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Protozoa and protozoan diseases

Subject Editor
Anna Bajer, University of Warsaw, Poland

Associate Editors
Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) and Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Brazil
Joel Barratt, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Oak Ridge Associated Universities, USA
Christopher Fernández Prada, Université de Montréal, Canada
Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves, University of Brasilia, Brazil
Joanna Hildebrand, University of Wrocław, Poland
Iván Pastor Fernandez, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain
Iliano Vieira Coutinho-Abreu, NIH National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, USA
Pegine Walrad, University of York, UK

The Protozoa and protozoan diseases section publishes studies looking at all aspects of protozoan cell biology, host-parasite interactions and pathogenicity including pathogenic mechanisms, virulence factors, host invasion, immune evasion, host defence, and immunity.

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  1. The distribution of parasite load across hosts may modify the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases. Chagas disease is caused by a multi-host protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi, but the association between host ...

    Authors: Gustavo Fabián Enriquez, Jacqueline Bua, María Marcela Orozco, Natalia Paula Macchiaverna, Julián Antonio Alvarado Otegui, Hernán Darío Argibay, María del Pilar Fernández, Ricardo Esteban Gürtler and Marta Victoria Cardinal

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2022 15:37

    Content type: Research

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  2. Data on the genus Sarcocystis in insectivores are limited. The Asian gray shrew Crocidura attenuata is one of the most common species of the insectivore family Soricidae in South Asia and Southeast Asia. To our k...

    Authors: Junjie Hu, Jun Sun, Yanmei Guo, Hongxia Zeng, Yunzhi Zhang and Jianping Tao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2022 15:13

    Content type: Research

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  3. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of various biological and pathological processes, in particular the inflammatory response by modulating the transcriptional control of inflammatory genes...

    Authors: Sha-Sha Wang, Chun-Xue Zhou, Hany M. Elsheikha, Jun-Jun He, Feng-Cai Zou, Wen-Bin Zheng, Xing-Quan Zhu and Guang-Hui Zhao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2022 15:22

    Content type: Research

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  4. Malaria is transmitted when infected Anopheles mosquitoes take a blood meal. During this process, the mosquitoes inject a cocktail of bioactive proteins that elicit antibody responses in humans and could be used ...

    Authors: Brenda Oseno, Faith Marura, Rodney Ogwang, Martha Muturi, James Njunge, Irene Nkumama, Robert Mwakesi, Kennedy Mwai, Martin K. Rono, Ramadhan Mwakubambanya, Faith Osier and James Tuju

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2022 15:11

    Content type: Research

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  5. Drug resistance and toxic side effects are major challenges in the treatment of babesiosis. As such, new drugs are needed to combat the emergence of drug resistance in Babesia parasites and to develop alternative...

    Authors: Shengwei Ji, Mingming Liu, Eloiza May Galon, Mohamed Abdo Rizk, Bumduuren Tuvshintulga, Jixu Li, Iqra Zafar, Yae Hasegawa, Aiko Iguchi, Naoaki Yokoyama and Xuenan Xuan

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2022 15:10

    Content type: Short report

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  6. Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoon that is estimated to infect about 30% of the world’s population, resulting in toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients and adverse outcomes in cases of p...

    Authors: Dan Jiang, Shuizhen Wu, Liqing Xu, Guantai Xie, Dongliang Li and Hongjuan Peng

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2022 15:3

    Content type: Research

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  7. Asymptomatic Leishmania infection may play an important role in the transmission of the parasite in endemic areas. At present there is no consensus on the definition of asymptomatic Leishmania infection, nor is t...

    Authors: Ana Victoria Ibarra-Meneses, Audrey Corbeil, Victoria Wagner, Chukwuemeka Onwuchekwa and Christopher Fernandez-Prada

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2022 15:5

    Content type: Review

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  8. Chicken coccidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by Eimeria of Apicomplexa, which has caused great economic loss to the poultry breeding industry. Host vimentin is a key protein in the process of infection of ma...

    Authors: Zhan Liu, Xiangfei Geng, Qiping Zhao, Shunhai Zhu, Hongyu Han, Yu Yu, Wenhao Huang, Yawen Yao, Bing Huang and Hui Dong

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2022 15:8

    Content type: Research

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  9. Vector-borne diseases pose an increasing threat to global food security. Vaccines, diagnostic tests, and therapeutics are urgently needed for tick-borne diseases that affect livestock. However, the inability t...

    Authors: Rubikah Vimonish, Kelcey D. Dinkel, Lindsay M. Fry, Wendell C. Johnson, Janaina Capelli-Peixoto, Reginaldo G. Bastos, Glen A. Scoles, Donald P. Knowles, Maxime Madder, George Chaka and Massaro W. Ueti

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:616

    Content type: Research

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  10. Trichomonas vaginalis causes lesions on the cervicovaginal mucosa in women; however, its pathogenesis remains unclear. We have investigated the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the induction of ap...

    Authors: Fei Fei Gao, Juan-Hua Quan, Min A. Lee, Wei Ye, Jae-Min Yuk, Guang-Ho Cha, In-Wook Choi and Young-Ha Lee

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:603

    Content type: Research

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  11. Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death among women, and prognosis is especially poor for patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC); therefore, there is an urgent need for new e...

    Authors: Li-Qing Xu, Li-Jie Yao, Dan Jiang, Li-Juan Zhou, Min Chen, Wen-Zhong Liao, Wei-Hao Zou and Hong-Juan Peng

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:601

    Content type: Research

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  12. Mast cells are known to affect the primary and secondary immune responses against parasites, and this effect is partially mediated through the release of pro-angiogenic mediators. The aim of this study was to ...

    Authors: Marwa A. EL-Dardiry, Amany A. Abdel-Aal, Magda S. A. Abdeltawab, Mona El-Sherbini, Marwa A. Hassan, Asmaa A. Abdel-Aal, Manal Badawi, Shady E. Anis, Bahaa-Eldin A. Khaled and Abeer S. Al-Antably

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:567

    Content type: Research

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  13. Pentavalent antimonial-based chemotherapy is the first-line approach for leishmaniasis treatment and disease control. Nevertheless antimony-resistant parasites have been reported in some endemic regions. Treat...

    Authors: Luiza O. R. Pereira, Cíntia S. Sousa, Hellen C. P. Ramos, Eduardo C. Torres-Santos, Liliane S. Pinheiro, Marcelo R. Alves, Patricia Cuervo, Gustavo A. Sierra Romero, Mariana C. Boité, Renato Porrozzi and Elisa Cupolillo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:556

    Content type: Research

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  14. Radical cure of the Plasmodium vivax latent liver stage is required to effectively manage vivax malaria. Targeted mass treatment with primaquine may be an effective mechanism for reducing reservoirs of the diseas...

    Authors: Pyae Linn Aung, Myat Thu Soe, Than Naing Soe, Thit Lwin Oo, Poh Poh Aung, Aung Khin, Aung Thi, Suparat Phuanukoonnon, Kamolnetr Okanurak, Liwang Cui, Myat Phone Kyaw and Daniel M. Parker

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:549

    Content type: Research

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  15. Malaria and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) co-infection can occur due to the overlapping geographical distributions of these diseases; however, only limited data of this co-infection have been reported and review...

    Authors: Polrat Wilairatana, Wetpisit Chanmol, Pongruj Rattaprasert, Frederick Ramirez Masangkay, Giovanni De Jesus Milanez, Kwuntida Uthaisar Kotepui and Manas Kotepui

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:545

    Content type: Research

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  16. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has been reported in recent years in South Khorasan Province, a desert region of eastern Iran, where the main species is Leishmania tropica. Little is known of the influence of geogra...

    Authors: Mehdi Karamian, Mohammad Amin Ghatee, Majid Shayesteh, Walter Robert Taylor, Saeed Mohebi-Nejad, Ghasem Taheri and Mohammad Reza Jamavar

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:538

    Content type: Research

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  17. Immunotherapeutic drugs, such as domperidone, have been shown to be promising treatments against canine leishmaniosis (CanL), but limited data are available. The aim of this pilot study (therapeutic, prospecti...

    Authors: Maria Alfonsa Cavalera, Floriana Gernone, Annamaria Uva, Paola D’Ippolito, Xavier Roura, Saverio Paltrinieri and Andrea Zatelli

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:525

    Content type: Short report

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  18. Single low-dose primaquine (SLD-PQ) is recommended in combination with artemisinin-based combination therapy to reduce Plasmodium falciparum transmission in areas threatened by artemisinin resistance or aiming fo...

    Authors: Stijn W. van Beek, Elin M. Svensson, Alfred B. Tiono, Joseph Okebe, Umberto D’Alessandro, Bronner P. Gonçalves, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley and Rob ter Heine

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:524

    Content type: Research

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  19. Although visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was largely brought under control in most regions of China during the previous century, VL cases have rebounded in western and central China in recent decades. The aim of t...

    Authors: Zhou Guan, Can Chen, Chenyang Huang, Hongwei Zhang, Yiyi Zhou, Yuqing Zhou, Jie Wu, Zhengbin Zhou, Shigui Yang and Lanjuan Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:517

    Content type: Research

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  20. Latent toxoplasmosis, i.e. a lifelong infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, affects about a third of the human population worldwide. In the past 10 years, numerous studies have shown that infec...

    Authors: Jaroslav Flegr

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:508

    Content type: Research

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  21. Triatomine bugs transmit Chagas disease across Latin America, where vector control-surveillance is increasingly decentralized. Locally run systems often deal with highly diverse native-vector faunas—plus, in s...

    Authors: Gilmar Ribeiro-Jr, Fernando Abad-Franch, Orlando M. F. de Sousa, Carlos G. S. dos Santos, Eduardo O. L. Fonseca, Roberto F. dos Santos, Gabriel M. Cunha, Cristiane M. M. de Carvalho, Renato B. Reis, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves and Mitermayer G. Reis

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:492

    Content type: Research

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  22. This letter responds to comments on our article (Yin YL et al., Parasit Vectors, 10.1186/s13071-021-04739-w) by Yuqing Wang and colleagues, who wrote a letter entitled “Microarray analysis of circular RNAs in ...

    Authors: Yan-Ling Yin, Xin Yang and Guang-Hui Zhao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:484

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  23. Triatomines are responsible for the vector transmission of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas disease. Triatoma brasiliensis is the main vector of the parasite in Brazil, and dogs are a...

    Authors: Tamyres Bernadete Dantas Queiroga, Luanderson Cardoso Pereira Gomez, Eduardo Rodrigues de Sena, Wilo Victor dos Santos, Henrique Rafael Pontes Ferreira, Vicente Toscano de Araújo-Neto, Andressa Noronha Barbosa-Silva, Carlos Ramon do Nascimento Brito, Romeika Karla dos Reis Lima, João Ciro Fagundes-Neto, Lúcia Maria da Cunha Galvão, Henrique Rocha de Medeiros, Antônia Cláudia Jácome da Câmara, Manuela Sales Lima Nascimento, Renata Antonaci Gama and Paulo Marcos Matta Guedes

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:456

    Content type: Research

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  24. The evolution of drug resistance is one of the biggest challenges in leishmaniasis and has prompted the need for new antileishmanial drugs. Repurposing of approved drugs is a faster and very attractive strateg...

    Authors: Chloé Rosa-Teijeiro, Victoria Wagner, Audrey Corbeil, Ilda d’Annessa, Philippe Leprohon, Rubens L. do Monte-Neto and Christopher Fernandez-Prada

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:438

    Content type: Research

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  25. The sustainable elimination of Triatoma infestans in the Gran Chaco region represents an enduring challenge. Following the limited effects of a routine pyrethroid insecticide spraying campaign conducted over 2011...

    Authors: María Sol Gaspe, Marta Victoria Cardinal, María del Pilar Fernández, Claudia Viviana Vassena, Pablo Luis Santo-Orihuela, Gustavo Fabián Enriquez, Alejandra Alvedro, Mariano Alberto Laiño, Julieta Nattero, Julián Antonio Alvarado-Otegui, Natalia Paula Macchiaverna, María Carla Cecere, Héctor Freilij and Ricardo Esteban Gürtler

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:437

    Content type: Research

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  26. Approximately 25–30% of individuals worldwide are infected with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), which is difficult to detect in its latent state. We aimed to evaluate the association between toxoplasmosis, the ris...

    Authors: Hung-Yi Yang, Wu-Chien Chien, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Ruei-Yu Su, Chung-Yu Lai, Chuan-Chi Yang and Nian-Sheng Tzeng

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:435

    Content type: Research

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  27. In Norway, x-cell parasites associated with disease in farmed salmonids have been known as a rare phenomenon for two decades. These parasites cause systemic infections in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Authors: Egil Karlsbakk, Cecilie Flatnes Nystøyl, Heidrun Plarre and Are Nylund

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:431

    Content type: Research

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  28. Artisanal mining creates enabling breeding ground for the vector of malaria parasites. There is paucity of data on the effects of artisanal mining on malaria. This study assessed burden of malaria and caregive...

    Authors: Francois Dao, Sampson Kafui Djonor, Christian Teye-Muno Ayin, George Asumah Adu, Bismark Sarfo, Pricillia Nortey, Kwadwo Owusu Akuffo and Anthony Danso-Appiah

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:418

    Content type: Research

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  29. Members of the genus Sarcocystis are protozoan parasites characterized by a prey–predator two-host life-cycle. Sarcocysts are formed in the muscles or central nervous system of the intermediate host (IH), while s...

    Authors: Petras Prakas, Antonio Bea, Evelina Juozaitytė-Ngugu, Iñaki Olano, Diego Villanúa, Saulius Švažas and Dalius Butkauskas

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:414

    Content type: Research

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  30. Riverine species of tsetse (Glossina) transmit Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which causes Gambian human African trypanosomiasis (gHAT), a neglected tropical disease. Uganda aims to eliminate gHAT as a public heal...

    Authors: Paul R. Bessell, Johan Esterhuizen, Michael J. Lehane, Joshua Longbottom, Albert Mugenyi, Richard Selby, Inaki Tirados, Steve J. Torr, Charles Waiswa, Charles Wamboga and Andrew Hope

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:410

    Content type: Research

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  31. Blastocystis is a human gut symbiont of yet undefined clinical significance. In a set of faecal samples collected from asymptomatic children of six distant populations, we first assessed the community profiles of...

    Authors: Ondrej Cinek, Katerina Polackova, Rasha Odeh, Abeer Alassaf, Lenka Kramná, MaryAnn Ugochi Ibekwe, Edna Siima Majaliwa, Gunduz Ahmadov, Bashir Mukhtar Elwasila Elmahi, Hanan Mekki, Sami Oikarinen, Jan Lebl and Mohammed Ahmed Abdullah

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:399

    Content type: Research

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  32. Relatively little is known about how pathogens transmitted by vector insects are affected by changing temperatures analogous to those occurring in the present global warming scenario. One expectation is that, ...

    Authors: Berenice González-Rete, Ana E. Gutiérrez-Cabrera, José Antonio de Fuentes-Vicente, Paz María Salazar-Schettino, Margarita Cabrera-Bravo and Alex Córdoba-Aguilar

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:385

    Content type: Short report

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  33. Plasmodium sp., which causes malaria, must first develop in mosquitoes before being transmitted. Upon ingesting infected blood, gametes form in the mosquito lumen, followed by fertilization and differentiation of...

    Authors: Kazuhiko Nakayama, Yuta Kimura, Yu Kitahara, Akira Soga, Asako Haraguchi, Jun Hakozaki, Makoto Sugiyama, Kodai Kusakisako, Shinya Fukumoto and Hiromi Ikadai

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:373

    Content type: Research

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  34. Giardia duodenalis is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis in mammals. The presentation of giardiasis ranges from asymptomatic to severe diarrhea, and the World Health Organization lists it ...

    Authors: Panpan Zhao, Lili Cao, Xiaocen Wang, Jianhua Li, Jingquan Dong, Nan Zhang, Xin Li, Shan Li, Min Sun, Xichen Zhang, Min Liang, Xudong Pu and Pengtao Gong

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:358

    Content type: Research

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  35. Triatomine control campaigns have traditionally consisted of spraying the inside of houses with pyrethroid insecticides. However, exposure to sublethal insecticide doses after the initial application is a comm...

    Authors: Julieta Nattero, Gastón Mougabure-Cueto, Vincent Debat and Ricardo E. Gürtler

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:355

    Content type: Research

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  36. The tribe Rhodniini is a monophyletic group composed of 24 species grouped into two genera: Rhodnius and Psammolestes. The genus Psammolestes includes only three species, namely P. coreodes, P. tertius and P. art...

    Authors: Amanda Ravazi, Jader de Oliveira, Fabricio Ferreria Campos, Fernanda Fernandez Madeira, Yago Visinho dos Reis, Ana Beatriz Bortolozo de Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela de Azeredo-Oliveira, João Aristeu da Rosa, Cleber Galvão and Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:350

    Content type: Research

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  37. Meccus' taxonomy has been quite complex since the first species of this genus was described by Burmeister in 1835 as Conorhinus phyllosoma. In 1859 the species was transferred to the genus Meccus and in 1930 to T...

    Authors: Natália Regina Cesaretto, Jader de Oliveira, Amanda Ravazi, Fernanda Fernandez Madeira, Yago Visinho dos Reis, Ana Beatriz Bortolozo de Oliveira, Roberto Dezan Vicente, Daniel Cesaretto Cristal, Cleber Galvão, Maria Tercília Vilela de Azeredo-Oliveira, João Aristeu da Rosa and Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:340

    Content type: Short report

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  38. Chagas disease is a neglected zoonosis caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It affects over six million people, mostly in Latin America. Drugs available to treat T. cruzi infection have associated toxicity a...

    Authors: Nieves Martínez-Peinado, Nuria Cortes-Serra, Luciana R. Tallini, Maria-Jesus Pinazo, Joaquim Gascon, Jaume Bastida and Julio Alonso-Padilla

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:337

    Content type: Research

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  39. Cryptosporidium baileyi is an economically important zoonotic pathogen that causes serious respiratory symptoms in chickens for which no effective control measures are currently available. An accumulating body of...

    Authors: Xue-Mei Wu, Xin Yang, Xian-Cheng Fan, Xi Chen, Yu-Xin Wang, Long-Xian Zhang, Jun-Ke Song and Guang-Hui Zhao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:336

    Content type: Research

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  40. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is a key method to reduce vector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, causing Chagas disease in a large part of South America. However, the successes of IRS in the Gra...

    Authors: Raquel Gonçalves, Rhiannon A. E. Logan, Hanafy M. Ismail, Mark J. I. Paine, Caryn Bern and Orin Courtenay

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:327

    Content type: Research

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  41. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum and is highly lethal in humans and dogs if left untreated. The frequency of this parasite and associated histological changes in the ...

    Authors: William de Oliveira Kost, Sandro Antonio Pereira, Fabiano Borges Figueiredo, Artur Augusto Velho Mendes Junior, Maria de Fátima Madeira, Luciana de Freitas Campos Miranda, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Luiz Cláudio Ferreira, Fernanda Nazaré Morgado and Rodrigo Caldas Menezes

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:321

    Content type: Research

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  42. Trypanosomatid genomes are colonized by active and inactive mobile DNA elements, such as LINE, SINE-like, SIDER and DIRE retrotransposons. These elements all share a 77-nucleotide-long sequence at their 5′ end...

    Authors: Francisco Macías, Raquel Afonso-Lehmann, Patricia E. Carreira and M. Carmen Thomas

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:313

    Content type: Research

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  43. An epitope, Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R, termed α-gal, is present in glycoconjugates of New World monkeys (platyrrhines) and other mammals but not in hominoids and Old World monkeys (catarrhines). The difference is...

    Authors: Ranjan Ramasamy

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:303

    Content type: Short report

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  44. Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and animals worldwide. Among all intermediate hosts of T. gondii, captive marsupials from Australia and New Zealand are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmos...

    Authors: Jitender P. Dubey, Fernando H. A. Murata, Camila K. Cerqueira-Cézar, Oliver C. H. Kwok, Chunlei Su and Michael E. Grigg

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:301

    Content type: Review

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  45. Recent studies indicate that the prevalence of non-falciparum malaria, including Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale spp., is increasing, with some complications in infected individuals. The aim of this revi...

    Authors: Joseph Hawadak, Rodrigue Roman Dongang Nana and Vineeta Singh

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:297

    Content type: Review

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  46. The 2018 Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network’s Vector Control Working Group (APMEN VCWG) annual meeting took place 3–5 September 2018 in Bangkok, Thailand. It was designed to be a forum for entomology and...

    Authors: Latifeh Dahmash, Allison Tatarsky, Fe Esperanza Espino, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap, Michael B. Macdonald, Jettsumon Sattabongkot Prachumsri, Pradeep Srivastava, Christina Rundi and Jeffrey Hii

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:290

    Content type: Meeting report

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  47. The proliferative stage (tachyzoite) of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is critical for its transmission and pathogenesis, and a proto-oncogene eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF-5A) plays an important r...

    Authors: Xinchao Liu, Chunjing Li, Xiaoyu Li, Muhammad Ehsan, Mingmin Lu, Ke Li, Lixin Xu, Ruofeng Yan, Xiaokai Song and XiangRui Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:283

    Content type: Research

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  48. Malaria mixed infections are often unrecognized by microscopists in the hospitals, and a delay or failure to treat Plasmodium-mixed infection may lead to aggravated morbidity and increased mortality. The present ...

    Authors: Aongart Mahittikorn, Frederick Ramirez Masangkay, Kwuntida Uthaisar Kotepui, Giovanni De Jesus Milanez and Manas Kotepui

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:280

    Content type: Research

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