Skip to main content

Protozoa and protozoan diseases

Subject Editor
Anna Bajer, University of Warsaw, Poland

Associate Editors
Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) and Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Brazil
Joel Barratt, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Oak Ridge Associated Universities, USA
Paul Capewell, University of Glasgow, UK
Christopher Fernández Prada, Université de Montréal, Canada
Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves, University of Brasilia, Brazil
Joanna Hildebrand, University of Wrocław, Poland
Iván Pastor Fernandez, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain
Ranjan Ramasamy, ID-FISH Technology Inc., USA
Pegine Walrad, University of York, UK

The Protozoa and protozoan diseases section publishes studies looking at all aspects of protozoan cell biology, host-parasite interactions and pathogenicity including pathogenic mechanisms, virulence factors, host invasion, immune evasion, host defence, and immunity.

Page 1 of 2

  1. Triatomines are responsible for the vector transmission of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas disease. Triatoma brasiliensis is the main vector of the parasite in Brazil, and dogs are a...

    Authors: Tamyres Bernadete Dantas Queiroga, Luanderson Cardoso Pereira Gomez, Eduardo Rodrigues de Sena, Wilo Victor dos Santos, Henrique Rafael Pontes Ferreira, Vicente Toscano de Araújo-Neto, Andressa Noronha Barbosa-Silva, Carlos Ramon do Nascimento Brito, Romeika Karla dos Reis Lima, João Ciro Fagundes-Neto, Lúcia Maria da Cunha Galvão, Henrique Rocha de Medeiros, Antônia Cláudia Jácome da Câmara, Manuela Sales Lima Nascimento, Renata Antonaci Gama and Paulo Marcos Matta Guedes

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:456

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. The evolution of drug resistance is one of the biggest challenges in leishmaniasis and has prompted the need for new antileishmanial drugs. Repurposing of approved drugs is a faster and very attractive strateg...

    Authors: Chloé Rosa-Teijeiro, Victoria Wagner, Audrey Corbeil, Ilda d’Annessa, Philippe Leprohon, Rubens L. do Monte-Neto and Christopher Fernandez-Prada

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:438

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  3. The sustainable elimination of Triatoma infestans in the Gran Chaco region represents an enduring challenge. Following the limited effects of a routine pyrethroid insecticide spraying campaign conducted over 2011...

    Authors: María Sol Gaspe, Marta Victoria Cardinal, María del Pilar Fernández, Claudia Viviana Vassena, Pablo Luis Santo-Orihuela, Gustavo Fabián Enriquez, Alejandra Alvedro, Mariano Alberto Laiño, Julieta Nattero, Julián Antonio Alvarado-Otegui, Natalia Paula Macchiaverna, María Carla Cecere, Héctor Freilij and Ricardo Esteban Gürtler

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:437

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  4. Approximately 25–30% of individuals worldwide are infected with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), which is difficult to detect in its latent state. We aimed to evaluate the association between toxoplasmosis, the ris...

    Authors: Hung-Yi Yang, Wu-Chien Chien, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Ruei-Yu Su, Chung-Yu Lai, Chuan-Chi Yang and Nian-Sheng Tzeng

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:435

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  5. In Norway, x-cell parasites associated with disease in farmed salmonids have been known as a rare phenomenon for two decades. These parasites cause systemic infections in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Authors: Egil Karlsbakk, Cecilie Flatnes Nystøyl, Heidrun Plarre and Are Nylund

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:431

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  6. Artisanal mining creates enabling breeding ground for the vector of malaria parasites. There is paucity of data on the effects of artisanal mining on malaria. This study assessed burden of malaria and caregive...

    Authors: Francois Dao, Sampson Kafui Djonor, Christian Teye-Muno Ayin, George Asumah Adu, Bismark Sarfo, Pricillia Nortey, Kwadwo Owusu Akuffo and Anthony Danso-Appiah

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:418

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  7. Members of the genus Sarcocystis are protozoan parasites characterized by a prey–predator two-host life-cycle. Sarcocysts are formed in the muscles or central nervous system of the intermediate host (IH), while s...

