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Dipteran vectors and associated diseases

Subject Editors 
Fredros Okumu, Ifakara Health Institute, Tanzania 
Marco Pombi, La Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

Associate Editors
Gioia Bongiorno, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy
Luciano V. Cosme, Yale University, USA
Josiane Etang, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany
Claudia Fortuna, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy
Bruno Gomes da Silva, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil
Camila González Rosas, Universidad de los Andes, Colombia
Basile Kamgang, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine/OCEAC, Cameroon
Camila Lorenz, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
Marta Maia, University of Oxford, UK
Ademir Martins, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil
Pie Müller, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Switzerland
Bethan Purse, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, UK
Ellie Sherrard-Smith, Imperial College London, UK
Sibao Wang, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Charles Wondji, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK

The Dipteran vectors and associated disease section publishes studies relating to the systematics, phylogenetics, identification (including new species descriptions), population genetics, bionomics, ecology, distribution, predictive mapping, diagnostics, surveillance and control of dipteran vectors and their associated diseases, particularly Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Glossina, Simulium, Culicoides and phlebotomines.

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  1. Biting midges of the genus Culicoides transmit disease-causing agents resulting in a significant economic impact on livestock industries in many parts of the world. Localized control efforts, such as removal of l...

    Authors: Phillip Shults, Lee W. Cohnstaedt, Zach N. Adelman and Corey Brelsfoard

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:31

    Content type: Review

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  2. Mosquitoes transmit filarial nematodes to both human and animal hosts, with worldwide health and economic consequences. Transmission to a vertebrate host requires that ingested microfilariae develop into infec...

    Authors: Abigail R. McCrea, Elizabeth B. Edgerton, Genevieve T. Oliver, Fiona M. O’Neill, Thomas J. Nolan, James B. Lok and Michael Povelones

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:30

    Content type: Methodology

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  3. Light trapping is an important tool for monitoring insect populations. This is especially true for biting Diptera, where light traps play a crucial role in disease surveillance by tracking the presence and abu...

    Authors: Roksana Wilson, Andrew Wakefield, Nicholas Roberts and Gareth Jones

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:28

    Content type: Review

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  4. Culicoides biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) are known vectors of avian Haemoproteus parasites. These parasites cause diseases, pathology and even mortality in birds. The diversity of biting midges in Euro...

    Authors: Rita Žiegytė, Elena Platonova, Egidijus Kinderis, Andrey Mukhin, Vaidas Palinauskas and Rasa Bernotienė

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:27

    Content type: Research

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  5. Aedes aegypti control programs have failed to restrain mosquito population expansion and, consequently, the spread of diseases such as dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya. Wolbachia infection of mosquitoes is a new and...

    Authors: Luana Cristina Farnesi, Fabiano Duarte Carvalho, Anna Paula Canuto Lacerda, Luciano Andrade Moreira and Rafaela Vieira Bruno

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:21

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:109

  6. Phlebotomine sand flies are the principal vectors of Leishmania spp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). Information on sand flies in Central Europe is scarce and, to date, in Austria, only Phlebotomus mascittii ...

    Authors: Edwin Kniha, Vít Dvořák, Markus Milchram, Adelheid G. Obwaller, Martina Köhsler, Wolfgang Poeppl, Maria Antoniou, Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Lusine Paronyan, Jovana Stefanovski, Gerhard Mooseder, Petr Volf and Julia Walochnik

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:20

    Content type: Research

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  7. The sibling species of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and Anopheles coluzzii co-exist in many parts of West Africa and are thought to have recently diverged through a process of ecologica...

    Authors: Nwamaka Oluchukwu Akpodiete and Frédéric Tripet

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:17

    Content type: Research

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  8. Leishmaniasis, caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, is a disease that affects up to 8 million people worldwide. Parasites are transmitted to human and animal hosts through the bite of an infected sand fly...

    Authors: Megan A. Sloan, Jovana Sadlova, Tereza Lestinova, Mandy J. Sanders, James A. Cotton, Petr Volf and Petros Ligoxygakis

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:15

    Content type: Research

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  9. Thelazia callipaeda is a zoonotic parasitic nematode of the family Thelaziidae, with Phortica okadai as its intermediate host and only confirmed vector in China. China has the largest number of human cases of th...

    Authors: Yipeng Jin, Zichen Liu, Jiaqi Wei, Yifan Wen, Nianjun He, Liubin Tang, Degui Lin and Jiahao Lin

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:13

    Content type: Short report

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  10. Aedes albopictus is an indigenous primary vector for dengue and Zika viruses in China. Compared with its insecticide resistance, biology and vector competence, little is known about its genetic variation, which c...

    Authors: Jian Gao, Heng-Duan Zhang, Xiao-Xia Guo, Dan Xing, Yan-De Dong, Ce-Jie Lan, Ge Wang, Chao-Jie Li, Chun-Xiao Li and Tong-Yan Zhao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:12

    Content type: Research

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  11. With widespread insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors, there is a pressing need to evaluate alternatives with different modes of action. Blood containing the antihelminthic drug ivermectin has been shown ...

    Authors: Max Hadlett, Sanjay C. Nagi, Manas Sarkar, Mark J. I. Paine and David Weetman

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:9

    Content type: Research

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  12. Ticks are hematophagous arthropods which normally attach to the surface of the host’s skin. Their aberrant presence in the subcutaneous tissue of a few carnivores, predominantly foxes, has been reported. Howev...

    Authors: Noureddine Mechouk, Georgiana Deak, Angela Monica Ionică, Dan Traian Ionescu, Gabriel Bogdan Chișamera, Călin Mircea Gherman and Andrei Daniel Mihalca

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:5

    Content type: Short report

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  13. In a recent study using DNA barcoding, we identified the plants fed upon by four Afro-tropical mosquito species that vector dengue, malaria, and Rift Valley fever. Herein, we have expanded on this study by inv...

    Authors: Vincent Odhiambo Nyasembe, David Poumo Tchouassi, Martha Njeri Muturi, Christian W. W. Pirk, Catherine L. Sole and Baldwyn Torto

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:4

    Content type: Research

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  14. In Mvoua, a village situated in a forested area of Cameroon, recent studies have reported high prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection among the population. In order to understand factors that can sustain s...

    Authors: Dominique Mieguim Ngninpogni, Cyrille Ndo, Patrick Ntonga Akono, Anicet Nguemo, Amine Nguepi, Danale Rosine Metitsi, Jeannette Tombi, Parfait Awono-Ambene and Charles Félix Bilong Bilong

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:2

    Content type: Research

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  15. Insect growth regulators (IGRs) can control insect vector populations by disrupting growth and development in juvenile stages of the vectors. We previously identified and described the curry tree (Murraya koenigi...

    Authors: Clarence M. Mang’era, Fathiya M. Khamis, Erick O. Awuoche, Ahmed Hassanali, Fidelis Levi Odhiambo Ombura and Paul O. Mireji

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:1

    Content type: Research

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  16. Usutu virus (USUV) is a rapidly spreading zoonotic arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) and a considerable threat to the global avifauna and in isolated cases to human health. It is maintained in an enzootic cycl...

    Authors: Cora M. Holicki, Dorothee E. Scheuch, Ute Ziegler, Julia Lettow, Helge Kampen, Doreen Werner and Martin H. Groschup

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:625

    Content type: Research

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  17. Aedes japonicus japonicus, first detected in Europe in 2000 and considered established in Germany 10 years later, is of medical importance due to its opportunistic biting behaviour and its potential to transmit p...

    Authors: Linus Früh, Helge Kampen, Marcel B. Koban, Nadja Pernat, Günter A. Schaub and Doreen Werner

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:623

    Content type: Research

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  18. Arboviral diseases, including dengue and chikungunya, are major public health concerns in Bangladesh where there have been unprecedented levels of transmission reported in recent years. The primary approach to...

    Authors: Hasan Mohammad Al-Amin, Fatema Tuj Johora, Seth R. Irish, Muhammad Riadul Haque Hossainey, Lucrecia Vizcaino, Kishor Kumar Paul, Wasif A. Khan, Rashidul Haque, Mohammad Shafiul Alam and Audrey Lenhart

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:622

    Content type: Research

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  19. Brazil has the fourth highest prevalence of malaria of all countries in the Americas, with an estimated 42 million people at risk of contracting this disease. Although most cases occur in the Amazon region, ca...

    Authors: Elainne Christine de Souza Gomes, Derciliano Lopes da Cruz, Maria Alice Varjal Melo Santos, Renata Maria Costa Souza, Cláudia Maria Fontes de Oliveira, Constância Flávia Junqueira Ayres, Renata Martins Domingos, Maria das Graça da Silva Pedro, Marcelo Henrique Santos Paiva and Lílian Maria Lapa Montenegro Pimentel

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:621

    Content type: Research

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  20. The commensal microbiota of mosquitoes impacts their development, immunity, and competency, and could provide a target for alternative entomological control approaches. However, despite the importance of the m...

    Authors: Haikel N. Bogale, Matthew V. Cannon, Kalil Keita, Denka Camara, Yaya Barry, Moussa Keita, Drissa Coulibaly, Abdoulaye K. Kone, Ogobara K. Doumbo, Mahamadou A. Thera, Christopher V. Plowe, Mark Travassos, Seth Irish and David Serre

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:619

    Content type: Research

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  21. Mayaro virus (MAYV; Alphavirus, Togaviridae) is an emerging pathogen endemic in South American countries. The increase in intercontinental travel and tourism-based forest excursions has resulted in an increase in...

    Authors: Constentin Dieme, Alexander T. Ciota and Laura D. Kramer

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:613

    Content type: Short report

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  22. Wolbachia are intracellular bacterial endosymbionts found in most insect lineages. In mosquitoes, the influence of these endosymbionts on host reproduction and arboviral transmission has spurred numerous studies ...

    Authors: Huicong Ding, Huiqing Yeo and Nalini Puniamoorthy

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:612

    Content type: Research

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  23. Predators play a critical role in regulating larval mosquito prey populations in aquatic habitats. Understanding predator-prey responses to climate change-induced environmental perturbations may foster optimal...

    Authors: Mmabaledi Buxton, Casper Nyamukondiwa, Tatenda Dalu, Ross N. Cuthbert and Ryan J. Wasserman

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:604

    Content type: Research

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  24. Bovine ephemeral fever virus (Rhabdoviridae: Ephemerovirus) (BEFV) causes bovine ephemeral fever (BEF), an economically important disease of cattle and water buffalo. Outbreaks of BEF in Africa, Australia, Asia a...

    Authors: Jessica E. Stokes, Karin E. Darpel, Simon Gubbins, Simon Carpenter, María del Mar Fernández de Marco, Luis M. Hernández-Triana, Anthony R. Fooks, Nicholas Johnson and Christopher Sanders

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:597

    Content type: Research

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  25. West Nile virus (WNV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that can cause neurological disease in both humans and horses. Due to the movement of competent vectors and viraemic hosts, WNV has repeatedly emerged globa...

    Authors: Arran J. Folly, Elisabeth S. L. Waller, Fiona McCracken, Lorraine M. McElhinney, Helen Roberts and Nicholas Johnson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:596

    Content type: Short report

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  26. Vector control measures are critical for the prevention and reduction of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. Effective vector control is reliant not only on knowledge of mosquito abundance, but also on the timel...

    Authors: Jean Claude Balingit, Thaddeus M. Carvajal, Mariko Saito-Obata, Maribet Gamboa, Amalea Dulcene Nicolasora, Ava Kristy Sy, Hitoshi Oshitani and Kozo Watanabe

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:594

    Content type: Research

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  27. The two most abundant sand fly species on the Honduran Pacific coast are Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis and Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) evansi. Both species are known vectors of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, th...

    Authors: Wilfredo Sosa-Ochoa, Javier Varela Amador, Yokomi Lozano-Sardaneta, Gabriela Rodriguez Segura, Concepcion Zúniga Valeriano, Gabriela Venicia Araujo, Carmen María Sandoval Pacheco, Márcia Dalastra Laurenti and Fredy Galvis-Ovallos

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:593

    Content type: Short report

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  28. Aedes albopictus, a vector of numerous viruses and filarial worms, has already established in 20 countries in Europe, mainly colonising subtropical regions. Continuing adaptation to climatic conditions in tempera...

    Authors: Lisa Tippelt, Doreen Werner and Helge Kampen

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:587

    Content type: Research

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  29. Morphological identification of adult females of described species of the genus Anopheles Meigen, 1818 in South America is problematic, but necessary due to their differing roles in the transmission of human mala...

    Authors: Maria Anice Mureb Sallum, Ranulfo González Obando, Nancy Carrejo and Richard C. Wilkerson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:584

    Content type: Research

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  30. The worldwide genus Anopheles Meigen, 1918 is the only genus containing species evolved as vectors of human and simian malaria. Morbidity and mortality caused by Plasmodium Marchiafava & Celli, 1885 is tremendous...

    Authors: Maria Anice Mureb Sallum, Ranulfo González Obando, Nancy Carrejo and Richard C. Wilkerson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:583

    Content type: Research

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  31. Accurate species identification of South American anophelines using morphological characters of the fourth-instar larva is problematic, because of the lack of up-to-date identification keys. In addition, taxon...

    Authors: Maria Anice Mureb Sallum, Ranulfo González Obando, Nancy Carrejo and Richard C. Wilkerson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:582

    Content type: Research

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  32. Ethiopia is affected by human leishmaniasis caused by several Leishmania species and transmitted by a variety of sand fly vectors of the genus Phlebotomus. The sand fly fauna in Ethiopia is highly diverse and som...

    Authors: Myrthe Pareyn, Vit Dvorak, Petr Halada, Natalie Van Houtte, Nigatu Girma, Wim de Kesel, Behailu Merdekios, Fekadu Massebo, Herwig Leirs and Petr Volf

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:580

    Content type: Research

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  33. Wolbachia, obligate intracellular bacteria, infect the majority of arthropods, including many mosquito species of medical importance. Some Wolbachia strains interfere with the development of Plasmodium parasites ...

    Authors: Nongnat Tongkrajang, Pichet Ruenchit, Chatchai Tananchai, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap and Kasem Kulkeaw

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:579

    Content type: Research

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  34. Anopheles sawadwongporni Rattanarithikul & Green, Anopheles maculatus Theobald and Anopheles pseudowillmori (Theobald) of the Anopheles maculatus group (Diptera: Culicidae) are recognized as potential malaria vec...

    Authors: Suchada Sumruayphol, Tanawat Chaiphongpachara, Yudthana Samung, Jiraporn Ruangsittichai, Liwang Cui, Daibin Zhong, Jetsumon Sattabongkot and Patchara Sriwichai

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:574

    Content type: Research

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  35. Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are medically important vectors of human and veterinary disease-causing agents. Among these, the genus Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), and phleboviruses are of utm...

    Authors: Vit Dvorak, Ozge Erisoz Kasap, Vladimir Ivovic, Ognyan Mikov, Jovana Stefanovska, Franjo Martinkovic, Jasmin Omeragic, Igor Pajovic, Devrim Baymak, Gizem Oguz, Kristyna Hlavackova, Marketa Gresova, Filiz Gunay, Slavica Vaselek, Nazli Ayhan, Tereza Lestinova…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:573

    Content type: Research

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  36. La Crosse virus (LACV) (genus Orthobunyavirus, family Peribunyaviridae) is a mosquito-borne virus that causes pediatric encephalitis and accounts for 50–150 human cases annually in the USA. Human cases occur prim...

    Authors: Gillian Eastwood, John J. Shepard, Michael J. Misencik, Theodore G. Andreadis and Philip M. Armstrong

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:569

    Content type: Research

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  37. High coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the cornerstones of vector control strategy in Senegal where insecticide resistance by the target vectors species ...

    Authors: El hadji Diouf, El hadji Amadou Niang, Badara Samb, Cheikh Tidiane Diagne, Mbaye Diouf, Abdoulaye Konaté, Ibrahima Dia, Ousmane Faye and Lassana Konaté

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:567

    Content type: Research

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  38. The emergence of insecticide resistance is a fast-paced example of the evolutionary process of natural selection. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of resistance in the myiasis-causing fly Cochli...

    Authors: Sophie Tandonnet, Gisele Antoniazzi Cardoso, Pedro Mariano-Martins, Raquel Dietsche Monfardini, Vanessa A. S. Cunha, Renato Assis de Carvalho and Tatiana Teixeira Torres

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:562

    Content type: Research

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  39. Wolbachia bacteria are widely distributed throughout terrestrial arthropod species. These bacteria can manipulate reproduction and influence the vector competence of their hosts. Recently, Wolbachia have been int...

    Authors: Ryan Torres, Eunis Hernandez, Valeria Flores, Jose Luis Ramirez and Andrea L. Joyce

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:558

    Content type: Research

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  40. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the primary vector for several diseases. Its control requires a better understanding of the mosquitoes’ live cycle, including the spatial dynamics. Several models address this issue....

    Authors: Monalisa R. Silva, Pedro H. G. Lugão and Grigori Chapiro

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:550

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. We assessed the impact of two sand fly insecticide interventions (insecticide spraying and insecticide-impregnated dog collars) on the peridomestic abundance and distribution of mosquitoes (Culicidae) and biti...

    Authors: Mikel A. González, Erin Dilger, María M. Ronderos, Gustavo R. Spinelli, Orin Courtenay and James G. C. Hamilton

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:549

    Content type: Research

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  42. Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are known as effective vectors of human and animal pathogens, worldwide. We have already indicated that some individuals in the Simulium turgaicum complex are annoying pests of hu...

    Authors: Fariba Khanzadeh, Samad Khaghaninia, Naseh Maleki-Ravasan, Mona Koosha and Mohammad Ali Oshaghi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:548

    Content type: Research

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  43. The Greek island of Crete is endemic for both visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and recently increasing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). This study summarizes published data on the sand fly fauna of Crete, the results ...

    Authors: Vít Dvořák, Nikolaos Tsirigotakis, Christoforos Pavlou, Emmanouil Dokianakis, Mohammad Akhoundi, Petr Halada, Petr Volf, Jérôme Depaquit and Maria Antoniou

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:547

    Content type: Research

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  44. Mosquito surveys that collect local data on mosquito species’ abundances provide baseline data to help understand potential host-pathogen-mosquito relationships, predict disease transmission, and target mosqui...

    Authors: Matthew J. Valentine, Brenda Ciraola, Gregory R. Jacobs, Charlie Arnot, Patrick J. Kelly and Courtney C. Murdock

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:543

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Accurate identification of the species of Anopheles Meigen, 1818 requires careful examination of all life stages. However, morphological characters, especially those of the females and fourth-instar larvae, show ...

    Authors: Maria Anice Mureb Sallum, Ranulfo González Obando, Nancy Carrejo and Richard C. Wilkerson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:542

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Identifying patterns and drivers of infection risk among host communities is crucial to elucidate disease dynamics and predict infectious disease risk in wildlife populations. Blood parasites of the genera Plasmo...

    Authors: Pooja Gupta, C. K. Vishnudas, V. V. Robin and Guha Dharmarajan

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:536

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:99

  47. The Culicoides fauna of Algeria has been historically investigated, leading to the description of many new species by Kieffer in the 1920s, Clastrier in the 1950s or Callot in the 1960s and to a comprehensive in...

    Authors: Mounira Belkharchouche, Selima Berchi, Bruno Mathieu, Ignace Rakotoarivony, Maxime Duhayon, Thierry Baldet and Thomas Balenghien

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:463

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:362

  48. Humans are the primary hosts of dengue viruses (DENV). However, sylvatic cycles of transmission can occur among non-human primates and human encroachment into forested regions can be a source of emergence of n...

    Authors: Paul Pickering, Leon E. Hugo, Gregor J. Devine, John G. Aaskov and Wenjun Liu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:240

    Content type: Short report

    Published on: