria vectors in Benin. This study explores the levels and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae s.l. to pyrethroids.

    Authors: Hermann Watson Sagbohan, Casimir D. Kpanou, Razaki Osse, Fortuné Dagnon, Germain G. Padonou, André Aimé Sominahouin, Albert Sourou Salako, Aboubakar Sidick, Wilfried Sewade, Bruno Akinro, Saadani Ahmed, Daniel Impoinvil, Clément Agbangla and Martin Akogbeto
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:202
  48. Infectious blood meal experiments have been frequently performed with different virus-vector combinations to assess the transmission potential of arthropod-borne (arbo)viruses. A wide variety of host blood sou...

    Authors: Sandra R. Abbo, Tessa M. Visser, Constantianus J. M. Koenraadt, Gorben P. Pijlman and Haidong Wang
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:194