    Authors: Petras Prakas, Antonio Bea, Evelina Juozaitytė-Ngugu, Iñaki Olano, Diego Villanúa, Saulius Švažas and Dalius Butkauskas

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:414

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  8. Riverine species of tsetse (Glossina) transmit Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which causes Gambian human African trypanosomiasis (gHAT), a neglected tropical disease. Uganda aims to eliminate gHAT as a public heal...

    Authors: Paul R. Bessell, Johan Esterhuizen, Michael J. Lehane, Joshua Longbottom, Albert Mugenyi, Richard Selby, Inaki Tirados, Steve J. Torr, Charles Waiswa, Charles Wamboga and Andrew Hope

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:410

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  9. Blastocystis is a human gut symbiont of yet undefined clinical significance. In a set of faecal samples collected from asymptomatic children of six distant populations, we first assessed the community profiles of...

    Authors: Ondrej Cinek, Katerina Polackova, Rasha Odeh, Abeer Alassaf, Lenka Kramná, MaryAnn Ugochi Ibekwe, Edna Siima Majaliwa, Gunduz Ahmadov, Bashir Mukhtar Elwasila Elmahi, Hanan Mekki, Sami Oikarinen, Jan Lebl and Mohammed Ahmed Abdullah

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:399

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  10. Relatively little is known about how pathogens transmitted by vector insects are affected by changing temperatures analogous to those occurring in the present global warming scenario. One expectation is that, ...

    Authors: Berenice González-Rete, Ana E. Gutiérrez-Cabrera, José Antonio de Fuentes-Vicente, Paz María Salazar-Schettino, Margarita Cabrera-Bravo and Alex Córdoba-Aguilar

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:385

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  11. Plasmodium sp., which causes malaria, must first develop in mosquitoes before being transmitted. Upon ingesting infected blood, gametes form in the mosquito lumen, followed by fertilization and differentiation of...

    Authors: Kazuhiko Nakayama, Yuta Kimura, Yu Kitahara, Akira Soga, Asako Haraguchi, Jun Hakozaki, Makoto Sugiyama, Kodai Kusakisako, Shinya Fukumoto and Hiromi Ikadai

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:373

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  12. Giardia duodenalis is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis in mammals. The presentation of giardiasis ranges from asymptomatic to severe diarrhea, and the World Health Organization lists it ...

    Authors: Panpan Zhao, Lili Cao, Xiaocen Wang, Jianhua Li, Jingquan Dong, Nan Zhang, Xin Li, Shan Li, Min Sun, Xichen Zhang, Min Liang, Xudong Pu and Pengtao Gong

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:358

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. The tribe Rhodniini is a monophyletic group composed of 24 species grouped into two genera: Rhodnius and Psammolestes. The genus Psammolestes includes only three species, namely P. coreodes, P. tertius and P. art...

    Authors: Amanda Ravazi, Jader de Oliveira, Fabricio Ferreria Campos, Fernanda Fernandez Madeira, Yago Visinho dos Reis, Ana Beatriz Bortolozo de Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela de Azeredo-Oliveira, João Aristeu da Rosa, Cleber Galvão and Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:350

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  14. Meccus' taxonomy has been quite complex since the first species of this genus was described by Burmeister in 1835 as Conorhinus phyllosoma. In 1859 the species was transferred to the genus Meccus and in 1930 to T...

    Authors: Natália Regina Cesaretto, Jader de Oliveira, Amanda Ravazi, Fernanda Fernandez Madeira, Yago Visinho dos Reis, Ana Beatriz Bortolozo de Oliveira, Roberto Dezan Vicente, Daniel Cesaretto Cristal, Cleber Galvão, Maria Tercília Vilela de Azeredo-Oliveira, João Aristeu da Rosa and Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:340

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  15. Chagas disease is a neglected zoonosis caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It affects over six million people, mostly in Latin America. Drugs available to treat T. cruzi infection have associated toxicity a...

    Authors: Nieves Martínez-Peinado, Nuria Cortes-Serra, Luciana R. Tallini, Maria-Jesus Pinazo, Joaquim Gascon, Jaume Bastida and Julio Alonso-Padilla

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:337

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  16. Cryptosporidium baileyi is an economically important zoonotic pathogen that causes serious respiratory symptoms in chickens for which no effective control measures are currently available. An accumulating body of...

    Authors: Xue-Mei Wu, Xin Yang, Xian-Cheng Fan, Xi Chen, Yu-Xin Wang, Long-Xian Zhang, Jun-Ke Song and Guang-Hui Zhao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:336

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  17. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is a key method to reduce vector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, causing Chagas disease in a large part of South America. However, the successes of IRS in the Gra...

    Authors: Raquel Gonçalves, Rhiannon A. E. Logan, Hanafy M. Ismail, Mark J. I. Paine, Caryn Bern and Orin Courtenay

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:327

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  18. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum and is highly lethal in humans and dogs if left untreated. The frequency of this parasite and associated histological changes in the ...

    Authors: William de Oliveira Kost, Sandro Antonio Pereira, Fabiano Borges Figueiredo, Artur Augusto Velho Mendes Junior, Maria de Fátima Madeira, Luciana de Freitas Campos Miranda, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Luiz Cláudio Ferreira, Fernanda Nazaré Morgado and Rodrigo Caldas Menezes

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:321

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  19. Trypanosomatid genomes are colonized by active and inactive mobile DNA elements, such as LINE, SINE-like, SIDER and DIRE retrotransposons. These elements all share a 77-nucleotide-long sequence at their 5′ end...

    Authors: Francisco Macías, Raquel Afonso-Lehmann, Patricia E. Carreira and M. Carmen Thomas

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:313

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  20. Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and animals worldwide. Among all intermediate hosts of T. gondii, captive marsupials from Australia and New Zealand are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmos...

    Authors: Jitender P. Dubey, Fernando H. A. Murata, Camila K. Cerqueira-Cézar, Oliver C. H. Kwok, Chunlei Su and Michael E. Grigg

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:301

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  21. Recent studies indicate that the prevalence of non-falciparum malaria, including Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale spp., is increasing, with some complications in infected individuals. The aim of this revi...

    Authors: Joseph Hawadak, Rodrigue Roman Dongang Nana and Vineeta Singh

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:297

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  22. The 2018 Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network’s Vector Control Working Group (APMEN VCWG) annual meeting took place 3–5 September 2018 in Bangkok, Thailand. It was designed to be a forum for entomology and...

    Authors: Latifeh Dahmash, Allison Tatarsky, Fe Esperanza Espino, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap, Michael B. Macdonald, Jettsumon Sattabongkot Prachumsri, Pradeep Srivastava, Christina Rundi and Jeffrey Hii

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:290

    Content type: Meeting report

    Published on:

  23. The proliferative stage (tachyzoite) of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is critical for its transmission and pathogenesis, and a proto-oncogene eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF-5A) plays an important r...

    Authors: Xinchao Liu, Chunjing Li, Xiaoyu Li, Muhammad Ehsan, Mingmin Lu, Ke Li, Lixin Xu, Ruofeng Yan, Xiaokai Song and XiangRui Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:283

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  24. Malaria mixed infections are often unrecognized by microscopists in the hospitals, and a delay or failure to treat Plasmodium-mixed infection may lead to aggravated morbidity and increased mortality. The present ...

    Authors: Aongart Mahittikorn, Frederick Ramirez Masangkay, Kwuntida Uthaisar Kotepui, Giovanni De Jesus Milanez and Manas Kotepui

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:280

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been widely used to diagnose various infectious diseases. Malaria is a globally distributed infectious disease attributed to parasites in the genus Plasmodium. It...

    Authors: Xi Chen, Jiaqi Zhang, Maohua Pan, Yucheng Qin, Hui Zhao, Pien Qin, Qi Yang, Xinxin Li, Weilin Zeng, Zheng Xiang, Mengxi Duan, Xiaosong Li, Xun Wang, Dominique Mazier, Yanmei Zhang, Wei Zhao…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:278

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. Blastocystis is a common anaerobic colonic protist in humans with controversial pathogenicity. Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is the commonest cause of infectious diarrhea in healthcare settings. The preval...

    Authors: Lei Deng, Huiyi Tay, Guangneng Peng, Jonathan W. J. Lee and Kevin S. W. Tan

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:277

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) is a promising strategy for malaria elimination. It is hypothesized that mixing or fusing two antigens targeting different stages of sexual development may provide higher tr...

    Authors: Fan Yang, Fei Liu, Xinxin Yu, Wenqi Zheng, Yudi Wu, Yue Qiu, Ying Jin, Liwang Cui and Yaming Cao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:241

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. The western area of the province of Almeria, sited in southern Spain, has one of the highest immigrant population rates in Spain, mainly dedicated to agricultural work. In recent years, there has been a signif...

    Authors: Joaquín Pousibet-Puerto, Ana Belén Lozano-Serrano, Manuel Jesús Soriano-Pérez, José Vázquez-Villegas, María José Giménez-López, María Isabel Cabeza-Barrera, José Ángel Cuenca-Gómez, Matilde Palanca-Giménez, María Pilar Luzón-García, Nerea Castillo-Fernández, María Teresa Cabezas-Fernández and Joaquín Salas-Coronas

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:240

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. Cryptosporidium is an important zoonotic pathogen responsible for severe enteric diseases in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying host and Cryptosporidium interactions are still not cl...

    Authors: Yan-Ling Yin, Ting-Li Liu, Qian Yao, Yu-Xin Wang, Xue-Mei Wu, Xue-Ting Wang, Xin Yang, Jun-Ke Song and Guang-Hui Zhao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:238

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. There is a high prevalence of malaria and viral hepatitis in South Africa. Co-infection with Plasmodium malaria (leading to cerebral malaria) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a rare phenomenon.

    Authors: Syeda Sahra, Abdullah Jahangir, Qasim Zafar Iqbal, Neville Mobarakai, Allison Glaser and Ahmad Jahangir

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:215

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  31. Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes toxoplasmosis. Urine is an easily obtained clinical sample that has been widely applied for diagnostic purposes. However, changes in the urinary...

    Authors: Lin-Lin Cui, Chun-Xue Zhou, Bing Han, Sha-Sha Wang, Si-Ying Li, Shi-Chen Xie and Dong-Hui Zhou

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:211

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. Babesia bovis reproduces sexually in the gut of its tick vector Rhipicephalus microplus, which involves expression of 6cys A and 6cys B proteins. Members of the widely conserved 6cys superfamily are candidates fo...

    Authors: Heba F. Alzan, Reginaldo G. Bastos, Massaro W. Ueti, Jacob M. Laughery, Vignesh A. Rathinasamy, Brian M. Cooke and Carlos E. Suarez

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:210

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. Cryptosporidium parvum is an enteric protozoan parasite with zoonotic importance and can cause cryptosporidiosis in humans as well as domestic and wild animals worldwide. The IId subtype family (SF) is one of the...

    Authors: Fuchang Yu, Kaihui Zhang, Yilin Wang, Dongfang Li, Zhaohui Cui, Jianying Huang, Sumei Zhang, Xiaoying Li and Longxian Zhang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:208

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Besnoitia darlingi, B. neotomofelis and B. oryctofelisi are closely related coccidian parasites with felids as definitive hosts. These parasites use a variety of animal species as intermediate hosts. North Americ...

    Authors: Gereon Schares, Maike Joeres, Franziska Rachel, Mareen Tuschy, Gábor Á. Czirják, Pavlo Maksimov, Franz J. Conraths and Bettina Wachter

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:201

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal protozoan found worldwide. Based on gene analysis, 17 subtypes (STs, ST1–ST17) have been identified, 9 of which have been isolated from humans. Differences in clinical cons...

    Authors: Violetta Sulżyc-Bielicka, Lidia Kołodziejczyk, Małgorzata Adamska, Bogumiła Skotarczak, Sylwia Jaczewska, Krzysztof Safranow, Paweł Bielicki, Józef Kładny and Dariusz Bielicki

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:200

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. The in vitro activity of the brown seaweed Dictyota spiralis against both Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in a previous study. Processing by bio-guided fractionation resulted in the iso...

    Authors: Olfa Chiboub, Ines Sifaoui, Manef Abderrabba, Mondher Mejri, José J. Fernández, Ana R. Díaz-Marrero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales and José E. Piñero

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:198

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Triatomine bugs, the vectors of Chagas disease, associate with vertebrate hosts in highly diverse ecotopes. It has been proposed that occupation of new microhabitats may trigger selection for distinct phenotyp...

    Authors: Fernando Abad-Franch, Fernando A. Monteiro, Márcio G. Pavan, James S. Patterson, M. Dolores Bargues, M. Ángeles Zuriaga, Marcelo Aguilar, Charles B. Beard, Santiago Mas-Coma and Michael A. Miles

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:195

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:235

  38. Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that can infect nearly all invertebrates and vertebrates, posing a threat to public health and causing large economic losses to animal industries such as thos...

    Authors: Yingfei Ruan, Xiaofei Xu, Qiang He, Li Li, Junrui Guo, Jialing Bao, Guoqing Pan, Tian Li and Zeyang Zhou

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:186

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  39. Besnoitia besnoiti is an Apicomplexan protozoa causative of bovine besnoitiosis, a chronic and debilitating disease of cattle, with a variety of pathological findings that could alter some laboratory parameters. ...

    Authors: Luca Villa, Alessia Libera Gazzonis, Sergio Aurelio Zanzani, Silvia Mazzola, Alessia Giordano and Maria Teresa Manfredi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:154

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that primarily infects through the oral route. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) play crucial roles in the immune responses generated during par...

    Authors: Jia-Qi Chu, Fei Fei Gao, Weiyun Wu, Chunchao Li, Zhaobin Pan, Jinhui Sun, Hao Wang, Cong Huang, Sang Hyuk Lee, Juan-Hua Quan and Young-Ha Lee

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:153

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. The prevalence of avian haemosporidian parasites and the factors influencing infection in the Colorado Rocky Mountains are largely unknown. With climate change expected to promote the expansion of vector and a...

    Authors: Marina D. Rodriguez, Paul F. Doherty, Antoinette J. Piaggio and Kathryn P. Huyvaert

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:145

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. Protozoa in the genus Babesia are transmitted to humans through tick bites and cause babesiosis, a malaria-like illness. Vertical transmission of Babesia spp. has been reported in mammals; however, the exact timi...

    Authors: Katarzyna Tołkacz, Anna Rodo, Agnieszka Wdowiarska, Anna Bajer and Małgorzata Bednarska

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:132

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. Epidemics of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are occurring more frequently and spreading faster and farther than before in many areas of the world. The present study aimed to assess a long-lasting emerging epidem...

    Authors: Taiebeh Karimi, Iraj Sharifi, Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian, Behnaz Aflatoonian, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Ehsan Salarkia, Zahra Babaei, Farzaneh Zarinkar, Fatemeh Sharifi, Nima Hatami, Ahmad Khosravi, Arsalan Eskandari, Elyas Solimani, Mehdi Shafiee, Masoumeh Mozaffari, Amireh Heshmatkhah…

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:122

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Asymptomatic Leishmania infections outnumber clinical infections on the Indian subcontinent (ISC), where disease reservoirs are anthroponotic. Diagnostics which detect active asymptomatic infection, which are sui...

    Authors: Sophie I. Owen, Faria Hossain, Prakash Ghosh, Rajashree Chowdhury, Md. Sakhawat Hossain, Chris Jewell, Isra Cruz, Albert Picado, Dinesh Mondal and Emily R. Adams

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:111

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Vectorial transmission is the principal path of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. In Argentina, Triatoma infestans is the principal vector; therefore, vector control is the ...

    Authors: L. Abrahan, M. J. Cavallo and I. Amelotti

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:98

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Spots and coloring patterns evaluated quantitatively can be used to discriminate and identify possible cryptic species. Species included in the Triatoma dimidiata (Reduviidae: Triatominae) complex are major disea...

    Authors: Daryl D. Cruz, Dennis Denis, Elizabeth Arellano and Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:90

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  47. Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with a complex life cycle and a cosmopolitan host range. The asexual part of its life cycle can be perpetually sustained in a variety of intermediate hosts through a comb...

    Authors: Wen Han Tong, Chris Pavey, Ryan O’Handley and Ajai Vyas

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:77

    Content type: Primer

    Published on: