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  1. Latent toxoplasmosis, i.e. a lifelong infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, affects about a third of the human population worldwide. In the past 10 years, numerous studies have shown that infec...

    Authors: Jaroslav Flegr
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:508
  2. African trypanosomiasis, which is mainly transmitted by tsetse flies (Glossina spp.), is a threat to public health and a significant hindrance to animal production. Tools that can reduce tsetse densities and inte...

    Authors: Stella Gachoki, Thomas Groen, Anton Vrieling, Michael Okal, Andrew Skidmore and Daniel Masiga
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:506
  3. Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are ubiquitous in small ruminant farming, representing a major health and production concern. Given their differences in pathogenicity and the current problems regarding anthel...

    Authors: Stephane Knoll, Giorgia Dessì, Claudia Tamponi, Luisa Meloni, Lia Cavallo, Naunain Mehmood, Philippe Jacquiet, Antonio Scala, Maria Grazia Cappai and Antonio Varcasia
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:505
  4. Zika virus (ZIKV) is transmitted to humans primarily by Aedes aegypti. Previous studies on Ae. aegypti from Jiegao (JG) and Mengding (MD) in Yunnan province, China have shown that these mosquitoes are able to tra...

    Authors: Chunling Zhu, Yuting Jiang, Qianghui Zhang, Jian Gao, Chaojie Li, Chunxiao Li, Yande Dong, Dan Xing, Hengduan Zhang, Teng Zhao, Xiaoxia Guo and Tongyan Zhao
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:504
  5. Bats are hosts for many ectoparasites and act as reservoirs for several infectious agents, some of which exhibit zoonotic potential. Here, species of bats and bat flies were identified and screened for microor...

    Authors: Haeseung Lee, Min-Goo Seo, Seung-Hun Lee, Jae-Ku Oem, Seon-Hee Kim, Hyesung Jeong, Yongkwan Kim, Weon-Hwa Jheong, Oh-Deog Kwon and Dongmi Kwak
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:503
  6. Eimeria necatrix is one of the most pathogenic parasites, causing high mortality in chickens. Although its genome sequence has been published, the sequences and complete structures of its mRNA transcripts remain ...

    Authors: Yang Gao, Zeyang Suding, Lele Wang, Dandan Liu, Shijie Su, Jinjun Xu, Junjie Hu and Jianping Tao
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:502
  7. Aedes albopictus is a vector of major arboviral diseases and a primary pest in tropical and temperate regions of China. In most cities of China, the current monitoring system for the spread of Ae. albopictus is b...

    Authors: Yibin Zhou, Hongxia Liu, Peien Leng, Jiang Zhu, Shenjun Yao, Yiyi Zhu and Huanyu Wu
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:501
  8. Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika pose a significant challenge to health systems in countries they affect, especially countries with less developed healthcare systems. Therefor...

    Authors: Vaitiare Mulderij-Jansen, Izzy Gerstenbluth, Ashley Duits, Adriana Tami and Ajay Bailey
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:500
  9. Anopheles sinensis is a dominant vector for malaria transmission in Asian countries. Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) mutation-mediated knock-down resistance (kdr) has developed in many A. sinensis populations...

    Authors: Ruoyao Ni, Nian Liu, Mei Li, Weiping Qian and Xinghui Qiu
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:499
  10. Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) is a parasite occurring worldwide that has been proven to have antitumour ability. However, studies on the antitumour effects of cross antigens between the tumour and T. spirali...

    Authors: Tao-Tao Yue, Nan Zhang, Jian-Hua Li, Xiang-Yun Lu, Xiao-Cen Wang, Xin Li, Hong-Bo Zhang, Shu-Qin Cheng, Bo-Bo Wang, Peng-Tao Gong and Xi-Chen Zhang
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:498
  11. CD4+ T helper (Th) cells play critical roles in both host humoral and cellular immunity against parasitic infection and in the immunopathology of schistosomiasis. T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a specialized...

    Authors: Yumei Zhang, Yulong Wu, Hua Liu, Wenci Gong, Yuan Hu, Yujuan Shen and Jianping Cao
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:497
  12. The malaria vector Anopheles minimus has been influenced by external stresses affecting the survival rate and vectorial capacity of the population. Since An. minimus habitats have continuously undergone ecologica...

    Authors: Kamonchanok Bunmee, Urusa Thaenkham, Naowarat Saralamba, Alongkot Ponlawat, Daibin Zhong, Liwang Cui, Jetsumon Sattabongkot and Patchara Sriwichai
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:496
  13. Insecticide resistance—and especially pyrethroid resistance—is a major challenge for vector control in public health. The use of insecticide mixtures utilizing alternative modes of action, as well as new formu...

    Authors: Hang Ngoc Bao Luong, Arunas Damijonaitis, Ralf Nauen, John Vontas and Sebastian Horstmann
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:495
  14. In Hokkaido, northern island of Japan, at least seven cases of falciparum malaria were reported by 1951. A survey conducted at that time was unsuccessful in implicating any mosquito species as the possible vec...

    Authors: Kyoko Sawabe, Nozomi Imanishi-Kobayashi, Yoshihide Maekawa, Yukiko Higa, Kyeong Soon Kim, Keita Hoshino, Yoshio Tsuda, Toshihiko Hayashi, Naoko Nihei, Kenji Takai, Takeshi Kurihara and Mutsuo Kobayashi
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:494
  15. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are important vectors of human diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and zika. In Sri Lanka, they have been responsible for transmitting dengue virus. One of the most important pa...

    Authors: Thilini Chathurika Weeraratne, S. H. P. Parakrama Karunaratne, Lisa Reimer, W. A. Priyanka P. de Silva and Charles S. Wondji
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:493
  16. Triatomine bugs transmit Chagas disease across Latin America, where vector control-surveillance is increasingly decentralized. Locally run systems often deal with highly diverse native-vector faunas—plus, in s...

    Authors: Gilmar Ribeiro-Jr, Fernando Abad-Franch, Orlando M. F. de Sousa, Carlos G. S. dos Santos, Eduardo O. L. Fonseca, Roberto F. dos Santos, Gabriel M. Cunha, Cristiane M. M. de Carvalho, Renato B. Reis, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves and Mitermayer G. Reis
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:492
  17. Bluetongue is a serious disease of ruminants caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV). BTV is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.). Serological evidence from livestock and the presence of at least one compe...

    Authors: Sarsenbay K. Abdrakhmanov, Kanatzhan K. Beisembayev, Akmetzhan A. Sultanov, Yersyn Y. Mukhanbetkaliyev, Ablaikhan S. Kadyrov, Altay Y. Ussenbayev, Aigerim Y. Zhakenova and Paul R. Torgerson
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:491
  18. There is an urgent need for an extensive evaluation of benzimidazole efficacy in humans. In veterinary science, benzimidazole resistance has been mainly associated with three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (S...

    Authors: Javier Gandasegui, Berta Grau-Pujol, María Cambra-Pelleja, Valdemiro Escola, Maria Antonietta Demontis, Anelsio Cossa, José Carlos Jamine, Rafael Balaña-Fouce, Lisette van Lieshout, José Muñoz and María Martínez-Valladares
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:490
  19. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a serious parasitic zoonosis caused by the larvae of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The development of an effective vaccine is one of the most promising strategies for control...

    Authors: Jinwen Xian, Ning Wang, Pengpeng Zhao, Yanyan Zhang, Jimeng Meng, Xun Ma, Xiaola Guo, Zhengrong Wang and Xinwen Bo
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:489
  20. Acute and chronic besnoitiosis in extensive natural-service herds can have relevant effects in the health of bulls and negative consequences in their productive performance. Recent progress has been made in or...

    Authors: David González-Barrio, Ana Huertas-López, Carlos Diezma-Díaz, Ignacio Ferre, José Joaquín Cerón, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora and Gema Álvarez-García
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:488
  21. Trichinella spiralis is a zoonotic food-borne parasite. A disease caused by infection with T. spiralis is called trichinellosis in humans. It is important to investigate the epidemic situation and the surveillanc...

    Authors: Jian Li, Jing Ding, Xiao-Lei Liu, Bin Tang, Xue Bai, Yang Wang, Wei-Dong Qiao, Ming-Yuan Liu and Xue-Lin Wang
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:487
  22. Control of schistosomiasis remains a priority in endemic areas. Local epidemiological data are necessary for a tailored control programme, including data on population behaviour in relation to the disease. The...

    Authors: Jean Claude Dejon-Agobé, Jeannot Fréjus Zinsou, Yabo Josiane Honkpehedji, Jean Ronald Edoa, Bayodé Roméo Adegbité, Romuald Beh-Mba, Peter Gottfried Kremsner, Ayola Akim Adegnika and Martin Peter Grobusch
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:486
  23. This letter responds to comments on our article (Yin YL et al., Parasit Vectors, 10.1186/s13071-021-04739-w) by Yuqing Wang and colleagues, who wrote a letter entitled “Microarray analysis of circular RNAs in ...

    Authors: Yan-Ling Yin, Xin Yang and Guang-Hui Zhao
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:484
  24. During the period of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, strong intervention measures, such as lockdown, travel restriction, and suspension of work and production, may have curbed the spread of o...

    Authors: Xiaoqing Cheng, Jianli Hu, Li Luo, Zeyu Zhao, Nan Zhang, Mikah Ngwanguong Hannah, Jia Rui, Shengnan Lin, Yuanzhao Zhu, Yao Wang, Meng Yang, Jingwen Xu, Xingchun Liu, Tianlong Yang, Weikang Liu, Peihua Li…
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:483
  25. The global impact of Zika virus in Latin America has drawn renewed attention to circulating mosquito-borne viruses in this region, such as dengue and chikungunya. Our objective was to assess socio-ecological f...

    Authors: Benoit Talbot, Beate Sander, Varsovia Cevallos, Camila González, Denisse Benítez, Claudio Carissimo, María C. Carrasquilla Ferro, Neris Gauto, Sergio Litwiñiuk, Karen López, Mario I. Ortiz, Patricio Ponce, Stephany D. Villota, Fabian Zelaya, Mauricio Espinel, Jianhong Wu…
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:482
  26. Sarcoptic mange is a globally distributed parasitic disease caused by the burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei. This mite has a certain degree of host specificity, although interspecific transmission can occur among ...

    Authors: Marta Valldeperes, Barbara Moroni, Luca Rossi, Jorge Ramón López-Olvera, Roser Velarde, Anna Rita Molinar Min, Gregorio Mentaberre, Emmanuel Serrano, Samer Angelone, Santiago Lavín and José Enrique Granados
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:481
  27. Reproductive containment provides an opportunity to implement a staged-release strategy for genetic control of malaria vectors, in particular allowing predictions about the spread and persistence of (self-limi...

    Authors: Adrien Ickowicz, Scott D. Foster, Geoffrey R. Hosack and Keith R. Hayes
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:480
  28. Besides feeding on blood, females of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu lato readily feed on natural sources of plant sugars. The impact of toxic secondary phytochemicals contained in plant-derived sugars...

    Authors: Domonbabele F. D. S. Hien, Prisca S. L. Paré, Amanda Cooper, Benjamin K. Koama, Edwige Guissou, Koudraogo B. Yaméogo, Rakiswendé S. Yerbanga, Iain W. Farrell, Jean B. Ouédraogo, Olivier Gnankiné, Rickard Ignell, Anna Cohuet, Roch K. Dabiré, Philip C. Stevenson and Thierry Lefèvre
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:479
  29. Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) serve as arthropod vectors for various species of Onchocerca (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) that may be associated with disease in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. The emergenc...

    Authors: Matthew Kulpa, Kimberly J. Nelson, Alana M. Morales, Bonnie M. Ryan, Michelle L. Koschik, Jamesina J. Scott and Guilherme G. Verocai
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:478
  30. The present clinical field trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of a broad-spectrum parasiticide spot-on formulation containing eprinomectin (Broadline®) against Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm in naturally inf...

    Authors: Stefania Zanet, Simone Morelli, Angela Di Cesare, Stefano Bò, Donato Traversa, Wilfried Lebon, Frederic Beugnet, Giulia Simonato and Ezio Ferroglio
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:477
  31. In a countrywide study aiming to update the knowledge on diversity of sand fly species in Romania, a sand fly population was observed in an isolated system of cave microhabitats. The caves are located in the p...

    Authors: Cristina Daniela Cazan, Cintia Horváth, Luciana Cătălina Panait, Daniela Porea, Mihai Marinov, Vasile Alexe and Andrei Daniel Mihalca
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:476
  32. Parasites that infect cats include protozoa, helminths and arthropods, many of which are transmissible to humans. Effective control relies on a good knowledge of parasite distribution and the risk factors for ...

    Authors: Marco Genchi, Alice Vismarra, Stefania Zanet, Simone Morelli, Roberta Galuppi, Giuseppe Cringoli, Riccardo Lia, Manuela Diaferia, Antonio Frangipane di Regalbono, Giulia Venegoni, Fabrizio Solari Basano, Antonio Varcasia, Stefania Perrucci, Vincenzo Musella, Emanuele Brianti, Alessia Gazzonis…
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:475
  33. Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic disease caused by the worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, or Brugia timori. It is a tropical and subtropical illness that affects approximately 67 million people wo...

    Authors: André Filipe Pastor, Maressa Rhuama Silva, Wagner José Tenório dos Santos, Tamisa Rego, Eduardo Brandão, Osvaldo Pompilio de-Melo-Neto and Abraham Rocha
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:474
  34. In characterizing malaria epidemiology, measuring mosquito infectiousness informs the entomological inoculation rate, an important metric of malaria transmission. PCR-based methods have been touted as more sen...

    Authors: Allison L. Hendershot, Endashaw Esayas, Alice C. Sutcliffe, Seth R. Irish, Endalamaw Gadisa, Fitsum G. Tadesse and Neil F. Lobo
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:473
  35. Various stimuli, including Clonorchis sinensis infection, can cause liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis is characterized by the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) with massive production of extracellular matr...

    Authors: Qian-Yang Zhou, Hui-Min Yang, Ji-Xin Liu, Na Xu, Jing Li, Li-Ping Shen, Yu-Zhao Zhang, Stephane Koda, Bei-Bei Zhang, Qian Yu, Jia-Xu Chen, Kui-Yang Zheng and Chao Yan
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:472
  36. Little information is available about malaria and scrub typhus co-infection. This study aimed to investigate the pooled prevalence of malaria and scrub typhus co-infection in febrile patients. Further, it aime...

    Authors: Polrat Wilairatana, Saruda Kuraeiad, Pongruj Rattaprasert and Manas Kotepui
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:471
  37. The tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, is an important ectoparasite causing various health problems. This species is mainly confined to tropical regions; however, insecticide resistance, global warming, and glob...

    Authors: Mohammad Bagher Ghavami, Zarafat Ghahremani, Narges Raeisi and Behrooz Taghiloo
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:470
  38. Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are tick-borne diseases affecting humans and livestock, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Animal husbandry is the main activity of people on the borders of Iran an...

    Authors: Nayyereh Choubdar, Fateh Karimian, Mona Koosha, Jalil Nejati and Mohammad Ali Oshaghi
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:469
  39. Canine babesiosis is a disease caused by a parasite of the genus Babesia which destroys red blood cells. Previous studies have shown the presence of Babesia vogeli in rural areas in Costa Rica using molecular tec...

    Authors: Andrea García-Quesada, Ana Jiménez-Rocha, Juan José Romero-Zuñiga and Gaby Dolz
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:468
  40. Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan transmitted to dogs and other wild carnivores by the ingestion of ticks containing mature oocysts and is considered the principal cause of canine hepatozoonosis in the world. Here,...

    Authors: Antonio Acini Vásquez-Aguilar, Arturo Barbachano-Guerrero, Diego F. Angulo and Víctor Hugo Jarquín-Díaz
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:467
  41. Powassan virus (POWV; genus Flavivirus) is the sole North American member of the tick-borne encephalitis sero-complex and an increasing public health threat in the USA. Maintained in nature by Ixodes spp. ticks, ...

    Authors: Rohit Sharma, Duncan W. Cozens, Philip M. Armstrong and Douglas E. Brackney
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:466
  42. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) caused by Leishmania donovani (LD) is a skin disorder that often appears after treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. PKDL patients are potential reservoirs ...

    Authors: Md Anik Ashfaq Khan, Khaledul Faisal, Rajashree Chowdhury, Rupen Nath, Prakash Ghosh, Debashis Ghosh, Faria Hossain, Ahmed Abd El Wahed and Dinesh Mondal
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:465
  43. Urbanization can have profound effects on ecological interactions. For host–pathogen interactions, differences have been detected between urban and non-urban landscapes. However, host–pathogen interactions may...

    Authors: Katherine E. L. Worsley-Tonks, Stanley D. Gehrt, Chris Anchor, Luis E. Escobar and Meggan E. Craft
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:464
  44. Stable transfection systems have been described in many protozoan parasites, including Plasmodium falciparum, Cryptosporidium parvum, Babesia bovis, Babesia ovata, and Babesia gibsoni. For Babesia sp. Xinjiang (B...

    Authors: Jinming Wang, Xiaoxing Wang, Guiquan Guan, Jifei Yang, Junlong Liu, Aihong Liu, Youquan Li, Jianxun Luo and Hong Yin
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:463
  45. While insecticide-based vector control can effectively target vector species in areas of high malaria endemicity, such as Anopheles gambiae in Africa, residual disease transmission can occur. Understanding the po...

    Authors: Alima Qureshi and John B. Connolly
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:462
  46. Leishmania tarentolae is a protozoan isolated from geckoes (Tarentola annularis, Tarentola mauritanica), which is considered non-pathogenic and is transmitted by herpetophilic Sergentomyia spp. sand flies. This s...

    Authors: Jairo Alfonso Mendoza-Roldan, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Roberta Iatta, Ranju R. S. Manoj, Rossella Panarese, Giada Annoscia, Marco Pombi, Andrea Zatelli, Fred Beugnet and Domenico Otranto
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:461
  47. Lyme disease, caused primarily by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the United States. Treatment of rodent pathogen reservoirs with an oral acaricide may suppress t...

    Authors: David M. Poché, Kelsey Dawson, Batchimeg Tseveenjav and Richard M. Poché
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:459
  48. Vector-borne diseases are a major cause of disease burden in Guayaquil, Ecuador, especially arboviruses spread by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Understanding which household characteristics and risk factors lead to h...

    Authors: Thien-An Ha, Tomás M. León, Karina Lalangui, Patricio Ponce, John M. Marshall and Varsovia Cevallos
    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:458

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